Berlioz Symphonie fantastique, Finale
Sounds like evil witches, creeping up, then a fight, minor, screeching violins
Mendelssohn Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Opening winds chords, then rushing violin, Other theme might be the donkey *hee-haw*
Schubert- Erlkonig
Baritone singer, 4 Characters- Erlkonig, Father, son, Narrator
Schubert – Prometheus
dotted eigth note-16th note rhythm in beginning, baritone, defying God
Wolf- Mignon
“Kent Du das Land” Mezzo, slow, mixture of through-composed and strophic
Stephen Foster- Beautiful Dreamer
R. Schumann – Kennst du las Land (MIgnon)
Soprano, lots of chords in accompaniment, not really the melody as soprano is singing.
C. Schumann – Liebst Du Um Schonheit
*sounds like a woman composer*, much more legato, “pretty”, soprano
Chopin – Ballade No. 1 in G minor
(Opening sounds like a clock), “Polish”, in 6/4, speeds up, sounds slightly chaotic
Liszt – Nuages Gris
“Grey Clouds” Bass piano tremelo, chomatic, minor
Brahms – Symphony No. 4 in E minor
Opening- ascending line or chords. “Allegro energico e passionato” eventually goes to flute solo over string ostinato
Verdi – Rigoletto – Questa o Quella
Tenor, discussing which woman to sleep with
Romantic Period Dates
General Characteristics of the Romantic Period
Term from Literature
Subjects in Fantasy and the Supernatural
Nature a frequent theme
Sound of Romantic Music
Size of Orchestra Grows
More varied tone color
length of pieces either very long or very short
altered chords
chromatic chords
diminished and augmented chords
minor keys used more
Major keys often represent nostalgia
Melody of Romantic Music
Chromatic Lines
longer phrases
yearning quality
sometimes irregular phrasing
Rhythm of Romantic Music
rubato tempo
Form of Romantic Music
treated with greater freedom
often deliberately distorted to follow a program or for self-expression
Ex. Sonata form not following usual modulations, bringing themes back in unexpected orders and keys, diversions and developmental techniques used in sections that are usually thematic and stable
Symphonic poem
1 movement orchestral work with extra-musical associaiton (programmatic)
Most traditional genre; 4 movements, more unified, cyclic, some have programs
larger orchestra contrasts with virtuoso soloist
“Individual vs. society”
Cities during Romantic Period
1st half Paris,
2nd half Vienna
How is the Glen Scene in “Der Freischutz” characteristic of the Romantic Era?
Presence of the devil (Samiel), Keys of the entire scene are fully diminished
Absolute music
has no words and no references to stories or images or any other kind of extramusical idea.
Program Music
ttempts to render musically an extra-musical narrative.
Strophic form
Essentially repeating music with different words
music that reflects the lyrics sung
Art Song
lyric and intimate expressive combination of music and poetry for voice and piano;
(distinct from popular song, folk song, and operatic aria)
Song Cycle
A group of poems by one poet, set to music by one composer. Song cycles have a
central idea or mood, and usually a loosely narrative sequence of songs.
German Poets
Johann Schiller, Heinrich Heine, Johann Woflgang von Goethe, Wilhelm
Muller, Eduard Moricke, Joseph von Eichendorff,
French Poets
Paul Verlaine, Charles Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme.
(Also: Theophile Gautier, Victor Hugo)
German Composers
Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann (2 song cycles:
Frauenliebe und Leben and Dichterliebe), Johannes Brahms (Four Serious
Songs), Hugo Wolf
(Also: Beethoven (song cycle An die Ferne Geliebte [To the Distant Beloved]) Karl Loewe, Mendelssohn, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss)
French Composers
Charles Gounod, Gabriel Faure (song cycle: La Bonne chanson),
Ernest Chausson, Henri Duparc
(Also: Hector Berlioz (2 song cycles: Les Nuits d’ete and Irlande), and Claude Debussy)
Russian Composers
Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff, Mussorgsky (2 song cycles: Sunless, and Songs and Dances of Death)
Schubert’s Compositions
• 9 symphonies
• 22 piano sonatas (Also: Wanderer Fantasie, Impromptus)
• 35 chamber compositions (the Trout piano quintet; Death and the Maiden SQ)
• 6 Masses
• 17 operas
• 600+ Lieder!
Criticism of Schubert
1. Too difficult accompaniments
Schubert’s 2 song cycles
: Die Schone Mullerin (The Maid of the Mill) and Die Winterreise (Winter Journey
How many octaves did Mozart’s piano have
5 octaves
Who Wrote Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik?
When did the 88-key piano become standard?
around 1830
What was advantage of “Double Escapement”?
fast piano tremelo
“Studies” each had technical feature, but still expressive pieces of music
Night piece: lyrical, no fixed form
2 types of Polish dances Chopin composed
16 polonaises, 61 mazurkas
Bel canto
“beautiful singing” – emphasized long, romantic melodies, legato phrases, good technique, and beautiful singing. Voice always most important
Main Bel Canto Composer
Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti
Where did Verdi get his librettos?
Usually French Literature and Shakespeare
Which Opera did Verdi think was his best?
Verdi’s main librettist
Francesco Piave
Verdi Unification Slogan
Viva VERDI meant Viva Vittorio Emanuele, Re D’Italia!
What was Verdi’s greatest tragic opera? Greatest Comic Opera?
Otello- Tragic, Falstaff-comic
“Total art work” Wagner felt it should replace the “concerts in costume”
Wagner lived here- designed the theatre with the orchestra far underneath the stage because the orchestra was so big
Ring Cycle
Das Rheingold, The Valkyrie, Siegfried, The Twilight of the Gods
Tristan Chord