John Coltrane
Bridges Hard Bop to Free Form. Leading saxophonist. Joined Miles in 1955. Sacred music.
John Coltrane Quartet
160-1965 – McCoy Tyner: Piano; Elvin Jones: Drums(African pr); Jimmy Garrison: Bass
A Love Supreme – Landmark Album
Free Form
No structure or form; chords not prescribed. Rhythms not always 4/4; High communication needed
Ornetter Coleman
Avant-garde: Free form, play the melody and go “outside”. Melodic and no regular Harmonic form
Eric Dolphy
Avant-garde: Improvisor, played sax, bass clarinet (with Coltrane, Mingus and own group)
Sun Ra
Avant-garde: Orchestra leader
Avant-garde: Association for the Advancement of Creative Music – Important avant-garde music collective – Bands include Art Ensemble of Chicago, Anthony Braxton ,Muhal Richard Abrams
Art Ensemble of Chicago
Collective interaction, wide range of tone colors, sound structures, Suspension of fixed rhythm
Jazz Rock Fusion
when two different styles are fused together to create a hybrid style that has characteristics of both previous
Miles Davis
Fusion: Bitches Brew
Less melody- more a jam
Rhythm – backbeat; Incorporated Funk: James Brown and Hendrix
Instrument: Electric
Bass line: more important, ostinato, riff
Drums: rock and funk backbeats
John McLaughlin and the Mahavishnu Orchestra
Fusion group: 1.Very arranged music – complicated; electric rock guitar sound; odd rhythmic meters
2. Influenced by Indian music
Weather report
Fusin Group: Joe Sawinul(piano/keyboard) & Wayne Shorter’s Band(sax), Jaco Pastorius(great bass player))
Interesting use of musical textures, synthesizer sounds, overlapping instruments
Chick Corea’s First Band
Fusion Group: Return to Forever, usins electric piano, synthesizer(bendable pitch)
Herbie Hancock and the Headhunters
Fusion group: bass riff, many funk musicians
Pat Metheney
Fusion: open style, different than McLaughlin (guitar: technical and fast)
ECM Music Label
Keith Jaret, Pat Metheny, Gary Burton, Carla Bley
more eclectiv, ethereal sounding music
Blue Note Label
Mid 60s post hard bop legacy with African influences
McCoy Tyner, Freddy Hubbard, Herbie Hancock/Wayne Shorter (before fusion)
Contemporary Jazz
1. Traditionalist/Mainstream
2. Legacy of 70s Fusion
3. Legacy of 60s avant-garde
1. Repertory movement(Master Works) & Wynton Marsalis
2. Hard bop renaissance and the “Young Lions”
3. Re-issue older recordings on CDS
Legacy of 70s Fusion
i. Popular music connections (e.g., Rap), electronic jazz
ii. Crossover to world-beat popular music
Legacy of 60s Avant-garde
i. Acoustic, electronic, cross-over to world music cultures
Wynton Marsalis
Neo-classical school – gredited with resurgance in popularity in the history of jazz since 80s
Artistic director of Jazz at Lincoln Center
Re-created live performances of old jazz – Ellington compositions
Women in Jazz
Carla Bley(composer), Maria Schneider (composer/arranger). Regina Carter (violin), Jane Ira Bloom (sax), Geri Allen (piano)