What is digital audio?
Sound that has been converted into binary code, a mathematical code.
What is signal?
Sound in electrical form.
What is analog?
Same as or like the original.
What does a signal processor do?
It changes or modifies a signal.
What is signal flow?
The path a signal takes from its source to its destination.
What is dynamic range?
Signal or volume level between minimum and maximum.
What is distortion?
The appearance of something added to the reproduced audio signal that wasn’t in the original.
Explain noise.
Unwanted signal or noise.
Explain the difference between a balanced line and an unbalanced line.
A balanced line carries an audio signal with three wires, hot, cold, and ground.
An unbalanced line carries an audio signal with two wire, hot and cold.
Headphones use two __________ lines with a ________ connector.
Headphones use two unbalanced lines with a(n) balanced connector.
How many conductors is a TRS?
It has three conductors.
What are S/PDIF connectors?
RCA/Phono Connectors (Red and White).
Digital and analog are both _______?
Digital and analog are both electricity.
List mic, line, and speaker from weakest to greatest.
Mic (unpowered), line (unpowered), and speaker (powered).
Describe a speakon connector.
They’re used for speakers only, locks in, idiot proof, carries speaker level.
What does MIDI do?
It transmits performance data, it uses only 3 of its 5 pins, 1 MHz power.
What is impedance?
Resistance on an electrical circuit.
How many ? does professional audio run at?
600 ? (mic level).
Electric guitars run at how many ??
8K – 10K ?.
What does pad do?
It cuts a signal by X amount of dBs, used when a signal’s peaking at the gain’s lowest level to turn it back up.
What is frequency ground hum?
60 ?, 120 V (‘Murica).
1/4” unbalanced > DI >__________?
1/4” unbalanced > DI >XLR (Balanced)
Thru on a DI is like a send for an amp, parallel to XLR.
List four things a DI box does.
Sends parallel 1/4” unbalanced from thru.
Converts 8K – 10K ? to 600 ?.
Ground Lift (Frequency Ground Hum)
List two things a transformer does that a DI box can’t do.
It converts an alternating current to a direct current.
It increases or decreases voltage.
What is a wall wart?
A transformer (power block thing on a charger or cable).
Analog line is how many ??
Analog line is 4K – 6K ?.
Describe AES/EBU digital cord thing.
It looks like an XLR but says digital on it, sends two channels of digital audio, 110 ?.
List the two characters in digital audio.
0, 1.
Digital audio is sent in what kind of wave?
Square wave.
Is RCA consumer or professional?
RCA is consumer, it runs at -10 DBV, B&C (video).
0 on the VU meter is #V?
Is it professional or consumer?
0 VU = 4V
S/PDIF runs at how many ??
75 ?, stereo.
Describe Adat Lightpipe.
It’s hollow, shoots a laser, two channels of digital audio.
Describe a spade lug.
Screw in, vintage, has hot, cold, and ground (three separate wires).
What is TT? Balanced or unbalanced? How many ??
Tiny Telephone. Balanced. 600 ?.
Digital – 110 ?
Analog – 600 ?
I think.
What is a potentiometer?
A variable resistor that controls the flow of electricity from minimum to maximum.
List the three systems. What do they do?
Input – Mic>Line, Line>Line (adjusted).

Output – Buss (Signal combiner and transporter).

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Monitor – Controls the output of the headphones and speaker, independent from the output system.

What is pan pot?
Panoramic potentiometer, it controls the flow of electricity or signal between the left and right buss outputs.
What does a transducer do?
It changes one form of energy into another.
What is sound caused by?
Vibrations, the displacement of air molecules.
What does the console transduce?
Microphones and speakers are double transducers.
Tru’ dat.
What are the three main types of microphones?
Moving coil, ribbon, and condenser.
What is a moving coil mic?
A dynamic and ribbon mic. It uses a magnet to create electricity.
What is phase?
The time relationship between two or more sound waves or signals at a given point in their cycle.
Explain timbre.
A sound’s individual unique tonal characteristic.

Fundamentals – The lowest pitch.
Harmonics – Exact multiples.
Overtones (Colortones) – Odd numbered, non-exact multiples.

The higher the frequency, the higher the _______ and _______ the sound wave.
The lower the frequency, the lower the _______ and _______ the sound wave.
The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch and shorter the sound wave.
The lower the frequency, the lower the pitch and longer the sound wave.
Describe the Fletcher-Munson Equal Loudness Principal.
Humans hear mid range frequencies louder than low and hi frequencies.
What is direct sound?
Sound that travels directly from its source to its listener’s ear without reflection or obstruction.
What are early reflections?
Sound waves that bounce off the primary boundaries of a room (walls, floor, and ceiling).
Explain echo.
The noticeable repeat of direct sound.
Explain reverb.
Random, blended, multiple echoes.
Explain standing waves.
Sound waves crashing into each other due to parallel surfaces.
Explain consumer analog.
RCA/Phono Plugs which are 4K – 6K ?.
Is -10 DBV consumer or professional?
What are the three types of balanced TRS cables?
1/4″, 1/8″, TT.
Is a guitar cable balanced or unbalanced?
Unbalanced, TS.
Describe S/PDIF.
RCA/Phono plugs, 75 ?.
What is found near a preamp?
Gain, Phase Reverse, 48V, Pad, Hi Pass.
List four speaker connectors.
Banana plug
1/4″ unbalanced.
Spade Lug
Transformers have what kind of rod with what type of material wrapped around it?
Transformers have iron rods with iron wire wrapped around it.
Speakers usually run at how many ??
4 ?, 8 ?, or 16 ?.
What is an insert?
An access point, in/out, for a channel or a buss.
What is a track?
A place where signal is recorded and stored.
What does attenuate mean?
To cut the level of.
What is a channel?
A strip on a board that signal goes through.
List four things associated with spatial localization/binaural hearing.
One ear picks up a sound before than the other ear.
Sound is louder in the ear facing the sound source than the other ear.
Pinnae – The ridges in one’s ears that allow him/her to hear above and below his/herself.
Acoustic Shadow – Sound is crisper in the ear facing the sound source but duller the other ear facing away from the sound source.
What is the speed of electricity?
186,000 mi/s.