Define what Lieder is?

German poetry set by the solo voice that flurished in the 19th century.



What was the purpose of the Lied?

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The purpose was to express mood and feelings – It went from wine, birds, and love – TO : pain, isolation, and seperation


Provoking the mind to explore…

What is the significance of Gretchen am Spinnrade? and who composed it?
Gretchen was finished on October 14th, 1814 and is considered the birthday of the lieder. Schubert Composed and Goethe wrote the poetry.
What did Goethe think of Schubert?
Goethe wasnt fond of Schubert’s settings because he felt that how Schubert set them upstaged his poetry.; He prefered simple strophic compositions so you remembered the poem more.
Why is Goethe so important to the lied?

He was considered the most original, represented, and set poet in the entire age of the lied.


Example:Der Erlkonig was set 19 different times.

Who is the only other poet that came close to the number of settings Goethe had?
Heine with 60.
What were some 18th Century composition characteristics?
Strophic, simple, outsiders perspective, themes(pastoral, wine, love), educated writers, and they were not blood, sweat and tears poets.
Herder and Goethe were close friends, what did they create together?
They created the “folk song” and gathered and published them.
Who introduced Goethe to Shakespeare?
What were the main ideas of Romanticism?

Fervent emotion, appreciation of the fantastic-mysterious, Call to the individual and its association w/ society,Love of the past or exotic, Glorification of true love.


Examples, – Supernatural, trickster rouge,, etc

how did the evolution of the piano effect the lied?

It wasnt until the 1770’s that composers started writing for the Piano and before that many proto types were brought to Beethoven and were rejected. 


Young Mozart composed for the piano, but never pushed the development of it, and it wasnt until listz started developing it much later was the full realm of the instrument explored.


It was pushed even further with Schubert and Schumann and how they experimented with the warm webs of the shound.


What is unique about the song Nacht und Traume? Why is it important for it to be played on a piano?
The whole peice is written in BASS clef. This peice cannot be played on strings, or harpsichord.
Why did Beethoven have alot of different terms for his songs?
Beethoven was one of the first to develop the lieder so there was no set genre.  He was able to call his works different things until the form was more developed – everyone else had to develop like he did.
What is the significance of Beethovens- An Die Ferne Geliebt?
It was the first song cycle
What was different about Beethovens An Die Ferne Geliebt?
It was through-composed.  No single song stood alone.
Did Schubert come from a musical family?
No, his family was not musical.

What was a unique characteristic of Schubert physical appearance ?


He was only 4 feet 8 inches tall.
Who was Schuberts major influence as far as composers go?
Franz Schubert wrote 600 pieces, but how many were published while he was alive?
168 were published while he was alive.
What kind of poets would Schubert set?
He would set ANYONE! Good poets, bad poets, famous, unfamous…
What is said about about the quantity and quality of Schuberts music?
It was widely agreed that he had the MOST COMPOSED of quality and quantity.
Was Schubert a loud bombastic person?
NO! He was very shy and tiny, sometimes he could not even play his own piano works because of his timidness
why wasnt schubert known very well during his time?
Because he was neither virtuoso or conductor…
What was a signature of Schuberts in his music as far as characteristics?
He loved to use repeated notes, he used them everywhere in his music and it added alot of color.
Were Schuberts vocal lines universal for any singer?
NO- Schubert made his piano/vocal parts very hard.  They were not universally accessable for any singer and at times schubert had to simplify his parts so he could play them himself.
Der Erlkonig is based on a translation of a danish poet’s”Elf Queen”; What is unique about this piece?
Each character is differentiated by a different voice expression.; The characters are – Father, Song, and Erlkonig
Who was Vogel and what did he do?; What was his personality?
Vogal was a Baritone songer who was the first interpretor of Schuberts songs.; His signature piece was Der Erlkonig.; He was very bombastic and a larger than life character. ;; ( This also made the pairing of Schubert and Vogal quite funny)
Die Schoene Mullerin (1823) means what in English? and who was the poet of this set?
The Miller’s Beautiful Daughter and the poet was Mueller.
Schubert was inspired by Beethovens first song cycle and so he searched for a cycle to set – What did he choose and why?
Schubert chose Die Schone Mullerin- set by Mueller and he chose them because he saw this set of poems as
folk myth and wanted them to be taken seriously.
Which two song cycles by Schubert were taken from the same set of poetry?
Die Schone Muellerin and Winterisse were taken frm the same work.


The entire collection of Die Schone Mullerin was written in what musical form except which number? – What does that number serve as?

the entire form of the peices are strophic except the last number that serves as the epilougue – in the form of a new voice- the brook singing after the miller dies.
Der lindenbaunm is part of what song cycle and by whom, and whay was it so important?

Der Linden was part of Winterisse by Schubert.  This song was looked at as the perfect example of folk and art song together as a mastery work.


It was even taught to German children in early years of school to drive home German folk attributes of music and country.

what was the principle that Betermeyer believed and what song in Wintereisse potrayed that?
He belived in the principle that nature was not our friend.  This was potrayed in Fruhlingstraum ( dream of spring) bc nature is taunting – in essense… not our friend.
What does the Inn in Das Wirthhaus represent?(Winterisse)
It represented death and a grave.  – He is ready to die and he says he is going to wander foreverr bc there is no room at the inn- Grave.
Why was the set of songs Schwanegesan in confusion as to if it was meant to be a song cycle or not?
they were were published after Schuberts death so no one knew what he meant for them.  They are know as a set
who gave Schuberts last grouping of songs its title?
The publisher did bc schubert had died
What was Schumanns family like?
His father was a book dealer, translator, and cultivated music for all his children…. His father really believed that Robert could be a musician.
Did Schumann pursue music at first?
No, he pursued law at first, but continued to take lessons and play piano – with none other than Friederick Wieg – Father of Clara…. his future wife
How did Schumann damage his third finger on his right hand?
He developed a device to stregthen his hands and in the process ended up injuring his hand.  After this he dedicated more time to devlopiong as a composer even though as this time he was not trained to compose.
Why did F Wieg C’S father not want Clara to marry Robert?
He didnt want his daughter to marry someone whose vocation was music.
What year did Clara and Robert win thier court case giving them the right to marry? and what is that also know as?
1840 – it is known as the Liederjahr – led to this great outpouring of Lieder . This is evident in “Widmung”, for example, where he uses the melody from Schubert’s “Ave Maria” in the postlude—in homage to Clara
What how did Robert Schumann feels towards Schubert?
Schumann was exposed to Schubert when he was relatively young and when schubert died schumann was said to have sobbed for days ( he was a passionate student at this time)
What is the firs thing schumann published in the liederjahr?
He published a settings of Shakespeares Twelfth NIght – ( Of which Mendelssohn had done first thanks to Herder)

Was clara known as a composer or as a performer?


She was known as a virtuoso pianist, she loved composing but with the 7 children she had with robert, it left little time to compose.  She performed to help support the family- They were not rich.
How did Schumanns output compare to Schuberts?

Schumann worked tirelessly every single day to fulfill his full potential but he only composed a 1/3 of what schubert composed. 


this might have to do with the fact that robert would only set established poets, and wanted only first rate poetry for his compositions… and Schubert would set ANYTHING…. This could have made for more options as far as composing.

What were the last pieces Schumann composed ?

The last pieces Schumann composed was the Mary Stewart poems ( 1852)


These were her letters- 5 poems describing her departure from France, birth of her song, letter to Eliz, letter of peace, and her farewell to the world.


They were unlike anything he had ever composed – and he was sick the entire time he composed them.

What spectrum of quality of poetry did Schumann sit?

He was on the high and greatest end of poetry that he would set.


He only set 6 Goethe poems, Heine was much more his poet.  – He said – “why set mediorce poety that was less likely to reflect in the music”

What was so interested about the postlude in Dietchleibe?
This had not been done before having such a LONG postlude…
How did Schumann feel about the order he put his songs in vrs the order the poet put them in?
He did decide what order to put them in but he ususally honored the order the poet put them in.
When was Liederkries written and why was it so important?
Liederkries was written in the Liederjahr – 1840- it was important because it was when Robert was allowed to marry Clara…. this is a result of anticipation of happiness w/clara.
what are the themes that are reflected in Liederkries?
Themes present are Mysteries of life, wanderer, beauty of the night, wonders of nature, menace of nature, and the wonders and nature of love
Is liederkries considered a story??

It is not considered a story, but a link of moods, reflections, and images.
Liederkris is linked tonally- what does this mean?
Liederkries is linked tonally so this means that if shifts from major to minor, shifts from dominant to tonic, and it also has lots of shifts of 3rds… it has many links theoretically

frauenliebe und leben was also composed in the Liederjahr- which was what year? AND who was the poet


1840, and it was poetry by chamisso


what was frauenliebe und leben intended to be


F und L was meant as a wedding gift for Clara 
Whose point of view is F und L meant to be in?
This is meant to be a womans love and life, so in the point of view of a female – or even Claras point of view.
F und L was unified by key subject and poet, so what happens with the first piece in relation to the last piece?
The cycle is truely cyclical because the first piece thematic material comes back in the last peice as a postlude.
Was the last piece in F und L originally the last piece by the poet?
No there was one more poem about a Gma telling the child about her parents but he chose to tell the story as a postlude instead of another piece
Dichterliebe had an alternate title what was it?
It was orginally was called “20 songs from…” but it was changed to Dichterliebe within 4 years.
The order of Dichterliebe was ordered in what way?
It was ordered to suggest a trajectory of a love narrative
In Dichterlibe Schumann messes with the structure of the poem, adds stanzas to fit his music, and makes repetitions… Did Heine mind?
Heine did not mind, unlike Goethe
What are the poems about in Dichterliebe?
they are about unrequieted love, pain, and bitterness.
How are all the songs related to eachother in Schumanns Dichterliebe?


The songs cycle does not start and end in the same key, but all songs are related by a 5th or a 3rd…

How many days did it take schumann to write the dichterliebe cycle?
This cycle was written in 9 days…
how old was Clara when Robert died?
She was 37 years old
When did Clara meet Brahms and what was thier relationship?
When Clara and Robert moved to Dusseldorf – they met Brahms – He was very close to her for 35 years and took care of her when Robert died- making sure she had time to compose.
Did Claras music have influences of other composers?
She sometimes had hints of Brahm-like sounds hinting that he influenced her –  OR adversley he could have been influenced by her!

Who are Lousie Reichardt and Josphine Lange?

They were Female composers of the 19th Century who were known for composing… and not just performing.


LR composed 90 + songs

JL composed 150 songs in 10 years

Fanny Mendelssohn -Hensel composed 300 songs.. how many of those 300 were published?
Only 30 were published.
Felix Mendelsson published 70 songs… how many of those were published?
What type of family did Felix and Fanny come from as far as wealth and education?
They came from a very well off family, they studied with very high quality teachers and were expected to perform well. Thier father was a bit of a slave-driver.
What was the relationship between Fanny and Felix, and Clara and Robert Schumann?
Clara and Robert took a trip to Berlin and met Fanny and Felix.   Clara was very enamered and amazed with Fanny and wanted to move to Berlin to be near Fanny.  She was very upset and sad when Fanny died.
How did Felix feel about Fanny Publishing her music?
Felix did not support her publishing her music.  He was always there to offer critiques but said that her family was always the primary focus and publishing was not what a respectable woman would do.
What did Goethe think of Fanny as a composer?
Goethe wrote a poem set specifically for her because he was VERY impressed by her… so he supporter he as an artist.
Who encouraged Fanny to published without the approval of her brother?
Her Husband and her mother encouraged
Fanny to publish – and she did – She had offers from EVERY publisher in Berlin.  She had 500 works total and she picked 30 of her finest
Robert Schumann loved Felix Mend. and said he was the _____ of the 19th Century?
Mozart of the 19th Century.
Felix had a really good memory how many times would he have to look at  a Bach piece before he never needed the score again?
What past composer was Felix very interested in and liked to revive alot of his works by conducting them?
He was a very big Bach enthusiast. He composed the St. Matthews Passion which had not been done in forever… and by memory. 
What was the most important aspect of a composition to Felix ?
The melody line was always the most important
Who was considered the last of the leider composers?
What is one word you could use to to embody all that is Brahms?
What musical aspect did Brahms use a lot in his compositions

Describe Brahms personality


Brahms did not like to share anything w anyone and didnt trust very many people.  He burned alot of things…He burned his only opera or anything he thought was not good. – He didnt want to be interviewed or written about. He was very gruff and brisk…  He was nice in his own ways by supporting others works anonymously
Brahms was very Germanistic in his compositions composing the most Folk songs of any other Lieder composer- who was the only other composer who came close?
Brahms was well read but he was not overly scholarly… he was known for however for being an amazing what?
editor- he helped Clara edit Roberts work
Did Brahms ever write his own poetry?

He did, but he is not a big word painter, so his poetry was mainly secondary to the music.


How did Brahms feel about melody lines in music?
He felt the simplier it was the better!!!  – He didnt like artificial music OR people.

Did Brahms set his friends works?


yes he did, he set the golden poets, as well as his friends.
Did Brahms compose through composed pieces?
VERY VERY seldom will you find a through composed piece, they were almost all Strophic and FOLK
Did Brahms have a Liederjahr?
No, Brahms was not manic he composed steadily thoughout his life – He had no wife, no children ( except for helping Clara and her kids) so he had no obstacle to combat in order to compose.
Besides Brahms being known as a folk composer what musical trait is Brahms known for using in his music A LOT?
Triads, Rolling triads!  You will hardly ever find a song without rolling triads.  You can remember this by thinking of a B backwards… it looks like a 3 🙂 and a triad is composed of 3 notes!
Wolf did not have his Liederjahr in 1840 so when did he have his?
How long did it take Wolf to set the Morike Lieder? ( Eduard Morike poetry)
He set them in 1 month!!!!! 53 SONGS! IN 4 VOLUMES!!!!  Thats almost 2 songs a day!
How many Eichendorff lieder did Wolf compose?
How many Goethe poetry did Wolf compose?
What was Wolf skilled in doing besides composing? ( socially)
Wolf was particularly skilled in making enemies! However he did have friends who put him up places so he could have peace and quiet to compose. – feed him, provided a place to stay…
Where did Mahler like to take lines from in his instrumental works?
He took them from his own vocal works. – alot of his vocal works like Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen  can be found in his 5th Symphony
How did Romantic composers like Mahler treat the symphonic form?

They payed no heed to symphonic form- They differed in these ways:


Freer form of the internal structure of the movement
           2. Variation on the number of movements
           3. The symphony evolved from a formal design to a creative means of expression
          4. The inner movements had more contrasting keys within them
           5. Solo voices and choral sounds were added to the symphony.

What Mahler a composer primarily?
He was a conductor primarily, and composer second.

What was Mahlers song output?


He put out 40 songs. – He was a star conductor so he was not composing constantly. 
What was Mahlers 1st song cycle?
lieder eines fahrenden gesellen – This is the song cycle about a man seeing his love marry someone else, then having a nice walk remembering her, then has a knife and will use it, the dammit why did I fall for this girl… this is the progression of the cycle.
What two composers focused on FOLK poems?
Mahler and Brahms
Why is Mahlers setting of Des Knaben Wunderhorn important?
Because he is setting someone other them HIMSELF! this is also where he got the first poems for his first song cycle – Lieder eines ferenden gesellen.
Whose poetry did Mahler set the most? and why?
Mahler set his own poems because he felt only HE could express what he wanted to best…. but he did gather from brentano ( Des Knaben Wunderhorn) occasionally
How did a lot of Mahlers songs get away from traditional 19th century lieder form?
Bc they are being orchestrated now and that was traditionally not done with Lieder
What is by and large the end of Lieder?
the end of Lieder came with Wolf, Mahler and Strauss and orchestrating Lieder and making it something way different that what it was in the beginning with Schubert and Schumann. They took these new composing styles and ran with them running Lied off a cliff
Why did Mahler write the Kintertotenlieder? and Where did the poetry come from?
Mahler wrote this because one of his daughters died, however the poetry was actually Ruckerts story of how his 2 children died – it is Ruckerts poetry.  – its very hard to perform because it is very emotional, dark, and hard to balance w/ the orch.
Richard Strauss is known for not only lieder but what else?
Operas- Salome, Elektra, Der Rosenkavalier, and Adriene auf Naxos.  Also Tone poems like don quixote
How did Strauss use his position as the court musician of Berlin to help his family?
He used his status and his dedication to the Nazi to help them get a better image in order to help protect his grandchildren who were jewish
Was Strauss successful in protecting his grandchildren?
No, Letters were intercepted  and the gestapo denounced strauss and his grandchildren were sent to  Theresienstadt concentration camp – the artist camp where they were killed
When were Strauss’s most famous compositions written?

The Four Last Songs were his most famous and it was in his last years of life when his health was failing.; He wrote some dark stuff because he felt – how can we go on after all has been destroyed? – eluding to WW2 aftermath.


He never heard the premiere of his Four Last Songs.

What is Strauss’ Metamorphosen symbolize?
Generally regarded as one of the masterpieces of the string repertoire, Metamorphosen contains Strauss’s most sustained outpouring of tragic emotion. Conceived and written during the blackest days of World War II, the piece is commonly seen as expression of Strauss’s mourning of, among other things, the destruction of German culture – including the bombing of every great opera house in the nation; although this view may not be exactly accurate