independent action/thought
a ninteenth century movement that stressed national identity. IN music, this led to the creation of works in native languages, using national myths and legends, and incorporating local rhythms , themes, and melodies.
the tendency to display emotion
a performing musician who is outstandingly gifted.
public concerts
people shifted to this instead of aristocratic patronage.
program music
instrumental music that tells a story or describes a picture or a scene.
opera, sympohinic poem overture, ballet
growth of orchestra
Favorite genres
symphony, sonata, concerto, chamber music, overtures, symphonic poem
MIniature forms
are songs (lieder), character pieces (piano)
Franz Schubert
son of a schoolmaster, composed 143 songs by the age of 19, like mozart, never secured a permanent position, died young and in poverty. HIs music combines ideals of form and structure with song-like, lyrical melodies.
absolute music
the term for music that has no meaning outside the meaning of the music itself and the feelings it produces in its listeners
Frederic Chopin
Born and educated in poland, spen his professional life in Paris as virtuoso pianist, performed for slon gathering rather than in concert halls, associated with Parisian literati, especially George Sand wrote almost exclusivley for piano, one movement character pieces3 piano sonata 2 piano concertos ,extended piano technique and the technique of pianists tjrpugh use of chromoatism, elaborate melodies, bold and colorful harmonies, dissonance, unusual modulations, rubato
Felix Mendelssohn and Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel
Brother and sister came from welathy and educated German Family, home was a gathering place for musicians and intellectuals, widley traveled, excellent education in the arts, encouraged to develop their talens as somposers and performers.

Felix: Famous as pianist, conductor composer, his works combine classic ideals and form and structure with romantic, emotionally expressive melodies; also revived interest int he music of JS bach Piano and violin concertos and organ mucis

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Fanny- prolific composer and skilled pianist, encourage to develop her talents but not to become a professional musician or to publish her works, nevertheless composed over 400 pieces: mostly songs and piano pieces also oratorios, cantatas, vocal and instrumental chamber music.

Robert Schuman
at first attended law school then practiced to become concert pianist. INjured his right hand, then devoted his life to music composition and to writing for the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, his essays and reviews an important force in Romantic music- among the first to recognize Chopin and Brahms

Piano pieces often grouped together in cycles

Clara Wiek Schumann
birn into a musical family given a musical education married Robert who encouraged her gifts as a conert pianist composer and teacher. Influential figure in 19th C music as performer, daughter, wifem friend and confidante of Johannes Brahms. She wrote: songs, choral music chamber music and piano pieces including a piano conerto
Johannes Brahm
born in Hamburg, Germany MOVED to Vienna where he spent the rest of his life, made his living as composer pianist, friend of both Shumanns, Brahms music is traditional in form and orchestation, romantic in empotional expresiveness, filled with rish drak sonorities. Sonatas for piano, violin, cello, and clarinet, Choral preludes, German requiem
Gustav Mahler
late romantic composer, made his living as a conductor: vienna opera house, New york Met, New york Philharmonic. He wrote 9 symphnoieds 5 song cycles for solo voices and orchestra, his works require huge orchestras, call for adventurous instrumental combinations; importance of song song melodies and choral parts in insturmental works
Hector Berlioz
important in the growth and development of the orchestra, wrote a very influential treatise on Orchestration. He wrote orchestral music, operas, and choral music; most famous pieces; symphonic fantastique – idee fixe and his requiem requires a vast orchestra : 140 players, including 4 brass choirs, 4 tam-tams, 10 pair cymbals, 16 tympani + large chorus; music noted for color and stmosphere
Franz Liszt
born in Hungary, son of an official of the Exterhazy family; became famous as a virtuoso pianist (age 11); as Court Music Director at Weirmar conducted performances of new music and supported new composers (Wagner, Grieg many others) several well-publicized affairs with high-born ladies added to his fame, as well as honors from citiess and princes all over Europe. Influences: Hungarian heritage, piano training in Vienna , life in Paris, the virtuosity of Paganini- wanted to expand the technical limits of the piano, both in his playing and his compositions. He wrote: music for Piano: transcriptions, etudes, HUangarian dances, tone paintings, concertos; for orchestra: 2 programmatic symphonies (Faust, Dante) 12 symphonies poems, hungarian rhapsodies; organ works; choral works
Richard Wagner
German composer, involved in political movements of the time. MOst famous as composer of Opera: Music Drama: a total art form for which he wrote both libretto and musical score and designed scenery- many based on German or Norse mythology. 2 important characteristics: 1) music is continuous throughout the opera and 2) use of “leitmotifs”- themes associated with characters and dramatic themes. Important operas: Lohengrin, Trannhauser, Flying Dutchman, tristan and isolde, Parsidal, the Ring Cycle PAtron : King Ludwing II of Bavaria
Richard Strauss
late Romantic composer especially known for his elaborate and colorful orchestration, Symphonic poems (most written before the 1900) and opera (most written after 1900) – greatly influenced by Berlioz liszt.
began study of composition at St. Petersburg Conservatory, appointed Professor of Composition at the Moscow conservatory at age 25, was able to retire from tewaching and devoted his life to composition. Famous Russian composer. Music influenced by Italian Opera, French Ballet, German symphonies, as well as Russian folk songs and melodies, both nationalistic and international, chracterized by beautiful melodies, striking contrasts of mood and color, passionate emotions. MOst well known compositions: violin and piano concertos, 6 symphonies, swan lake, sleeping beauty, nutcracker, romeo and juliet
Russian Five
“the might handful”
Cesar Cui: music circit and composer; 14 operas, 4 of those for children
Mily Balakirev: tone poems ( Russia) piano music (Islamey)
Alexander Borodin: Opera “Prince Igor” Polovetsian Dances.
Modeste Moussorgsky: symphonic fantasy “NIght on Bald Mountain” Opera “Boris Godunov” Set of piano pieces “Pictures at an Exhibition”
Nicolas Rimsky-Kosakov: Symphonic suite ” Schherezarde” “Russian Easter overture” genius for orchestration
Bedrish Smetana
“My fatherland” includes “the moldau”
Antonin Dvorak
Slavonic Dances, 9 symphonies, Concertos, Chamber Music. Choral Music: masses Requiem
Edvard Grieg
sponsored by Fanz Liszt- Peer Gynt Suites, Norwegian Dances, Piano Concerto in A minor
Sergei Rachmaninoff
pianist and composer; wrote Piano conertos, symphonies, Symphonic poem ” Isle of the dead” Choral music (sacred music for Russian Liturgy)
wind instruments
the lack of a key system or tonal center in music
the advance group in any field, esp. in the visual, literary, or musical arts, whose works are characterized chiefly by unorthodox and experimental methods.
form of jazz that developed in the 1940s for small combos, with harder, more improvisatory music.
Big Band
also known as the Swing era, with large bands
two different keys sounding simultaneously
Blue note
flattened or bent note played or sung in jazz
a form, a sound, and a spirit all at the same time. it bagan as a type of vocal music that crystallized in the 1890s from many elements, African American spirituals work songs and street cries
Chance Music
at opposite extreme from totally controlled serial music- allows performer to make choices in performance: sounds, silence, improvised passages
character pieces
short programmatic piece usually for solo piano
sting instruments
Instrumental work, usually three movements, highlighting contrast. Baroque conertos were usually written in the pattern fast-slow-fast, featuring ritornello form.
New Orleans jazz, every instrument in a dixieland band has a specific function. the sound of Dixieland jazz is of many lines inter weaving in a complex but organized way. The effect is of collective improvisation but with every instrument having a carefully defined role.
solo instrumental piece focusing on a particular aspect of technique
artistic and musical movement focusing on extreme emotions, such as fear or anguish
scrapes and gong type instruments
movement in painting of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in which the outlines are vague and the pictures dreamy and suggestive.
drum instruments
musical style of the 1960s to the 1990s involving very limited materials, constant repetition and very gradual change
minstrel Shows
in which white performers wore blackface makeup and imitated African-American songs, dances and humore
musique concrete
utalizes acousmatic sound as a compositional resource
system of melodic organization used in music of Middle ages and early renaissance. There are four main medieval modes, designating pieces ending on D,E,F, and G respectivley
musique concrete
utalizes acousmatic sound as a compositional resource
music drama
term coined by Wagner to refer to his operas, which involve ancient myth, resonant poetry and rich dramatic music
a 19th century movement that stressed national identity. In music, this led to the creation of works in native languages, using national myths and legends, and incorporating local rythms, themes and melodies
composers adopted ideas not only form the Classical period but also from the Baroque era. Harmonies are modern, accompanying figures are new, phrase-lengths are irregular, and the rythm is lively bouncy even a little quirky
moody, introspective piece usually for solo piano
oral tradition
the practice of passing music (or other aspects of culture) orally from one generation to another
constantly repeated musical phrase
an instrumental introduction in three short movements, fast-slow-fast
pentatonic scale
a scale with 5 notes; the most common form has the following intervals: whole step, whole step, minor third, whole step.
different meters sounding simultaneously
music with more than one line souding at the same time
artistic movement of the early 20th century concentrating on nonurban cultures and untamed nature
prepared piano
piano has objects placed in its strings to make different sounds John Cage
early jazz in which the melody is highly syncopated, usually in duple meter and march tempo.
is a group of notes arranged in an ascending or descending order.
to sing with made-up syllables
structurally the same thing as a minuet but a scherzo is usually much faster and more vigorous than a minuet
the twelve ton technique
technique of singing halfway between speech and song
literary movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries concentrating on suggestion rather than description
Symphonic Poem
programmatic orchestral work in one movement
orchestral work, usually in four movements the first being moderate in tempo, the second slow, the third a minuet or a scherzo and the fourth fast
tin pan alley
folky music
tone cluster
total serialism
twelve tone technique when it arranged the notes into a series
twelve tone system
20th C. compositional technique in which the composer treats all twelve pitches as equal and uses them in a highly organized way.
a theoretical genre of variety entertainment
whole tone technique
32 bar song form AABA
one of the basic patterns of both jazz and popular song
12 bar blues AAB
has three lines of verse with the second line being a repeat of the first
modal system
basis of music during the middle ages
quartal haromony
based on fourths