Milton Babbit
American composer who first applied serial organization to dimensions other than pitch. Music like science “”who care’s if you listen”
J.S. Bach
Baroque Organist and composer
Wrote sacred cantatas for Lutheran church service (choral/solo with orchestral accompaniment)
Brandenburg concertos
Well-Tempered Clavier
Bela Bartok
Hungarian composer
Collector of Folk-music
Don’t Quote folk-music–let it become a part of you
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Hector Berlioz
Johannes Brahms
Anton Bruckner
Elliot Carter
Aaron Copland
Studied with Nadia Boulanger
Neoclassicist, Nationalist, Modernist, Serialist
Frederic Chopin
Claude Debussy
Established the French music tradition
Considered impressionistic (though he didn’t want to be)
His opera changed the opera tradition–very anti-Wagnerian
Gamelon–pentatonic scales (world’s fair 1889)
Guillaume Dufay
Edward Elgar
George Gershwin
“Third Stream” Jazz and Classical
Porgy and Bess
Philip Glass
Christoph Gluck
George Handel
Baroque German composer
Known for his Italian Operas and English Oratorios (including Messiah)
Howard Hanson
Franz Joseph Haydn
Gustav Holst
Hildegard von Bingen
Charles Ives
Anticipatory composer
Using cluster chords before they were named
Real-life sound–bands clashing
Libby Larsen
Orlando di Lasso
Gustav Mahler
Important Post-Romantic Composer
Orchestral music–10 symphonies
Song cycles with Orchestra (ven mein schatz)
Olivier Messiaen
Claudio Montiverdi
W.A. Mozart
Thea Musgrave
Krzysztof Penderecki
Giacomo Puccini
Sergey Rachmaninoff
Jean-phillipe Rameau
Maurice Ravel
French composer–Neo-classic
Drew upon many sources–Jazz, Liszt, Baroque, etc.
Also considered “impressionist” as he worked from themes rather than textures.
Brilliant Orchestrator
Orchestral music, ballets, 2 operas, chamber music, piano music.
Arnold Schoenberg
At first tried to write by instinct as direct expression of subconscious.
12-tone method
He taught Anton Webern and Alban Berg
Franz Schubert
Viennese composer who created more than six hundred Lieder and several famous song cylcles
Die Schone Mullerin
William Schuman
Robert Schumann
German composer (1810-1856)
Married to Clara
Song cycle and lieder
Heinrich Schutz
Dmitri Shostakovich
Neo-classic/ during Nazi Regime
Attempted to conform to bureaucratic wishes
emphasized parody and satire
Lady Macbeth/symphony #5
Bedrich Smetana
Bohemian composer/czech nationalist
8 operas (the bardered bride)
Orchestral music–My country: The Moldau
William Grant Still
African-American composer (mid 1900’s)–earned a number of firsts for blacks in classical music.
Afro-American Symphony (first work performed by a major symphony orchestra)
Orchestral music
4 ballets
Vocal music, choral music, chamber music, piano music, film scores
Richard Strauss
Known for programmatic symphonic poems
Opera–salome, elektra, der rosenkavalier
Igor Stravinzky
Firebird Suite
Studied under Rimsky-Korsakov
Very clean breaks between compositional periods:
Student period
Nationalist Period
Neoclassic period
Serialist Period

He is nicknamed the “Chameleon”
He drops earlier elements of his composition completely as he changes styles.

Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky
BALLET (late 1800’s) Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker suite
Joan Tower
Contemporary American Composer “Fanfare for the Uncommon woman”
Giuseppe Verdi
Italian nationalist and Romantic opera composer (28 operas)
Antonio Vivaldi
Baroque Composer:
Orchestral music (over 239 violin concertos, the four seasons)
Chamber music (sonatas and trio sonatas)
Vocal music (oratioros and magnificat)
Richard Wagner
German Romantic Composer best known for Opera
Music dramas united by leitmotifs–Gesamtkunstwerk
High emotional quality
chromatic dissonance

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The Ring Cycle:
Das rheingold, Die Walkure, Siegfried, Gotterdammerung, Parsifal

Anton Webern
Pupil of Arnold Schoenberg
Short works–unusual combinations of instruments in extreme registers
Serialist in more than just melody
Ellen Taffe Zwilich
American composer, the first female composer to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music.

smaller-scale concertos for relatively uncommon instruments.

small number of choral works and song cycles.

Peanuts Gallery
Millenium fantasy

Paul Hindemith (20th Century)
Mainly Neo-classicism (Baroque)
“Musician’s Musician”
Gebrauchmusik–music for use. Valid rep for every instrument.
Prokofiev (20th Century)
ncredible Orchestrator
Classic form/lyricism
Modernistic melody/harmony (innovation)
Motoric rhythm (toccata like)
Samuel Barber
American “Melodist”
Traditional forms
Very emotive
Wrote West Side Story
Benjamin Britten