Leo Mintz
Record store owner and sponsor of The Moondog Show
Alan Freed
cleveland DJ; first DJ to play rhythm and blues on the radio, The Moondog Show; most influential in rock and roll’s breakthrough to popular mainstream music; did the Rock and Roll Party in NYC; and the Big Beat concert tour; defeated by the payola scandal
gifts for DJ’s; record store giveaways; a spot in jukeboxes
two charting magazines
Cashbox and Billboard
three chart genres of the 50’s
country and western; rhythm and blues; pop
Fats Domino
First to crossover into rock and roll;
New Orleans;Imperial records; easy-going image;
Chuck Berry
another first crossover to rock and roll; Chess records; St. Louis; R plus Country; targeted average teens; most imitated guitar style; clever, accomplished lyrics
Little Richard
flamboyant;manic singing and piano playing; wildman image of rock and roll; sexual lyrics
Bill Haley
one of the first successful white acts in Rock and Roll
Pat Boone
whitened covers of black rock
originated from urban quartets, black; crossover to white music
Elvis Presley
first rock and roll artist to draw interest from major labels;
Sam Phillips
started Sun records and first signed Elvis Presley
Colonel Tom Parker
Elvis’s manager
Carl Perkins
rockabilly; tennessee; Sun records; Blue Suede Shoes – million selling single from Sun; car accident hurt career; signed to Colombia with Cash
Johnny Cash
rockabilly; Sun records; signed to Colombia
Jerry Lee Lewis
Sun records shifted to him; hit songs; manic performing style; married to a thirteen year old
Eddie Cochran and Gene Vincent
2 miscellaneous rockabilly artists on Sun records; killed/ injured in car accident
Little Brenda Lee
twelve year old rockabilly girl
Janis Martin
“female Elvis”; RCA records; Most Promising Female Artist by Billboard; career ruined by personal problems
Wanda Jackson
rockabilly girl that knew Elvis
Buddy Holly
first Rock figure to be influenced by early rock icons (influenced by Elvis, Berry and Little Richard); country twang; broad stylistic range of songwriting; died early in plane crash
two set backs of that threatened rock and roll
less rock icons and payola investigations
how did these guys leave rock and roll?:
Little Richard, Elvis, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry
ministry, drafted, 13 year old wife, plane crash, Mann Act
professionals with the power to expose a song to a broad audience
1st wave of rock and roll dead by this date
Brill Building
Artist was not at the center of the process; Return to the way business had been done pre-rock; songwriting teams
Aldon publishing
Brill building leader
American Bandstand
Familiar radio show adapted to television
Best-known host was Dick Clark
Lip-synched performances
Facilitated interest in dancing
The Twist
Chubby Checker’s cover that started named dance crazes
Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
first independent pop producers, wrote for Elvis and especially the Coasters
Carole King and Gerry Goffin
Will you still love me tomorrow – the shirelles; produced “taking on social issues
Phil Spector
wall of sound, most ambitious producer of the early 60s
Sam Cooke
light pop style with black elements; 29 on top 40; from Gospel to pop; shot in motel in 1964
Ray Charles
had a number two hit by setting a gospel tune to secular lyrics
The Crowns
The new band to take the Drifters’ name
Ben E King
fired from Drifters because he claimed they were not paid enough, adopted by Leiber and Stoller
George Treadwell
manager or the Drifters
Drifters and Ben King and soul
established sweet soul as a style characterized by fluid lead vocal melody, often supported by doo op back up vocals, medium tempo, melodies in strings, sometimes Latin influenced
Everly Brothers
difficult signing, father a musician, both brothers wrote songs, clean and smooth, rockabilly
Roy Orbison
occupied number one slot for three weeks during British Invasion; haunted ballad singing and falsetto
Ricky Nelson
Stylistically combines the Everly rockabilly with good boy Pat Boone; well crafted records, didnt write own music
Beach Boys
influenced by black doo wop and white vocal groups; very influenced by producer Phil Spector; surfer music; harmonizing; clean Berry-esqe quitar
Jan and Dean
similar style as the Beach Boys
Dick Dale and the Del-tones
slid hand down guitar strings wihile picking rapidly. surf guitar
Duane Eddy and the Ventures
increased attention to instrumental playing; inspired by electric blues and jazz; instruments caught up with vocals
There goes my baby – the drifters
stuck between two radio channels? stings and doo wop
call and response
instrument or vocals immediately repeated by by others
Be my baby – Phil Spector
ronnetes song that “created an aural impression of grandness of scale that made it stand out from the rest of what was on the radio at the time; unique sound developed by ________
Dont worry baby – beach boys
imitation of Spector’s work on Be my baby
Aldon Publishing sold to Colombia Pictures
down fall of Brill Building
differences in UK music
controlled by big companies and big labels; tough to be indie label; R&B and country records rarely in stores; American music and teen idolized by Brits; hard to make us charts
Saturday Club
BBC radio rock show with Brian Matthew
folk music with big band jazz feel
Lonnie Donegan
most important in skiffle; influenced Beatles
places the Beatles played before making it
Hamburg, and Liverpool’s Cavern Club
Brian Epstein
Beatles manager
George Martin
Beatles first producer
beatles influences
Elvis, Chuck Berry, Carl Perkins, Little Richard, The Coasters, Ray Charles, girl group and Motown
record company that thought Beatles would die out
February 1964 “I Want To Hold Your Hand”
month and year Beatles USA debut on Ed Sullivan and first US #1
out of context Lennon remark ’66
its a sign of the poor health of religion in England that a Beatles concert could outdraw a church service
album that the started the Beatles experimenting;
Bob Dylan (Beatles)
influenced the change in Beatles music (and POT)
rock culture
Beatles development brought a shift to a new seriousness and self consciousness among rock paving the way for _________
British invasion
guitars; long hair; marketing and image rather than stylistically
Gerry and the Pacemakers
Brian Epstein manager Liverpool band that sounds like the beatles
Dave Clark Five
more successfull than Gerry and the Pacemakers (though less than Beatles)
The Beatles
survived the demise of the British invasion
Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies
Blues players in London’s Marquee Club, inspiring musician like Clapton, Richard and Jagger
Giorgio Gomelsky
first manager of Rolling Stones; manager and producer of Yardbirds; managed Crawdaddy Club
Andrew Oldham and Eric Easton
managed Rolling Stones; deal with Decca
unprecedented deal with Decca
Stones retain ownership of songs
Andrew Oldham
Producer of the Rolling Stones
Andrew Oldham
encourages Stones to be bab boys and to write own songs – locked in room
raucousness of Rolling Stones
riots and police interventions at their concerts
Brill Building song forms
Eric Clapton “slowhand”
strings broke on stage that he had to fix earned him this nickname
long improv instrumentation at the end of songs by the Yardbirds
The Spencer Davis Group
blues based, Rolling Stones – like band
Shel Talmy
Producer of the Kinks and the Who
Mod (subculture)
Significant elements of the mod subculture include: fashion (often tailor-made suits); pop music, including African American soul, Jamaican ska, and British beat music and R; and Italian motor scooters. The original mod scene was also associated with amphetamine-fuelled all-night dancing at clubs.[4] From the mid-to-late 1960s onwards, the mass media often used the term mod in a wider sense to describe anything that was believed to be popular, fashionable or modern. “The Who” Anti rocker
Bob Dylan
accomplished folk performer and songwriter
Bob Dylan
showed that pop music could address issues other than teenage romance and leisure, and this seriousness of purpose became a model for others.
Mr. Tambourine Man – The Byrds
first international folk rock #1 hit
McQuinn of The Byrds
Brill Building writer for Bobby Darin
The Byrds
did rock versions of folk songs
8 miles high – the Byrds
First psychadelic rock
Byrds, because of George Harrison
used electric 12 string guitar because of _______
The Wrecking Crew
Band used for byrds AND Beach Boys backup
Eve of Destruction by Barry McQuire
one of the first original folk rock songs; not a folk song adapted to folk rock
Eve of Destruction by Barry McQuire
one of the first original folk rock songs; not a folk song adapted to folk rock
Brian Wilson
lead of beach boys
Don Kirshner
Manager of the Monkees and the Archies
Berry Gordy Jr.
Started Motown records; appeal to the whites to avoid cover; Brill building; artists portrayed class and sophistication;
Maxine Powell
Motown finishing school lady
Smokey Robinson and Holland-Dozier-Holland
motown producers that worked with the supremes
Atlantic records
Other R producing company in 60s
Jerry Wexler
music producer and partner; Atlantic records; coined the term R & B
Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton
Stax founders
James Brown
Most important black pop performer, doo wop to soul; in control of own music; little Richard stand in
Timothy Leary
Turn on, tune in, drop out
Ken Kesey
CIA tests with LSD; wrote one flew over the cukoo’s nest
Grateful Dead (The Warlocks)
House band for Keseys acid tests
Tom Donahue
FM psychedelia
counter melody
2nd contrasting vocal melody