The Unanswered Question
The conflict between traditional and nontraditional harmonies is particularly acute in Charles Ives The Unanswered Question (1908). a kind of collage in three distinct layers, roughly coordinated.” The three layers involve the scoring for a string quartet, woodwind quartet, and solo trumpet. Each layer has its own tempo and key. Ives himself described the work as a “cosmic landscape” in which the strings represent “the Silences of the Druids—who Know, See and Hear Nothing.” The trumpet then asks “The Perennial Question of Existence” and the woodwinds seek “The Invisible Answer”, but abandon it in frustration, so that ultimately the question is answered only by the “Silences”. Charles ives, 3 phases 3 different layers , different time signatures not synchronized in order to give freedom.
Nadia Boulanger
influential French composer, conductor, and music professor.
German city Every year around early July the Heinerfest festival is held in the streets surrounding the old ducal palace. It is a traditional German festival with music acts, beer halls, amusement rides and booths selling trinkets and food. The similar ‘Schlo?grabenfest’, which is more live music-oriented, is held in the same location every year in May. These two festivals attract 700,000[18] and 400,000 Town in Germany, summer festival 1946 right after the war if you are a composer this is where you want to have your music performed. Students went here from all over the world. Serialist.
trends and return to the known – How good it is to be composing beautiful music again. Philip glass, the idea of beauty in music was hampered.
The film’s soundtrack by Glass was released in 1983, after the release of the film. Even though the amount of music in the film was almost as long as the film itself, the soundtrack release was only 46 minutes long and featured only selections from the film’s pieces. In 1998, Glass re-recorded the album through Nonesuch Records with a length of 73 minutes, 21 seconds. The re-recording of the album featured two additional tracks from the film, as well as extended versions of previous tracks from the original album. The album was released as a Philip Glass album titled Koyaanisqatsi, rather than a soundtrack to the film. The music has become so popular that the Philip Glass Ensemble has toured the world, playing the music for Koyaanisqatsi live in front of the movie screen. Glass film soundtrack, minimalist arpeggiation, doesn’t use progressions.
Come Out
phase music and concrete music “Come out to show them” Come out to show them Harlem Riots in 1964, Steve Reich. Additive Rhythm.
Kronos Quartet
Kronos specializes in new music and has a long history of commissioning new works. In fact, over 600 works have been created for the Kronos Quartet. They have worked with many minimalist composers including Arvo Part, Henryk Gorecki, Steve Reich, Philip Glass,Roberto Carnevale, Terry Riley, and Kevin Volans; collaborators hail from a diversity of countries–Kaija Saariaho from Finland, Pēteris Vasks from Latvia, Franghiz Ali-Zadeh from Azerbaijan, Roberto Paci Dalo from Italy, and Osvaldo Golijov from Argentina. Some of Kronos’ “highly coveted string-quartet arrangements” were published in 2007. a string quartet that incorporated into their concerts pop music. Post modern attitude of mixing on the stage.
2001 A Space Odyssey
Ligity Lukeseterna Requiem process music chromatic filling through imitation, Composed by Alex North for Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 film.
International Composer’s Guild
more experimental, John Cage rupture between the traditionalist (League of Composers) and the experimentalist composers ICG  or like the music in the new objectivity.  ICG later became PanAmerican guild of composers.   more experimental, John Cage rupture between the traditionalist (League of Composers) and the experimentalist composers ICG or like the music in the new objectivity. ICG later became PanAmerican guild of composers
The Gift to be Simple
work by Aaron Copeland, Atonal music
Quartal Harmony
Chords built on the intervals of fourths rather than thirds. Charles Ives and Scribian both experimented with.  Charles Ives The Cage (1906) is based entirely on such chords.
Tone Cluster
Henry Cowell pioneered the use of tone clusters, directing that adjacent keys be struck with forearm, flat of the hand, or some object of an appropriate shape, such as a block of wood.
Prepared Piano
John Cage devised prepared pianos who in the 1940’s began placing objects like paper clips and pieces of robber and wood on the piano strings to produce unusual sounds. Put mutes or objects in the piano strings or bolts or rubber. Sometimes they change the pitch. John Cage did this in his 30 and 40’s pieces.
Integral serialism
System of serial composition in which elements beyond pitch, such as rhythm and dynamics are also subjected to serial treatment.  Also known as total serialism. Oliver Messiaen and Milton Babbitt. Babbitts Three Compositions for Piano (1947)
I Ching
– This book is not only philosophy its also about making decisions in your life. Divided into several chapters all with connections to life, you come up with a philosophical thought and make a decision about your life. John Cage uses this a lot. One of the compositional aspects is in the composition not in the performance. You can have indeterminacy when performing it.
An instrument created
You can divide an octave into 48 with quarter tones or much more. In Arab scales you have the major, middle, and minor third. Microtonal music can also refer to music which uses intervals not found in the Western system of 12 equal intervals to the octave.
diamond marimba
instrument that Harry Partch invented and used. New ways of dividing an octave microtonality
Player Piano
Piano that self-plays and you can program it to play paper scrolls. Pneumatic or later electric. The device is a simple mechanics.
Ondes Martenot
One of the first electronic instruments, Maurice Martenot invented it 1928 and Messien used it. He first used it in the Fete des Belles Eaux for six ondes, written for the 1937 International World’s Fair in Paris.
you control with your hands 2 tools one for pitch and 1 for dynamics. Veraz used, no one else could play the Theremin. Invented by Russian Leon Theremin in 1928 Eerie sound used in movies like the Day the Earth stood still.
Non-retrogradable Rhythm

The rhythmic pattern of the melody is palindromic – the same forward as backward.  Messiaen 


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Additive Rhythm
Modes of Limited Transposition
11 plus the original transpositions. Whole tone is a mode of limited transposition.
hindu music rhythmic patterns. A tala is a rhythmic cycle of beats with an ebb and flow of various types of intonations resounded on a percussive instrument. Each such pattern has its own name. 
Modes de valeurs et intensites
Messiaen’s (Mode of Durations and Intensities)(1949) treats both pitch and rhythm in a quasi serial fashion. Rhythms, dynamics, modes of dynamics, integral serialism. Babbit and Stockhausn were both integral serialist.
“Concrete” Music
The material to be manipulated is a recorded sound taken from everyday life. The sounds are real, or concrete. John Cage, Steve Reich — It’s Gonna Rain
North West Deutch Radio acoustic labs was the organization responsible for public broadcasting in the German Lander of Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and North Rhine-Westphalia from 22 September 1945 until 31 December 1955. Until 1954, it was also responsible for broadcasting in West Berlin. NWDR was a founder member of the Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany,
Institute for Research coordination acoustic Music acoustic labs they sell their software. is a European institute for science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical art music. It is situated next to, and is organizationally linked with, the Centre Pompidou in Paris. The extension of the building has been designed by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers.
Graphic Score
analysis of what is going on electronic media. Sometimes they don’t use regular notation.
Event Score
“Muddle instead of music”
an article about lady MacBeth which was so dissonant that Stalin hated it. In 1936 Dmitri Shostakovitch was victimized for his opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk. He was criticised in a series of critical articles in Pravda, the newspaper of the Communist Party, starting with ‘Muddle Instead of Music’, which was rumoured to have been written by Stalin himself. This critical stance was supported by the leadership of the Composers’ Union. Although in its premier people loved it. Zhdanov Minister of Music created a prescription of how music affected
sheenaki’s music so many elements that you cannot control them individually
“Phase” music
Minimalism – We can hear the process by which the elements of a work gradually transform themselves into something new and different. Steve Reich It’s Gonna Rain (1965) repetition creates several different patterns as the music flows, Steve Reich
conection between texts a self quotation or a quotation of someone else. Pendereski was using elements from Brahms, Shostakovich, and Pendereski.
Taped or concrete music assembled with different elements into a single work.
43-tone just intonation scale
The 43-tone scale is a just intonation scale with 43 pitches in each octave, invented and used by Harry Partch.  The first of Partch’s “four concepts” is “The scale of musical intervals begins with absolute consonance (1 to 1) and gradually progresses into an infinity of dissonance, the consonance of the intervals decreasing as the odd numbers of their ratios increase.” Almost all of Partch’s music is written in the 43-tone scale, and although most of his instruments can play only subsets of the full scale, he used it as an all-encompassing framework.
Layered textures
different layers of rhythm and tonality.
“String” Piano
String piano is a term coined by American composer-theorist Henry Cowell (1897–1965) to collectively describe those pianistic extended techniques in which sound is produced by direct manipulation of the strings, instead of or in addition to striking the piano’s keys. Pioneered by Cowell in the 1920s, such techniques are now often called upon in the works of avant-garde classical music composers.