Romantic Period
1815-20th Century, upheaval in Europe after Classical, 2 major trends: Industrialism and Nationalism, middle class influenced music, individual thought, extremes of emotion
French painter, Lady Liberty leading in the Charge, shows Nationalism, depictions of war
painter; Raft of the Medusa
Religion in Romantic period
loosing grip, more interest in occult and supernatural, art “replaced” religion, music most important of arts
Programmatic Music
Music that tells a story
German song, written with verses or strophic
Music thorough-composed
Song Cycle
Lieder strung together
Franz Schubert
1797-1828, worked in Vienna, reclusive, most depressing music sold the best, contracted syphilis, drank liquid mercury, never composed at piano, over 600 Lieder composed, used Goethe poems, composed Gretchen am Spinnrade
Piano in Romantic
more common in homes, women played, lessons taken
Robert Schumann
1810-’56, music critic, tore tendons in hand, founded The New Journal for Music, married Clara Schumann, died in mental institution, wrote “character pieces”
Robert Schumann’s extroverted personality
Robert Schumann’s Introvert personality
Robert Schumann’s club of personalities
Frederyk Chopin
1810-’49, born in Poland, , frail, lung diseases, could not process protein or fat, could not play forte on piano, moved to Paris, relationship with George Sand, became Polish hero due to his fame and use of Polish themes, used rubato, composed Mazurka in Bb Major, Op. 7, No.1
Franz Liszt
1811-’86, ascending & descending octaves, “rockstar” of the piano, first to play by memory and play in large concert hall, vain, influences piano position due to his “right” face, 1839-’47, ~1000 concerts played through Europe, Turkey, Russia, diet of raw oysters and coffee
Niccolo Paganini
great violinist, “deal with the devil”, flexible hands, locked in room for 12 hours, liquid mercury caused toothlessness
Opera in Romantic
Entertainment for everyone, middle class channeled in money for opera houses, nationalism big theme, overtures could be played alone
Gioachino Rossini
1792-1868, established lyrical tradition, “leap-year baby”, only child of failed musicians, “little Adonis”, photographic memory, ~18 y.o first opera, worked fast, composed in bed, wrote for singers based on their strengths, later composed “Sins of My Old Age”, William Tell and Barber of Seville overtures, combined opera seria and buffa, Bel canto, composed Il Barbiere di Siviglia: Act 1, No. 7: Una voce poco fa
Bel Canto
Rossini, “beautiful voice”, lyrical style of singing
Il Barbiere di Siviglia
Written in 13 day, 1st performance was failure, featured “Rossini crescendo”
Carl Maria von Weber
1786-1826, Germany, pianist, innovated instrumental music, Constanze cousin, died of tuberculosis, Wolf’s glen, Der Freischutz: gothic libretto, “The Sharpshooter/Sniper”
Late Romantic Period advancements
~1850 US and Europe leading, railroad established, new tech.: telephone, lights, metronome, life expectancy, political and social reforms, opera’s nationalism grew, valves, bigger concert halls, Italy opera tradition
Giuseppe Verdi
1813-1901, tied into Italian nationalism, active in resistance movement, “Viva Verdi” rally call, continued Bel Canto tradition, composed La Traviata, Act III
Giacomo Puccini
1855-1924, continued traditon of lyric opera, fast cars and fast women, cigar smoker, throat cancer, La Boheme reflects his life, Nessun Dorma – Turandot, Tosca, Madame Butterfly, Gianni Schicchi
France in Romantic Period
took longer to embrace opera tradition, opera comique (similar to buffa, burlesque opera) and grand opera (cast of 800, large orchestra)
Georges Bizet
1838-1924, Paris conservatory at ~10 y.o, known as a pianist, Carmen set in Spain (exoticism), died of heart attack,
Russia in Romantic Period
Czar abolished serfdom, split between between composers of tradition and new music, Tchaikovsky ballet
The Russian Five
promoted Russian nationalism in their music: Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Mussorgsky (Pictures at and Exhibition and Boris Godunov
Richard Wagner
1813-’83, revolutionized opera with chromatisism,ground work for 20th century, first positions at opera companies, 1st wife disgusted by Wagner, left him for a soldier, came back, but marriage was not good, ship ride to England inspired Der Fliegende Hollander (the flying Dutchman), later returned to German, wrote Lohengrin in Vienna (has wedding march) and Tannhauser , called operas “musical dramas”, composer Tristan und Isolde: Act 1, Scene 5
Wagner in Vienna
State opera was most prestigious job, Hans von Bulow was conductor, met cosima
Cosima Liszt von Bulow Wagner
1837-1930, originally married to Bulow, secret affair with Wagner, became preg. by Wagner, Bulow did not want divorce so scandal continued, later divorced bulow and married Wagner after 3 pregnancies
Wagner’s Grandchildren
Dressed in Wagnerian clothes, were named after Wagner’s operas
Total art work, encompasses all works
“Crazy” King Ludwig
Heard Wagner’s opera, assumed throne at ~18 y.o, famous for draining treasury to build castles, like Neuschwanstein, Wagner manipulated him, Ludwig gave money to Wagner for his debts and dedicated a town to him called Bayreuth and the Festspielhaus (festival House) for Wagner’s productions
Opera house funded by King Ludwig for Wagner’s productions, had the lastest technology, covered orchestra pit underneath stage which cut dynamics in half for singers, uncomfortable seats to keep people awake, electricity
Wagner’s liberettos
Wrote his own, based on German mythology and history, took the idee fixe from Berlioz and called it lietmotiv
Wagner’s melody for a person, thing or emotion
Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg
Opera written by Wagner about the meistersinger Hans Sachs
The Ring Cycle
Set of 4 operas – Das Rheingold: Volton makes ring for Nieblungs and puts in Rhein river, the human Siegfried gets ring, goes on adventure; Die Walkurie: daughters of Volton, one falls in love with Siegfried; Siegfried: based on ring bearer; Gotterdammerang:”Twilight of the Gods”, revenge for ring
Wagner’s Operas
removed previous opera items (recit., aria, etc.), endless melody
Endless Melody
endless line of music that uses chromatisicm used by Wagner
Trisan und Isolde
paved way for the 20th century, lots of chromaticism and endless melody, Tristan chord
Tristan Chord
F, B, D#, G#
Wagner’s Writing
prolific writer of prose on arts, politics, etc. “expert” in all areas, Wagner Societies appeared after his death and studied his prose writing
Hitler and Wagner
Hitler took Wagner’s ideas to heart, people of Bayreuth “taught” him how to be a politician, wrote “Mein Kampf” which was a paraphrasing of Wagner’s ideas
Triumph des Willens
One of the 1st Nazi propaganda films, shows Wagner’s Influence
Instrumental Advancements in Romantic Period
Orchestras increased, more trained musicians, London, New York Philharmonic, European and American major orchestras, Orch. size +90 player, woodwinds made of metal, keys added for dexterity and projection, piccolo, bassoon, saxophone, tuba came on the scene, brass inst. added valves, strings added metal strings with stronger boards, dynamic levels increased
Hector Berlioz
1803-’69, Father of the Modern Orchestra, developed size of orch. and what it could do, affluent family, studied flute and guitar, played tin-whistle, asked inst. to do other things, enrolled as doctor, but decided to go to Paris Cons., ~20 y.o composed and won composition competitions, composed Symphonie Fantastique “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” Movement 5
Symphonie Fantastique
1830, traces of Harriet infatuation, premier was considered “diabolical”, shows orchestra expansion with Eb clarinet, 4 horn and basson parts, tuba part played by Ophicleide
Symphonie Fantastique Movement 1
Daydreams and Passions: Existing, Harriet motive Idee Fixee
Symphonie Fantastique Movement 2
Ball, Social dance, Waltz
Symphonie Fantastique Movement 3
Scene in the Country, dialogue conversation with Harriet, call and response with oboe and later Eng. Horn and timpani
Symphonie Fantastique Movement 4
March to the Scaffold, dreams something takes Harriet, she is murdered, he is on his way to the guillotine, before blade comes down hears Idee Fixee, plop of head
Symphonie Fantastique Movement 5
Witches’ sabbath, celebrate his death, distorted Idee Fixee, tolling bells for carried out sentence, Dies Irae melody (used in funerals), tied into Rom. occult interest, strings use bow to emulate skeleton bones
Harriet Smithson
Actress, stalked by Berlioz who wrote pieces that “featured” her, eventually married Berlioz, later divorced for Rom. period suffrage
Felix (Bartholdy) Mendelssohn
1809-’47, family was Jewish, antisemitism caused father to convert to Lutheranism for less Jewish name, Bartholdy was distant family name, 1st recital at 9, composing ~13, sister Fanny published under his name due to female restrict., all genres except opera, wrote opera in soprano Jenny Lind’s name, died from stroke, Elijah in English and German text, composed Violin Concerto, Movement 1 (written for Ferdinand David)
Choral Music
more amateur and professional singers and choirs, new market with new music, choral societies with dues, choral festivals, Rom. composer writing music for choir
New field invented in 1850, complete works of past composers catalogued and easily accessible
Johannes Brahms
1833-’97, credited Beethoven for inspiration, cello teacher stole his cello, had to work in bars to support family, not best of times in bars, heard many different types of music from bars, friends with Schumanns, fell in love with Clara, made living as conductor, pianist, royalties, disliked Wagner’s chromaticism, did not use prog. music, Red Hedgehog favorite bar, intimidated by Beethoven, did not write symphonies (4) until 40 y.o, composed Symphony no. 4, Movement 4
Gustav Mahler
1860-1911, worked in Vienna, conducted NY Philhar., conductor of Vienna State Opera, known for 9 symphonies, inspired by natl’ism, 1st Sym: fragments of Austrian folk song; 2nd Sym: based on Austrian folk song
Richard Strauss
1864-1949, snuck score of Tristan und Isolde into house, symphonic tone poems and operas, most famous sym. tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra, works became more chromatic due to familiarity with Wagner, 1911 appointed to high art post in the Reich, wrote Olympic Hymn in 1936, wrote Oboe concerto after meeting Sgt. John Delancy, composed Don Quixote, Op. 35
Symphonic tone Poem
Large scale symphony, no seperate movements, tells a story, Examples: Don Juan, Death and Transfiguration, Also sprach Zarathustra, Don Quixote)
Strauss’s opera, Libretto by Oscar Wilde
Strauss, insane hatred and revenge
Strauss, “Roses and Cavalier”, 1911, comic opera
Pure or Absolute Music
non-programmatic music
French Impressionism
Started in Art with Claude Monet, experimental with painting, “hazy, luminous pictures”, more detail from farther away
Impressionism in Music
getting rid of boundaries in music, less structure in music with lack of cadences, pieces not based on proper diatonic scale (not “resolving”), mixed meter or hard to tap to
Claude Debussy
1862-1918, Paris, 10 y. o Paris Cons. with piano and composition, wrote differently than Wagner after hearing his music, wrote piano and orch. music, collaborated with Diaghilev, La Mer, Nuages = clouds, died in WWI bomb, composed Nocturnes, No. 1 Nuages
Atonal Music
Music without a tonal center
Cast as Faun in Debussy’s Prelude
Ballet Russe
Diaghilev’s Ballet company
Prelude a L’Apres-midi d’un faune
Prelude to an afternoon of a faun, Claude Debussy
Maurice Ravel
1875-1937, born in Bask region (b/t Fr. and Spain), father invented version of combustible engine and “whirlwind of death”, idolized Rimsky-Korsakov, met Debussy who introduced him to Diaghilev, wrote ballets Daphnis and Chloe, wrote text on how to Orchestrate, orchestrated Pictures at an Exhibition, Bolero composed as experiment to test instrumentation, taxi accident, killed by brain surgery,
Alban Berg: Wozzeck, Op.7 Act III; 1917-22, Opera, oversized meters, German, chromaticism
Arnold Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire, Op.21 No.13 Enhauptung; 1912, tone poem, sprechstimme (notes with “x’s” on stems)
Bela Bartok: Mikrokosmos No.23, Staccato and Legato; 1926, 1932-39, Etude, only atonal piano piece, in 2/4
Claude Debussy: Nocturnes, No.1 Nuages; 1897-99, symphonic poem, in 6/4, hautbois, Timbales
Felix Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto Movement 1; 1844, violin concerto, E minor
Franz Schubert: Gretchen am Spinnrade; 1814, Lied, flowing piano line, German, “Kuss”
Frederyk Chopin: Mazurka in Bb Major, Op.7, No.1; 1831, Mazurka (dance), piano, in 3
George Crumb: Black Angels Thirteen Image from the Dark Land Image 4 Devil Music; 1970, Electric string quartet, “romantic-phantastic style”, tremelos,
George Crumb: Black Angels Thirteen Image from the Dark Land Image 5 Danse macabre; 1970, electric sting quartet, “grotesque, satirical”, dies irae
Giochino Rossini: Il Barbiere di Siviglia Act1, No.7 Una voce poco fa; 1816, Comic opera, violin has 32nd grace notes
Giuseppe Verdi: La traviata, Act III; 1853, opera, Italian, duet (V. & A.)
Hector Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath Movement 5; 1830, symphony, tremelos and 32 notes with 32 rests in strings
Igor Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring Danse des adolescentes; 1911-1913, Ballet, violin stops, atonal, syncopation
Johannes Brahms: Symphony no.4, movement 4; 1884-85, Symphony, in 3, starts with dotted half notes
John Adams: Doctor Atomic Act 1, conclusion, Batter my heart; 2005, opera, only English one, swelling strings, 4/4 and 12/8 in beginning,violin in staccato and triplets
John Cage: Sonata V; 1946-48, Suite for prepared piano, sounds “tribal”, notation font on score looks “bold”
Richard Strauss: Don Quixote, Op. 35; 1897, Tone poem, violincello solo, engl. horn
Richard Wagner: Tristan und Isolde, Act 1, Scene 5; 1865, opera (or music drama), very chromatic, German, T.,
Second Viennese School
Group of composers comprised of Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Webern (Haydn, Brahms, etc. 1st school)
Arnold Schoenberg
1874-1951, Vienna, composed by imitation, controversial music, atonality, expressionism, painter, Theory Harmony textbook, Jewish, fired during Nazi regime, music attacked, left Germany in mid-1930s, taught at UCLA, fear of #13, 1st works similar to Wagner (tonal, but chromatic), composed Arnold Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire, Op.21 No.13 Enhauptung
Entartete Music
“degenerate music”, any music not following German tradition
“emancipation of dissonance”
Schoenberg, run towards and embrace dissonances
“many chords”, one chord in one key with a second chord in another key
Melody sung in one key with chords in another key
Half-singing/half-speaking, used in Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire, a note with an “x” on the stem
New system to write atonal music, 12 random notes governed in rows in an order; twelve-tone), used by Schoenberg in his Piano Suite to break away from old norms
Alban Berg
1885-1935, 2 atonal operas: Lulu in 12 tone and Wozzeck in atonal, composed Wozzeck, Op.7, Act III
Anton Webern
1883-1945, works were only a few measures long, used klangfarbenmelodie, , killed by American soldier while having a smoke after end of war
Tone color melody with short bursts of sound and melody, used by Anton Webern
Igor Stravinsky
1882-1971, Russia, piano at 9 with theory, Rimsky-Korsakov teacher, moved to Paris, 1939 U.S., affair with Coco Chanel, used polyrhythms and rhythmic complexity, worked with Diaghilev, 1920s Neoclassical period (pieces sounded like Mozart; Pulcinella written in this period), later focused on atonal music, composed Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring Danse des adolescentes
More than one melody at a time
Three ballets by Igor Stravinsky
Firebird 1910, Petroushka 1911, Le Sacre du Printemps 1913
What are the Four operas in The Ring Cycle?
Das Rheingold, Die Walkure, Seigfried, Gotterdammerung
Name three operas by Puccini.
La Bohme, Madame Butterfly, Turandot (or Tosca, Gianni Schicchi)
Who’s Brahms’ friend who died 9 months prior?
Clara Schumann
Schumann’s personalities?
Florestan and Eusebius
Who is the “Father of the Modern Orchestra”?
Hector Berlioz
Who are the “Russian Five”?
Balakiev, Borodin, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky
Town famous for Wagner’s operas?
Italian school of opera singing
Bel canto, introduced by Rossini
Name an opera by Strauss
Elektra, Salome, Rosenhavalier
Who did Mendelssohn write his violin concerto for?
Ferdinand David
Who was George Sand?
Female author who used a male name, relationship with Frederyk Chopin
Polish folk dance with emphasis on 3, Frederyk Chopin wrote them
Society unsure about future, economy ruined, 1929 stock market crash, influenza, resentment for war winners in music, “degenerate music” attacked, immigration to U.S. transformed society
Bela Bartok
1881-1945, Hungarian under German occupation, outspoken against regime, moved to U.S., used nationalism and heritage to influence music, ethnomusicologist, ~20s used recorder to record voices, influenced by Gypsy music
Study of music outside of European tradition, Bela Bartok, composed Mikrokosmos: No. 23, Staccato and Legato
Soviet Union
Only few could work as musicians, totalitarian regime (government controls life)
Josef Stalin
dictator, responsible for ~200 mil deaths, tried to manipulate public image with doctored photos, created NKBD or KGB which enforced law, state dictated music and performers, music used for propaganda
Agriculture System of Collected Farmers
Under Stalin, all farmers had to join collectives, caused famine and starving
Gulag System
Under Stalin, concentration camp, around factory in Siberiaa, people given huge quota, harsh winters and living conditions, ~3-4 wks lifespans in system, small %age criminals
Aleksander Solzhenitsyn
Gulag system survivor, escaped and got to U.S., wrote about Soviet Union in Gulag Archipelago
Gulag Archipelago
Written account of the Soviet Union by Aleksander Solzhenitsyn, one of first accounts that the West had of the Soviet Union
Serge Prokofiev
1891-1953, came to U.S. with family at young age, missed Russian hardships, went back to Russia in 1933, wrote music that Stalin liked, was not as restricted as other composers, not truly representative of Russian music
Dmitri Shostakovitch
1906-1975, music = autobiog., piano @ 9, composing @ 13, music conservatory, would go to prof. home to be taught if prof. was absent, supported family by playing piano for silent films after father’s death due to farmer policy, writer friend committed suicide which truly affected him, Lady Macbeth opera est. him internat’lly, played for 2 yrs. in Russia, later U.S., was successful, but Stalin was revolted by the opera, withdrew it, and wrote bad review (review caused 4th sym. to be pulled), Shosta. found way to please Stalin, but kept his own themes and ideals prevalent in his music, 5th sym. used to oppose Stalin, Wrote autobiography in 1970,
Muddle Instead of Music
Josef Stalin’s review criticizing Shostakovitch and his music after seeing Lady Macbeth
Autobiography written by Shostakovitch in 1970 about his life that was to be published after his death
American composers
Most studied in Europe through 1800s, so “American style” did not appear for a time as music sounded European
Charles Ives
1874-1954, Rich from insurance position, music not popular, used polytonalities (which were not as popular), one of first to use American culture in his music, composed General William Enters into Heaven which was based on The Blood of the Lamb gospel tune
Aaron Copland
1900-1990, composing ~10-11, opera ~11, studied music in France with Nadia Boulanger who encouraged him to stay true to American roots, pioneered children concerts, one of first broadcasters on the radio “The Prairie Journal”, blacklisted by FBI during Red Scare, Famous for ballets, collab. with Martha Graham in Appalachian Spring
Aaron Copland’s ballets
Rodeo, Billy the Kid, Appalachian Spring
Appalachian Spring
Ballet by Aaron Copland, collab. with Martha Graham, tells story about the Shakers religious sect, based on Shaker melody “Simple Gifts”
20th Century Technology
Mass produced recordings available, recorded pieces would be short, radio, economic boost after WWII, more access to music = more music schools and education, music portable, teens interested in music, soul, gospel, jazz new popular genres
Music Innovations in 20th Century
Use of atonality, new sounds, textures, used instruments to make new sounds, microtones, harmonic, and multiphonic, scores looked different
20th century music technique that slightly bends pitch
20th century music technique, one note played with different timbre, bang keys, hum and play at same time
20th century music technique, more than one pitch out of a note
Chance music, blueprint given for music and elements left up to chance; never played the same way twice
John Cage
1912-1992, Los Angeles, studied piano, but liked sight-reading more, studied in Europe, came back to U.S. and studied with Schoenberg, avant-garde composer, Concerto for Typewriter, prepared piano, 4.33, composed Sonata V
Prepared Piano
20th century music technique, John Cage, obstructing piano strings with objects to make new sounds
George Crumb
b.1929, taught at Penn, instruments used new techniques, wrote in protest of Vietnam War in 1970 with Black Angels (used Dies Irae), composed Black angels: Thirteen Images from the Dark Land, Image 4: Devil Music / Image 5: Danse marabre
Electronic music
1950s, synthetic, 1st electronic studios appear, composers could control aspects of music and new timbres created, new sounds good, but eliminated need for live performers
Krzysztof Penderecki
b. 1933, Polish composer, music used in The Shining, most famous piece was Threnedy (tribulte for someone who died) for the Victims of Hiroshima, 52 str. instruments, used etended technique, wanted to create moments after bomb dropped
After 1970, used small motive repeated over and over, used in Adams Dr. Atomic
John Adams
b. 1947, Studied at Harvard left and went to San Fran., composed Nixon in China (based on Nixon and his willingness to work with China), On the Transmigration of Souls, composed Doctor Atomic: Act 1, conclusion, “Batter my Heart”