How many songs did Henri Duparc compose and why so few?
Duparc only composed 16 songs, and was so self-critical of his own works that he distroyed and refused publications of his songs until they were perfect.
How does Duparc’s contribution of 16 melodie effect French song?
Even though Duparcs contributions were small, the quality and complexity of his compositions makes him a major contributor to French song.
What are some characteristics of Duparcs melodie?
Duparcs songs are characterized by skillful construction, broad but supple melodic lines, rich harmonic structure, and complex piano accompaniments.
Did Duparc write his songs for a certain voice type?
Yes, Duparc prefered violin type voice capable of fluent, and flexible phrasing and real intensity of tone.
Why/when did Duparc stop composing?
Duparc stopped composing in 1855 bc he was stricken with a nervous disease, loosing his sight – he retired to the country and lived another 45 years without composing.
Who was Duparc influenced by?
Duparc was influenced by Beethoven and Wagner.; However unlike other artists Duparc was not blinded by Wagner- he know Wagner was only part of the “wave” and not the only way to compose.
Were any of Duparcs melodie written for symphonic /orchestration?
yes he wrote 2 works – La vague et la cloche and La Vie anterieure – originally for orchestra
What Duparc known for large intervals or small intervals? What does that say about the ranges of his pieces?
Duparc was known for using large intervals in his music, and that meant for large ranges in his melodie
Did Duparc ever compose any operas?
No he didnt, but he did aspire to be an operatic composer.
Ernest Chausson died in a really crazy way… how did this happen?
He was ridng his bike and went down a large hill and slammed into a wall dying on impact.
Was Chausson a weathly composer or a poor composer?
Chausoon was a very wealthy composer but it came with its downfalls.
What were some downfalls to being a rich composer ( such as Chausson)
People had very little respect for rich composers bc they never had to work – and people thought that diminished a composers credit.
Did Chausson care that other composers didnt take him seriously bc he was a richy?
It bothered Chausson greatly bc he wanted to be taken seriously as a composer.

Knowing Chausson died instantly by slamming into a wall, did he die young or old?

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Chausson died when he was 45 years old, he was very young.
Chausson had a large beautiful salon, what were some advantaged to having this salon?
This drew composers to his salon bc they wanted to premier works even if they didnt take Chausson seriously as a composer; – Debussy, Faure, and Albeniz all came….
What is the progression of the Romance to Melodie?

The Romance was the pastoral strophic french song that preceeded Romanticism and going into Romanticism’s favored song form was the Melodie.
Why was the Raft of Medusa such a problem for the French?
Gericaults’s Raft of Medusa is an over-life-size painting that depicts a moment from the aftermath of the wreck of the French naval frigate At least 147 people were set adrift on a hurriedly constructed raft; all but 15 died in the 13;days before their rescue, and those who survived endured starvation, dehydration, cannibalism and madness. The event became an international scandal, in part because its cause was widely attributed to the incompetence of the French captain perceived to be acting under the authority of the recently restored French
What is used in alot of French paintings to show energy and romanticism?
The shape of a triangle is seen in alot of romantic paintings.
Charles Baudelaire was obessed with what poet?
Edgar Alan Poe
Who is considered the Father of French Modernism and even coins the phrase?
Charles Baudelaire
How was Charles Baudelaire’s use of evocation different?
Meanings did not always mean what they seemed to mean …
in 1811 Baudelaire published what and why was it so shocking?
Baudelaire published Le Fleurs de Mal and it dealt with the subjects of decadence and eroticism.  It was something not previously published or talked about.  It featured Lesbianism, Gays, Satan, and sex without shame… He was prosecuted and fined for indecency. 
How do the Parnassians and the Symbolists differ?

Parnassians wanted exactness, form, fact, and found romantic poetry excessively emotional. Parnassians also thought that poetry should not be about political expression and favored classical form, and mythology. 


Symbolists wanted truths that could be evoked though symbols, They also didnt like pricision and objectivity.  Wanted the poems to be about “ME”.  They love puns, and assigned specific meanings and qualities to things. Symbolist goals was to give an expression of an idea rather than a result

What were the symbolist poets the seed of?
Who was the biggest symbolist influence?
What inspired Paul Verlaine  to be a poet?
Verlaine read Fleur du Mal when he was young and decided he wanted to be a symbolist poet.
What kind of a guy was Velaine?
Verlaine was a tricky guy, loved absenthe, was passionate, and married a woman even though he was a homosexual.
What did Verlaine do with his lovers that lead to an imprisonment?
He left his wife for his male lover, but when he goes away with his lover he gets in a fight with him and shoots him and is imprisoned.  – His poem “Du Prison” is really from prison…
What was Paul Verlaines most important work?
Fete-Galant – 1869
How many periods of composition does Faure have?
Faure has 3 periods of compositions
Who was Faures first publisher?


2 collections: Nell, Nose Disparant, Lydia, and Le Parfum en parisable

What was Faures first published song??
Le Papillon et le Fleur ( The Butterfly and the Flower)

Who were the poets Faure was setting most often?


French Romantic poets such as Gautier, Hugo, and Lamertine


After Fleur du Mal – Baudelaire, Le Conte Lilles, and Sylvestre


Verlaine starts the Second Period.

What was the first Verlaine poem Faure set?
Claire du Lune ( which also started the second period)
it is said _____ is a master at capturing poetry as a whole, and _____ is a master at capturing every word and line….
1. Faure, 2.Debussy
Are Cinq Melodie du Venice about Venice?

Nope, it is just an idea Faure got while in Venice – All from Verlaines Fete Galant



En Sourdine




What did meeting Verlaine do to Faure?
Meeting Verlaine changed Faures style
What did Fraggonaire paint?
Pastels, Highlights, Paints sensual paintings – Lady on swing
What does 20, 19, 18 mean to you? in relation to painters, poets and artist?
This was the time that 20th Century painters were evoking 19th century poets evoking 18th century artists
What is Fete galant based on?

Fete Galant is based on Watteaus Painting- “L’embarquement pour Cythere”


People hanging out in trees, by the water, on the hill… different classes…

Faure is considered the French version of what German composer?

Faure is considered the French version German Robert Schumann


How is Faure different than other French composers of his time period?
Faure was different because he stayed on his own trajectory for all 60 years of composing… he didnt let other outside groups or styles influence his music majorly… he understood there was more than one way to write.


What is Faure’s view on poetry?

Faure was more interested in the over all mood of the poetry then the individual notes and words.
What was Faure’s love life like?
Faure was unhappily married and had lots of affairs. He wanted to marry Barda but Married Debussy…
During Faure’s first period who was he setting as far as poets? specific poets?
Faure was setting parnassians and no big sets… He was setting. Laconte Lilles, Hugo, and Grand Mougin – and the TAIL end he sets Verlaine
What is Faures second period known as??
His Verlaine Period
What Claire du Lune part of a set or was it free standing?
it was Free standing
How many sets of Verlaine poems does Faure set?
17 Verlaine poems were set by Faure, and it makes about 17 percent of his output.
What is the deal with Spleen?  How is it set compared to Debussy?

Spleen was a melancholy or bad temper feeling – so to have spleen was to carry your temper or melancholy


Debussy set the poem Spleen, but called it by its first line- Il Pluet don mon coeur and Faure called it Spleen even though Verlain NEVER named his poem Spleen


Debussy sets Verlaine’s poem and calls it Spleen as well to add to the confusion…


Whose music was quoted as the music and text being a marriage of convinience
Faure’s music
How were the harmonic ranges in Faures and Debussy’s music different?
Faure convered a smaller harmonic range while Debussy covered more of the whole range.

What set of songs did Faure write with joy over his marriage to Matilda?


He wrote Le Bonne Chansons – ( this is also the tail end of the Verlaine period or 2nd period)
Faures last period is what compared to the first 2?
Faures last period was more panned down and elisive.   Even though Avant Garde is in full swing he is not into it. He is more for himself and less for the singer.
What was Faures last big cycle?
His last big cycle or project was Le Jardin Clos.
What happened to the Victorian standard when Debussy starting composing?

The evolution of morality – they were turning thier back on the victorian standard – Example- Solome (opera) and The Turning of the Screw ( Literary) – Symbolism gave rise to the evolution.


Does Debussy use Faure as a model for composing?
NO< Debussy does not use Faure style- as his predecessor – he is a revolutionary of his time. 
What was the reaction to Debussy’s music when it was first heard?
they thought it was interesting… but odd.
Does Debussy come from a musical family?
No, his family did not  have any musical talent
Who introduced Claude to the piano? and why?

Debussy was introduced to the piano when he was sent to live with his aunt because his dad was sent to jail. 



How was Debussy  “related” to Verlaine’s mother in law?
Debussy went to Paris when he was 10 years to study with Madame Motier – Verlaines Mother in LAW 🙂
What kid of student was Debussy?
Debussy was top in his class at Harmony, piano, solfege, and his conservatory at age 10!!  He was an ACE sight reader
How did Claude gain his Russian Influences?

When Claude was 17 years old he went with Meck a Wealthy Russian patroness,  to meet the Russian Greats. 


With Meck, he went all over Russia and hears Boris Gounov and from those sounds – blossomed Pelas and Mellisant



Why was a big reason Claude Debussy choose to become a composer after he went touring around in Russia?
He got to experience the “Rich” life and thougth that if he continued on this path that he could be RICHHHH from composing… silly claude…. lol
What is the first thing that Debussy starts doing after he starts composing to pay the bills and how does that connect him to Moreau?

Claude starts playing for voice studios to pay his bills and plays for Moreaus voice studio. 


When he publishes his first song he dedicates it to Moreau.

What is Nuit D’etoile in relation to Debussy?
Nuit D’etoile is Claude Debussys first published song. – this song is not typically Debussy but  he is still shaping his output.

How many songs did Debussy write? and how do these songs span his life?


Debussy wrote 85 songs and his songs spalled his whole life. 

How are Debussys works catalogued?


Hint: They werw catalogued by Lesure

The works are catalogued by L’s

Debussy set 85 songs… but how many poets did he set?


Also… what kind poets are they?

Claude set a total of 23 poets


He set Symbolist poets in early works ( Bouget, Mallarme, and Verlaine


In his maturity he classicises old poets ( D’orleons, Villon, D’hermite, Beaudlaire, and also set himself!!! – Prose lyric works….

What kind of an composer did Debussy think of himself as?
Debussy thought of himself as a Symbolist.  Symbolism wasnt the only thing he composed but it dominated his asthetic.
Who set Fete Galant first? Debussy or Faure?
Debussy set Fete Galant BEFORE Faure.
Who is Marie-Blanche Vasnier?
Marie- Blance Vasnier was a voice student of Moreau and he fell in love with her.  He spent alot of time at Moreaus library adn that is where he discovered Fete Galant.
Faure was 15 years older than Debussy so did they ever go in the same circles?
While they did exist in teh same world but they never were in the same circles.
How long does debussy’s affair with Vasnier last? What breaks up the affair?
The affair lasts for 8 years and when he goes to Prix de Rome – After his stay in Rome, they break it off.
Debussy’s first set was dedicated to Moreau, but it was really meant for who?

He dedicated it to his teacher, moreau, but it was really meant for Vasnier.  It was less taboo to do that considering she was married.


Debussys first Verlaine setting was what?
Fantoches – Marrionettes – not as a set but settings from Fete-Gallant

When Debussy was submitting pieces to the Prix de Rome and won everything except first- when was his first – first place win and what piece was it?
He finally won with L’enfant Infinite – The Protical Song in 1885
What is the only church music that Debussy liked? particular composer?
The only church music composer that Debussy likes is Palestrina
How did Debussy react when he heard Wagner? Where did he first hear Wagner?
Debussy first heard Wagner on his way back from the Prix du Rome.  He LOVED Wagners compositions.
in 1889 Debussy goes to the first worlds fair and he is introduced to what?
He attends the worlds fair and this is where he first hears spanish music- Cante Jondo- and where he is first introduced to Japanese Gavalon
Why is it important that Claude Debussy heard the Japanese Gavalon??
Through the Japanese Gavalon is where Clause hears the Equal Tempered Pentatonic scale. 
After a friend suggests to Debussy that he goes to met Mallarme he does and also meets whom?
Erik Satie in 1895

After he composes “Prelude Faune” he does what ?? ( love drama…)


He annouces his engagement to Terese Roger
What is it such a big deal that Debussy annouces his enagement to Roger?

Debussy had been having an affair with with Dupont and when he annoucned he was going to marry Roger – Dupont goes a little crazy and stands int he Place du Concord and shoots herself after Dubussy breaks up with her.


However Dupont doesnt die… and they get back together…

After Debussy is done with Dupont… He meets _________
Lily Textier and MARRIES HER… good lord… ( Erik Satie was a witness)
Debussy is a classic womanizer so after he marries Lily, he meets who though his piano student Raoul Bardoc?
Raoul introduced Debussy to Emma Bardoc his mother and he goes CRAZY FOR HER… ( even though he is married and so is she to a rich banker)
What happens to lily when he sends her to take care of her sick pa? ( and he goes on holiday with Bardoc…)
He announces to lily that he is going to divorce her and she SHOOTS HERSELF!
Bardoc had a daugher… what is so controversial about the kid?
Bardoc has a daughter …. but the kid could have been Faures kid or Debussys… Emma Claude could be eithers child… but was thought to have been Debussys
WWI starts and Claude gets sick with what?
Claude had the one of the first recorded cases of Rectal cancer
Claude gets very depressed later in life and dies in 1918… What happens right after he dies to his daughter?
She dies at the age of 13 from Diptheria right after Claude.
Who was a big fan of Poe?
Debussy was a big fan of Poe and even wrote a libretto for “The Fall of the House of Usher”
Claude never thought he had composed what?? Even though he composed operas, songs, and instumental works?
He thought he never composed a “masterpiece”
What are some controversial aspects of Bilities?

Bilities was a set of poetry written by Louys – and it was a made up greek history – Faux poetry-  the poetry was gay and lesbian themes,


Not sure if Debussy KNEW the poetry was faux but some thing he might of even encouraged it


Why was it important to know that Debussy set 3 Songs of France by Charles D’Orleans??
Because at this time everyone was setting new poems and wanted new poems… he was setting 15 century poems….

Who influenced Debussy to set older poets


Erik Satie was a influence on Debussy to set older poets.
What set of poems did Debussy and Ravel set? and who set it first? Did Debussy know?

in 1913 Ravel sets Trois Poems du Stephane Mallarme

so he sets it first, but they set a different 3rd song.   ( at this time claude was very sick)

Which last song of Debussy was particularly dark?

Noel des enfant qui n’ont plus de maison (1915)


Paris is a different place during the way….


( christmas for chidren who have no home)

Did Ravel want to emulate Debussy?
Ravel had a great respect for Debussy but did not want to emulate him, but respect him
Opposite of Debussy, Ravels love life was very boring! He said his love was what?
Who was Young Ravel obsessed with??? He wanted a Q and A with him SO badly….
Erik Satie

Who did Ravel Champion even though he was kinda hot and cold about it?


Erik Satie
Ravel was interested in Debussys modal employement but not what?
Ravel did not take on Symbolist poetry
Ravel was a great instrumentalist and transcriber – who did he criticize?

He criticized Debussys ability to orchestrate.


AND after finding out about Debussys love life and lily and Bardoc…. Ravel says- forget you…

When Ravel went to the Worlds Fair  he really grasped the Spanish music  – why was he taken more seriously using the spanish music then others?
Because he was half Spanish- Mother was Basque it gave him more credit
Ravel died in a strange and horrible way- explain…

Ravel was in an accident and suffered a blow to the head… but did not die. Months later he starts to lose brain function and goes to the doc to do experimental brain surgery…and DIES! 🙁



The royalities to Ravels estate and music were left to who since Ravel didnt have any children and was never married?
Ravel left his estate/pub/and rights to his brother who leaves them to his  chauffer- and that mans family has lived off of Ravels work and still does until it entered the public domain!
What does Ravel consider herself – style

He considered himself a Classicist


He loved mozart, Massanet, BUT he does embrace the new modes – etc of the time

What groups where the modes most closely associated with?
The modes were most closely associated with the Parnassians and the Symbolists
Ravels first song has something in the song that he loved?? what was the song and what was it that he loved?

His first song song was Ballade de la reine morte d’aimer

(Ballade of the queen who died of love) – in 1893 – and he LOVED bells… they are EVERYWHERE in the accompaniment of this song.

How long did it take Ravel to find his style??
Ravel found his style right away
Ravels output has two parts… was the first or second part fertile?
the second was more fertile.
Is Reynaldo Hahn really French?
NOPE! he was born in Caracas, Venezula. – Still considered nationalistic  French composer.  He did live nearly his entire life in Paris ( 3 yrs old when he did moved)
What is a composer that had heavy influence on Hahn?
Massenet is a big influence and can be heard in Si mes vers avaient des Ailes ( hugo)
What was one thing that helped Hahn establish his career and reputation in the city?
He had a very good voice and it enabled him to accompany himself on the piano!! he could go anywhere and do anything… with this talents!
Who was the poet who helped Hahn gain greater understanding of poetry?
Proust  helped Hahn find deep appreciation and understanding of poetry
What were some poets that Hahn particularly liked?
Huho, Gautier, and Verlaine
What did Hahn want the words to do in his music?
Hahn wanted the words to speak for themselves – he created musical phrasing and gestures that allowed for that.  – like repetitive structures – EX: L’Autome, Le Printemps – ( Fall, Spring)
What did Hahn have to do with the Paris Opera?
Hahn was a conductor and impersario at the Paris Opera
Who did Hahn favor? ( composer)
Mozart- he even composed a musical comedy on his life- and includes mozartian bits on his own music.
What is Le Belle Epoque?

The Beautiful Era – This was the end of the Frano-Prussian War, and was during the 3rd republic. 


it was a period characterised by optimism and new technological and medical discoveries. The Belle Époque was named in retrospect, when it began to be considered a “golden age when compared to the horrors of World War I.


What is Cubism and who pioneered it?

Cubism – was an art movement that changed the painting world in 1907.  They took subjects and used a variety of ways to view it.  Art work that defines cubism- Dames D’Avignon –


It was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Geroge Braque

What is Art Nouveau?

A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants but also in curved lines.


Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment. It is also considered a philosophy of design of furniture, which was designed according to the whole building and made part of ordinary life

What is Dadaism- why was it so different?

Dadaisn was a movement and it was a reaction to WWI –
It was an anti-art, and anti-destructive art.  Its purpose was to ridicule the meaninglessness of the modern world as its participants saw it


Example: Marchel Duchamps “Fountain” ( urinal)

Who is Man Ray?

He was an american immersed in Dadaism and surrealism.  – He met Duchamp and thats when the interest in Dada exploded.


Was known for his work with Glass Tears in photography.


Was known for his art with the Rayograph, using light sensitive paper to create art with shadows.


He was known for using mediums in ways they havent been used before.

Surrealism composers were a hybrid of what?

Modern and Neoclassic style


Paris at 1900-1950 was what?

a hodgepodge of new things! Surrealism grew out of dadaism and people were putting things together that normally didnt go together!


EX: Saties Parade- Blocky cardboard costumes on ballet dancers!

What is Fauvism?
Fauvism was animalistic thick painting, crazy colors…. Vangough, and Gogan were Fauvists.
What is Automaticisim?
Spontanious writings without sensoring thoughts- freudian theorys
Who coined the phrase surrealism?
Appolonaire. –
What is Surrealism?

Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact.


Best know surrealist artist- Max Ernst – Elephant

leader of movement was Andre Breton


Combined dada elements and others to create dreamlike landscapes.

Who is Adrienne Monnier? Why was she imporant to French song


In 1915 when she opened her bookshop called “La Maison des Amis des Livres” at 7 rue de l’Odéon, Adrienne Monnier was among the first women in France to found her own book store.


French writers and poets frequented her books stores tieng her to music

Who is Sylvia Beach and who is she in relation to Adrienne Monnier?

Sylvia Beach was an American who came to Paris during WWI.  She owned a bookshop across the street from Adrienne Monnier – they later became partners- they did english/French translations of Hemmingway and EE Cummings.


These two shops of Beach and Monnier were the heart of Paris in the Lit. world. 

Jean Cocteau was best known as what??
He was know as a poet primarily… but he also was a novelist, modern painter, – a kinda jack of all trades.
What did Cocteau organize?

Les Six.


Since he could not compose like the other amazing members of Les Six… he organized it.

Cocteau didnt from Les Six… but he was like the cool uncle that took it over when the Granfather left… who was the GF??
Erik Satie was the Grandfather of Les Six.
Cocteau is the writer of the scenario for Parade…. was it used the way he wrote it?
no, it was revised and pulled apart even though it is still credited to him .
Poulenc was agaisnt what?
He was agaisnt formalism
Who was the most prolific member of Les Six
Did Poulenc favor chromatisism or Diatonic writing>?
Diantonic writing and pandiatonicism
What is pandiatonicism?
pandiatonicism refers to the technique of using the diatonic (as opposed to the chromatic) scale without the limitations of functional tonality. Pandiatonic music typically uses the notes of the diatonic scale freely in dissonant combinations without conventional resolutions and/or without standard chord progressions, sometimes to the extent that no single pitch is felt as a tonic.
Did Poulenc indend to be the center of French song? did he strive for that?
No, he didnt do it intentionally, but he ended up sitting in the center of it.
Poulenc met Bernac and they were really closer friends, what caused thier friendship to crumble for a while?
When Poulenc composed – The Naughty Songs – Bernac could not handle the subject matter of the poetry, it was brash in some spots and not appropriate in Bernacs eyes.
What was the point of maturity for Poulenc?
Poulenc came into his maturity was when he deidcated works to Bernac, performing with his partner, and coming into his spirituallity in 1939
When German invaded and took over Paris what did Poulenc do??
Poulenc STAYED in Paris when other left. He was privatley political.
All the poets that Poulenc set were not widely known what is a lesser known composer that he set? When did he set them?
He composed Lorca sets during teh Nazi Occupation
What did Bernac say Poulencs greatest gift was?
His melodic sense and ability to resonate text – Bernac said was his greatest gift!
Poulenc said the treatment of text should be a marraige of what?
love and not convienence.
Poulencs output is known to span what types of styles?
He is said to span stylistic to bafoonery. 
What is poulenc known for in his music? as far as tempo, dynamics… etc.

He always indicates tempo and seldom changes tempo- Hotel is an example of the unchanging tempo.


He does use crecendos – but uses more block dynamics – loud here… soft here.. no changing.


Very often uses repeated chords.

What is so unique about Poulencs Rhapsodie Negre besides it being his first song.
 It was made up of an imaginary language.
Poulenc’s Le Beastiare are about what? and who is the poet

Le Beast are short pieces about animals.  The poet is appollinare.


Duree also sets some of these but Poulencs compositions always overshadow Durees

What does Johnson call Poulencs compostion set Rosand?
He said they were over intellectual and too smary pants!
What was Poulencs first Couteau set called…. appropriatly
What did Poulenc write as a joke, but ended up being taken seriously?

Air Chante with poetry by Moreas


He didnt like the kind of poems and they ended up being well recieved even though they were made as a joke

What was funny about Troid Poems de Louis Llame?

1 and 3 were written by Appollionare but 2 was written by his MISTRESS!


Poulenc did not know either!