What are the main differences between analog and digital audio?
Analog – Smooth, Continuous, variation in Air Pressure.

Digital – Discrete measurements of air pressure (Must deal with numbers).

How do we define Sample Rate? Quantization?
Sample Rate – Number of Amplitude “snapshots” per second.

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Quantization – The measurements of amplitude.

What is quantization error?
Distortion caused by rounding an amplitude.
What amplitudes is Quantization error most significant?
At lower levels.
16-bit resolution has how many quantization intervals?
65,536 (2 to the 16th power)
What is the theoretical dynamic range of 24-bit audio? 20-bit?
16 = 96dB
20 = 120dB
24 = 144dB
What is the maximum digital level called? What is another name?
Full Scale, 0dBfs
Are there any recorded numbers above 0dBfs?
What are the advantages to recording at a higher bit depth?
-Greater Dynamic Range
-Greater Effective resolution
What is Dither? Does it counteract QE?
Adds low-level noise to signal to counteract Quantization Error.
To record a 10k tone digitally, the sample rate must be…?
At the Nyquist frequency there are how many samples per second?
When is the anti-aliasing filter accepted?
-Anti-Imaging filter on output
With Storage calculation, how do we determine bits per second?
Sample Rate x Bit Depth
What is a voice? Do Inactive tracks use voices?
-An audio event OR a pathway to or from storage.
Do Pro Tools’ faders change levels recorded to the hard drive?
Which monitoring mode monitors playback until you record?
Pro Tools LE supports ____ number of Voices?
Monitoring latency is the delay between ____ and _____?
Input, Output
Destructive recording can ‘extend’ whole-file regions? T or F
Quick Punch record uses how many voices on a mono track?
2 voices in Mono, 4 in Stereo
How long does a selection have to be to Loop Record?
1 second
What modifier key allows you to view all loop recorded takes?
Apple (Command) + Click
Can offline regions still be edited? Processed?
Yes, No
What would be the minimum length of a fade?
4 samples
What 3 options are available when linking fades?
Equal power, equal gain, none
20-bit = _______ Quantization Intervals
What is DAE?
Digidesign Audio Engine
What is TDM?
Time Division Multiplexing
What is a bus?
An internal audio path
What is a send?
Routes a copy of signal to output or Bus.
What is an Insert?
Redirects signal to a plug-in or I/O. (Entire signal is processed)
What is “Pre-Fader”?
A copy of the audio is sent before being affected by the track fader or pan.
What is “Post-Fader”?
A copy of the audio is sent after passing through the track fader.
What is a plug-in? Where can they be placed?
-An application within an application.
Can a track’s format be changed after it’s created? Output format?
– Track format CANNOT be changed, Output format, CAN be changed
Do AUX Tracks and Master Faders handle audio?
Yes, They do NOT have audio on them.
How much of the signal does an insert affect?
Why is Cue Mix routing different than routing to an internal effect?
Output feeds the cue box (Which ordinarily uses pre-fader send)
What is the Target button within a plug-in?
The anchor button, used to view multiple windows at once.
How are plug-ins moved and copied?
Apple (Command) + drag to move
Option + Drag to copy