List the three systems of a console.
Input, Output, and Monitor.
What is a potentiometer?
A variable resistor that controls the flow of electricity from minimum to maximum.
What is a buss?
A signal combiner or transporter.
Explain signal flow.
Signal flow is the path a signal takes from its source to its destination.
What is the job of phantom power?
Phantom Power powers condenser/capacitor microphones to work.
Explain the difference between a balanced line and an unbalanced line.
A balanced line carries an audio signal with three wires, hot, cold, and ground.

An unbalanced line carries an audio signal with two wires, hot and cold.

What is phase?
Phase is the time relationship between two or more sound waves or signals at a given point in their cycle.
Explain the proximity effect.
When a cardioid mic pattern is too close to a sound source, the lows take over the mids and highs.
What is the job of the monitor system.
The monitor system controls the speaker and headphone output, independant of the output system.
What does the console transduce?
Explain two ways that acoustic isolation works.
A sound that occurs within a room, stays in a room and doesn’t leak out and vise versa.
Explain timbre.
A sound’s unique tonal characteristic.

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What is the psychoacoustic response to frequency.
Pitch; How high or low a sound is.
List four things associated with spatial localization.
One ear picks up a sound sooner than the other.
A sound is louder in one ear than the other.
Pinnae – The ridges in your ear that allow one to hear above and below.
Acoustic Shadow – Sound sounds crisper in one ear and duller in the other.
Explain diffusion.
The equal distribution of sound energy throughout a room.
What are transducers?
Things that change one form of energy to another.
List four things associated with pre production.
Determining whether the artist is practiced enough.
Determining the goal.
Determining the budget.
Determining if there are any legal issues to be dealt with.
Explain temporary threshold shift.
When one’s muscles clamp down on their hammer, anvil and stirrup to stop it from vibrating so much due to loud sounds.
Explain diffraction.
If a sound wave is longer than its obstacle, it’ll bend around it.
If a sound wave is shorter than its obstacle, it’ll bounce off of it.
Convex surfaces _______ sound waves.
Convex surfaces scatter sound waves.
Explain dynamic range.
The volume or signal range between minimum and maximum.
Explain pan pot.
Panoramic potentiometer. It’s what controls the flow of electricity between the left and right buss outputs.
List four things found next to the pre amp.
Gain, pad, phase reverse, and phantom power.
Explain echo.
A noticeable repeat of direct sound.
What is the acoustic explanation of amplitude?
How big or tall a sound wave is.
Explain the Fletcher Munson Equal Loudness Principal.
Humans hear mid range frequencies louder than low and high frequencies.
What causes sound?
Vibration, displacement of air molecules.
Explain what is found at the patch bay.
Explain what the function of the patch bay is.
All the ins and outs of all the equipment in the studio are found at the patch bay.
The patch bay allows one to route all the ins and outs of all the equipment in the studio.
Explain standing waves.
Standing waves are sound waves that crash into each other due to parallel surfaces.
List the three main types of microphones.
Condenser/Capacitor, Moving Coil and Ribbon.
What is an active crossover.
They take an unpowered signal and divides the frequencies into separate regions, still unpowered.
List the two ways signal processors are accessed on a console.
Aux sends and inserts.
When is pad used?
When a signal is peaking at the gain’s lowest point, when turned on, it cuts the signal by X amount of dBs.
List the two types of inputs that a console receives.
Mic and line inputs.
The higher the frequency, the _______ the wavelength.
The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength.
Explain poor acoustic separation.
Describe a floating floor.
Sub floor, then shock absorbing material is place (hockey pucks), then plywood, then cement.
What is impedance?
What is it measured in?
Impedance is resistance on an electrical circuit.
Impedance is measured in ohms.
Explain overdubbing.
Overdubbing is listening back to something pre-recorded while recording along with it.
Why was the crossover invented?
Because no one speaker can reproduce 20Hz-20kHz.
What does the ear transduce?
It transduces sound into mechanical vibration, then mechanical vibration into electro chemical nerve impulses.
Explain tinnitus.
Acoustic: One’s cilia being stimulated so much that they break off and die.

Psychoacoustic: The ringing in one’s ear due to prolonged exposure to loud sounds.

What is direct sound?
Sound that travels from its source to its destination without obstruction.
What are early reflections?
Sounds that bounce off the primary boundaries of a room (walls, floors, ceiling).
Explain reverberation.
Random, blended, multiple echoes.
What’s the function of the ear drum?
It transducer sound into mechanical vibration.
Explain transmission loss.
The reduction of DBSPL of a source sound as it passes through an acoustic barrier.
What are acoustic partitions?
On-spot, sound isolation.
Lis three materials used to absorb high frequencies.
Drapes, carpet, and thick clothing such as cotton jackets.
What is used to absorb low frequencies?
Bass traps.
Describe an acoustic echo chamber.
A highly reflective room with a mic at one end and a speaker at the other.
Describe how walls are built in a professional studio.
They’re built out 6″-12″ and are doubled or tripled.
What is signal?
Sound in electrical form.
What is the speed of sound?
Explain how the speed of sound changes?
1,130 ft/s in 68° fahrenheit, C level.
It raises 1.1 ft/s for every full degree up and 1.1 ft/s slower for every full degree down.
List four things with mixing.
Spacial positioning, adding signal processors, setting proper gain staging, and _______.
List four jobs as a producer.
Assisting in song selection.
Focusing the artistic goals.
Booking studio usage.
Helps to make the song into a salable product.
The power of an audio signal is measured in ________.
The power of an audio signal is measured in DBM/DBU.
List things that the frequency response curve of an audio device shows.
Linearity, efficiency and deficiency, hyper sensitivity, and range of frequencies.
List transducers.
Microwaves, auditory nerves, eardrums, microphone diaphragms, A/C, heaters.
List four behind the scene jobs.
Artist booking agents, live sound tour management, manufacturing and distribution.
List the three main pickup patterns for microphones.
Omnidirectional, Bidirectional, and Unidirectional.
List ways to eliminate rumble.
Using a shock mount on the mic, a base rolloff switch and a floating floor.
What is the function of a mic pre?
It boosts a weak mic signal into a line signal.
What is a dynamic mic?
A moving coil mic, it uses a magnet to create electricity.
What is an active speaker enclosure?
An active speaker enclosure has an amp inside of it, it plugs into the wall for power, and takes in a balanced signal (XLR), and takes an unpowered signal.
What is a crossover?
It’s what divides the sound frequency spectrum into regions and tells the highs and mids to go to the tweeter and the lows to go to the woofer.
List the three main types of speakers.
Electro Dynamic (Moving Coil), Ribbon and Electro Static.
What do speakers transducer.
Speakers transduce an audio signal into mechanical vibration then mechanical vibration into sound.
What is a passive speaker enclosure?
A speaker enclosure with no amp in it, it takes a powered signal and needs an external amp.
Explain out of phase speakers.
When one speaker’s compressing at the same time the other speaker’s rarefacting.
Explain Bi-Amped.
Bi-amped is when a speaker has two amps and requires two crossovers.
Name two OTHER types of speakers.
Piezo (tweeters) and plasma (laser shit).
What is a passive crossover?
It takes a powered signal and divides the sound frequency spectrum into regions.