Anything that existed before the birth of Christ
Place of musical organization, culture, achievement first kinds of writing
Predecessor to the oboe with a face mask (Phorbein) with two pipes and two reeds
A Large brass instrument that wrapped around the body
Brass instrument; had “mouth attachment” used for intimidation
An early harp-like instrument
A large harp-like instrument related to the double-bass
What was special about Greek music?
It tied in with poetry, astronomy, and was monophonic
What early music educator thought only certain types of music were acceptable and complex rhythms were not?
Who is credited with writing the first music theory book with rhythm of music based on rhythm of words?
What student of Plato’s thought that music was for enjoyment?
Who wrote the Fundamentals of Music, which described music from Antiquity?
Musica Humana, Musica Mandana, Musica Instrumentales
Humans, Universe, Instruments
When did the Middle Ages occur?
400-1000 A.D.
Small village of 40-50 people with church in center where most of life would be spent
What building was the dominant force in the Middle Ages and would be the place of education and spread of music?
The Church
What king merged the churches, unified a certain area, and was illiterate?
Charlemagne (768-884)
For whom was the Gregorian chant named (came to him from God in the form of a dove)?
Pope Gregory I (540-604)
What were the early forms of notation called?
What monk invented modern music notation, solfege and the Guidonian Hand and wrote the Micrologus?
Guido d’Arezzo
What is a Liturgy?
The order of a church service a.k.a. a program
What was the focal point of the Catholic Church?
The Mass
What was built bigger than everything else to promote gathering and could take over 100 years to build?
A Church
What are the parts of the Mass?
The Ordinary (Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sancus, Agnus Dei)
What were chants or songs called that were used for specific holidays or events?
The Proper
What were the Offices of the Church?
Matins (midnight), Lauds (5am), Prime(6am), Terce (9am), Sext (12pm), Nones (3pm), Vespers (730pm) & Compline (9pm)
How was early text copied down?
By hand, texts kept within a Missal while chants were collected in a Gradual
What is a collection of chants filled with transcribed pages?
Liber Usualis
Unison or in response, written in Latin, no big leaps of skips, and monophonic are all characteristics of what type of music?
What text setting describes a song where every syllable gets its own note?
What text setting describes a song where there is more than one note per syllable?
What text setting describes a combination of one note syllables and many note syllables?
What is it called when a congregation follows a pattern set by a song leader?
Psalm Tones
What is it called when you extend a chant’s beginning and ending?
What are melodies added to chants to make them more interesting called?
What is a way to extend chants with melismas called?
What famous woman composer was born in Germany to a wealthy family, raised in a monastery, wrote music at 42, published different works on Sciences, Sexual books, wrote 77 chants, and also composed Ordo Virtutum?
Hildegard of Bingen
What was the Ordo Virtutum?
Written by Hildegard of Bingen, it was a “play on morals” with three main characters; happy, sad, and pentative souls
Under Pope John XXIII, what meetings that lasted for several years helped modernize the Church, changed music and languages, and updated attire?
The Vatican II Council
What were the independent military campaigns called?
The Crusades
What group of secular musicians performed acts, sold “fix all” potions, juggled, and provided means of communication between towns?
What were the SOUTHERN French poets who stayed in one place called?
What were the NORTHERN French poets who stayed in one place called?
What was a wealthy young man who wrote songs about pleasure called?
A Golliard
What was the collection of Troubador music called?
Carmina burana
What kind of plays dealt with love with ,a famous one named “The Play of Robin and Marion” or Jeu de Robin et de Marion-Rondeau composed by Adam de la Halle?
Musical Plays
What Trouvere wrote polyphonic and monophonic music, was called hunchback, and composed Jeu de Robin et de Marion-Rondeau?
Adam de la Halle
What were German knight singers called who sang songs about the Crusades called Minnelieder?
What was the Medieval violin-like, 5-stringed bow instrument with a drone string called?
What modified Vielle had a hand crank and one drone string and a funny name?
What was the double reed, oboe ancestor WITHOUT the strap called?
What was the name of the portable organ?
Organ portativ
What as special about instrumental music during the Middle Ages?
Instrumental music was not written down, rather it was improvised
What were the earliest forms of polyphony (chants)?
What type of organum is a counter melody to another one?
Discant Organum
What type of organum was “fancy” and had more notes on the top than on the bottom?
Florid Organum
What cathedral in Paris was the center of organum , had the beginnings of rhythm with long notes being called Longs and short notes being called Breves, and took 100+ years to build?
Cathedral of Notre Dame
What was the collection of the best organum written by Anonymous IV called?
Magnus Liber Organi
Who was the composer of organum who came from a monastery credited with writing Viderunt omnes: organum duplum?
Leonin (Leonius)
Who was considered the greatest organum writer, had a Masters degree from the University of Paris, added parts to existing organum, created organum for 2,3,&4 voices, and is credited with composing Viderunt omnes: organum quadruplum?
What is the addition to organum to make it more beautiful called?
What is two-voice organum called?
Organum Duplum
What is three-voice organum called?
Organum Triplum
What is four-voice organum called?
Organum Quadruplum
What type of 13th century music was inspired by chants or newly composed?
What illness passed by rats between 1347-1351 caused mass death and turn the skin black with boils?
The Bubonic Plague or Black Death
What war between England and France cause the church to become divided, gave rise to many popes, and was during the period of the invention of glasses and compasses?
The Hundred Years War
What famous writer fought for France in the Crusades, wrote “The Divine Comedy”, and came from an affluent family?
Dante Alighieri
What English writer, poet, and alchemist, born into a family of wine makers, credited with writing “Canterbury Tales”, and is buried in Westminster Abbey?
Geoffery Chaucer
What New Art combination of secular and sacred music did the rise of secular music bring about?
Ars Nova
What is rhythm that continues in the bass line called?
What is an echo-like alternation of voices in equal dynamics called?
Who was the lead composer in the Ars Nova who survived the Black Death, was one of the first composers to explain composition, and is credited with composing Foy Porter-virelai and Messe de Notre Dame?
Guillaume de Machaut
Who was the blind man who contracted small pox and incorporated a cadence with a leap of a third at the end?
Francisco Landini
What is it called when you avoid the tritone by adjusting the music or “false music”?
Musica Ficta
What does the Landini Cadence do?
The upper voice decends a step, jumps up a third and then moves to an octave
What was the period of rebirth through 1450 and 1600 that had an eruption of new achievements in both music and art, interests in Antiquity, end of Hundred Years War, invention of the printing press, Protestant Reformation, unity under one Pope and a stable European economy?
The Renaissance
What was the name of the artist that painted the Sistine Chapel, sculpted the Statue of David, and created the Creation painting?
Who was the vegetarian who created “The Last Supper”, Mona Lisa, and was an accomplished inventor?
Leonardo da Vinci
What is the Codex Leicester?
Leonardo da Vinci’s journal with his inventions in code
Who wrote the 1st important book on counterpoint entitled “Liber de arte Contrapuncti” (A book on the art of counterpoint)in 1477?
Johannes Tinctoris
What kind of counterpoint had voices that echoed each other?
Imitative Counterpoint
What kind texture had all voices move together in the same rhythm?
Homophonic texture
What invention had a three stage process for music that printed staves first, then the notes, and lastly, the words making composing much easier and gave composers the opportunity to make more money?
Printing Press
Who published his first song on the printing press (Harmonie musices odhecaton?
Ottavino Petrucci
What were some characteristics of English music?
Use of 3rds, 6ths, consonant music, and syllabic texture
What was the name of the allied territory of England within France during the 100 Years War?
Who developed a tuning system, was highly educated, a highly regared composer in England, worked for Kings and Queens, was a famous astronomer, composed masses, motetes, and Quam pulchra es?
John Dunstable
Who was Philip the Bold?
A Duke of Burgandy who was a patron of the arts and employed Minstrels
Who was the famous composer who had a rough childhood with his father being a priest and his mother being a woman of illrepute, composed both traditional and contemporary music, and composed “Se la face ay pale”?
Guillame DuFay
What new improvement happened to the Mass?
It was set to a polyphony
What polyphonic Mass was basically just the Gregorian chant?
What polyphonic Mass used a motive to create the mass so that the same motive appears later in the mass?
Mado Mass
What polyphonic Mass, “Fixed melody mass”, was the most sophisticated of the three polyphonic Masses?
Cantus Firmus Mass
Who was considered the most important composer of his time, was born in France as a choir singer, lived as a composer in the Sistine Chapel, worked in Spain, but left because of the Plague, was called “master of all notes, became wealthy through an inheritance, and composed “Mille regretz – chanson”?
Josquin des Prez
What Franco-Flemish composer worked as a singer in Belgium, was a singer of printed music a.k.a “left-handed singer”, and composed Missa Prolationum – Kyrie?
Jean de Ockeghem
What period in the Renaissance ushered in the founding of the Protestant church to challenge the Catholic church?
Protestant Reformation
What German man was from a working class family, published 95 Thesis used to challenge the Catholic church, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church founded the Lutheran church, and composed “Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland”?
Martin Luther
What did the Lutheran church offer?
The Liturgy and Bible translated into German and a four-part choral
What is a chorale?
Newly composed music or a take on an existing melody set to four voices
Who led the longest movement of the Protestants, thought that polyphony distaracted fromt he church, created a collection of psalms called a Psalter, and had first book called “Bay Psalm Book” published int he New World?
Jean Calvin
What is a collection of Psalms called?
Who was the ruler of England that had 6 wives, joined the Protestant church to gain the ability to divorce his wives, developed consort songs, and was a musician?
Henry VIII
Who was the important English composer that had a patent on manuscript paper, was the first to write anthems, and composed “Sing Joyfully Unto God”?
William Byrd
What “Society of Jesus” had young men in priesthood training to convert people to Catholicism?
What were the series of meetings by the Catholic church where leaders wrote down ways to fight Protestants and wanted music to stay the same and not change to polyphony and imitation called?
Council of Trent
What composer sang in the Sistine chapel as a boy, spent 40 years at St. Peters, wrote 104 Masses, madrigals, over 300 religious motes, and contribute to saving polyphony within the mass by presenting “Missa Popae Morcelli” to the Council of Trent?
Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina (or just Palestrina)
What were multi-voiced songs sung on secular subjects that had important text enhanced by music, were through-composed, had an epigram,and included word painting?
What was music called that had different words and music all the way through?
What is it called when a statement is made with a moral at the end?
What composer in Italy composed “Il bianco e dolce cigno”?
Jacques Arcadelt
What is it called when a composer sets words using dynamics to give the music a point?
Word painting
What was the highly trained group of women singers sung very lightly and established female composers called?
Concerto Delle Donne
Who was the prolific composer of madrigals that committed many murders and composed “Io parto e non piu dissi – madrigal”?
Carlo Gesualdo
What kind of song either features a profane subject or has an innuendo?
Catch Song
What group of amateur men “master singers” got together to sing and held contests to create new words for a melody?
What is it called when words are used in conjunction with music (these were used in Madrigals)?
Who was the most well known Meistersinger?
Hans Sacks
What “music from the Alps” created in 1588 was a collection of songs that inspired musicians to create madrigals?
Musica transalpina
What well known composer or madrigals wrote “A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practical Music” to help amateurs to read and write music, and composed “My Bonnie Lass, She Smileth”?
Thomas Morley
What was the portable predecessor to the guitar commonly used during this period?
Who was the leading composer of lute songs that wrote in Lute tablature, composed Airs (designations for songs, and composer “Flow, My Tears”?
John Dowland
What book described the family of instruments (or consort)?
Praetorius Syntugma Musicum
What is the predecessor to the trombone with a shorter bell?
What is the early double reed instrument with a weird sound called?
What is the early violin -like instrument that had 6 gut strings called?
Viola de gamba
What is the personal keyboard with a soft tamber and a sustained tone?
What keyboard had a brighter tone with plucked strings, also called a Virginal, Clavecin, or Claricembalo?
What became more prominent and served as a social function?
What was the most important center of music and art in Italy that was run by a head Duke or Doge?
What church was the center for civic functions and church services?
St. Mark’s Church
What composer was an organist that worked at St. Mark’s, wrote polychordal motets (work for large choir of musical instruments), and had most of his music performed by brass instruments in the rafters of churches, and composed Canzon semptini toni a 8?
Giovanni Gabrieli