Explain octaves.
2:1 of pitch or frequency.
3 octaves above 75Hz
1. [75 ? 2 = 150]
2. [150 ? 2 = 300]
3. [300 ? 2 = 600]
List the three transductions of the human ear.
Sound > Vibration > Electro Chemical Nerve Impulses
Earwax acts as ____ from _____.
Protection from loud sounds, bugs, dirt, bacteria.
List the stages of the ear that sound goes through.
1. Ear
2. Aural Canal
3. Eardrum – Transducer (Sound > Vibration)
4. Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup (Connects eardrum to cochlea) – Amplifies vibrations
5. Cochlea (Snail thing, center of balance)
6. Cilia (Hairs, Inside of cochlea)
7. Auditory Nerves (Bottom of hairs) – Makes electro chemical nerve impulses.
What is the Eustachian Tube?
A small tube that connects the ear to the back of the throat (yawn to pop years).
Explain tinnitus in acoustics and psychoacoustics.
Acoustics – Cilia in cochlea being stimulated so much they break off.
Psychoacoustics – Ringing sound after prolonged exposure to loud sounds.
Ringing out of no where means _____.
Permanent damage.
Listening Level vs. Fan Level
Listening comes on when you turn it down.
Just a little note.
What is hearing?
What is listening?
Hearing – Noticing that a sound is there.
Listening – Focusing, paying attention to sound.
What is the Fletcher-Munson Equal Loudness Principal?
Humans hear mid-range louder than low/high frequencies.
Explain beats.
Pulsing (like tuning a guitar).
Explain Spacial Localization/Binaural Hearing
1. Sound is louder in one ear than the other. 2. Sound reaches one ear sooner than the other. 3. Pinnae – Ridges in ear allow one to hear sound above/below. 4. Acoustic Shadow – Sound is crisper/duller in different ears.
2kHz and below _____ ____ a head.
2kHz and above _____ ____ a head.
2kHz and below bend around a head.
2kHz and above reflect off a head.
What is direct sound?
Sound that goes from source to listener’s ear without obstruction or reflection.
What are early reflections?
Sound waves that reflect off primary boundaries of room (wall, ceiling, floor).
What is reverberation?
Random, blended, multiple echoes
What is doubling?
Performed again (not copied and pasted).
What is acoustic isolation?
Sound stays in room and doesn’t leak and vise versa.
What is absorption?
Sound is soaked up and not allowed to reflect
What is reflection?
Bouncing off.
What is transmission loss?
The reduction in the sound pressure level (SPL) of a sound source as it passes through an acoustic barrier.
Studio walls are _____.
Studio walls are doubled or tripled. Build out 6-12″.
Describe a floating floor.
> Concrete
> Plywood
> Shock Absorbing Material (Hockey Pucks)
> Original Floor
What are aspects of a studio construction?
1. Build walls out 6-12”
2. Floating Floor
3. Room within a room
4. Ceiling suspended from original ceiling by shock absorbing material
What is a riser?
A platform that sits on shock absorbers.
Window – Air Space/Vacuum – Window
Jah mon.
Sound Lock
Air space between a room.
What are acoustic partitions?
On-spot sound isolation.
Explain diffusion.
The equal distribution of sound energy throughout a room.
What catches high frequencies well?
What catches low frequencies well?
High frequencies – Drapes, carpet.
Low frequencies – Bass traps
What is an acoustic echo chamber?
Highly reflective room with a speaker at one end and a microphone at another.