There was a slacker ethos that was part of 90s culture
People that may have dropped out or even graduated from school but have decided to barely make it by . living paycheck to paycheck with a certain youthfulness, not caring about the world.
Ex: Movie called “Slacker” and “Dazed and Confused”
9/11 (musical response to
This music was in favor of the war effort, more so than Vietnam War
Toby Keith “Courtesy of the Red, White, and Blue (The Angry American)” (2002)
– Incredibly patriotic. Lyrics go from universal to personal
– Reminiscent of “Ballad of the Green Berets”
– Filled with righteous anger. Song resonated with many, at the time.
– Rock influenced country
Bright Eyes “When the President Talks to God” (2005)
– Insisting, unrelenting feeling you get from this protest song
– The Bob Dylan style; form: strophic with refrain, no distinct chorus
– Exponentially aggravated person.
– Direct attack of George Bush, accusing him of being a zealot
– Harsh critique
a new song created by combining elements of two (or more) existing songs, often (but not always) the vocal part of one and the instrumental part of the other
o A+B Mashup
? Ex. The Police “every breath you take” + Ben E. King “stand by me”= “standy by me.” C. ccc
o Underground, amateurs, done without permission from artists
o Typically two different genres that seem to go together “genre clash”
o Girl Talk
“quodlibet,” Latin for “as you please,” or more loosely, “anything goes.”
Revivalism (also known as recycling):
—revivalists culture, recreate msuic by theory, style and type of vintage equipment used
mixing of genres is fine, electicism is a new expectation

has become important due to advances in technology ? recreating sounds of the past
o Post-punk Revival:
? Examples: Interpol
? Influences: Joy Division
? Interpol “Hands Away”
• Post-punk atmosphere
o Disco Revival
? Dancing Music
? Examples: Lady Gaga
? Influences: bee Gees, Giorgio Moroder, Donna Summers
? Lady Gaga “Just Dance” 2008
o Neo-garage
? Examples: The White Stripes
? Influences: The Kingsmen, the sonics, British Invasion Bands
? Play: The White Stripes. “Seven Nation’s Army”
o Neo-soul/R&B
? Examples: Alicia Keys,
? Influence: Stevie Wonder, Barry White, James Brown
? Play: Alicia Keys, “fallin” (2001)

A super group takes individuals who are already well known from different groups and puts them together into one group
describe “a rock music group whose performers are already famous from having performed individually or in other groups.”[1][2] Supergroups tend to be short-lived, often lasting only for an album or two. Additionally, supergroups are often formed as side projects that are not intended to be permanent.

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Ex. Dead Weather I Cut Like a Buffalo

a south African form of music, literally translating to cornbread because everyone likes it and its for everyone. Used in Paul Simon’s “Graceland” on his travels to South Africa when there was a US ban on traveling there because of apartheid. Simon made many south African musicians popular by collaborating with them and demonstrating world music.
Thrash Metal
Form of Heavy Metal, Thrash metal- fast, but characterized by chugging guitar sound, and a double kick drum, low riffs with the Big Four: Megadeth, Metallica, Slayer, Anthraxand
Ex. Metallica One 1989
Double kick drum (used in Metallica, “One”)-
Kick drum with two pedals that allow for faster beats with the bass drum and can even seem to do a drumroll

Thrash metal

Metallic one 1989

Emerged in mid 1980s (sometimes referred to as the Seattle sound)
Headed up by Nirvana
Connected with local scenes and Seattle
• Most famous groups, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Sound Garden
• DIY sensibilities
• Punk aesthetic
• Loud distorted guitars
• Simple repeated patterns
• Heavy drums and base
• Changing dynamics, soft to loud sections
• Changing tempos
• Base heavy sounds
• Connected with a network of underground bands
• Disassociate themselves from major labels
• Smaller, independent labels
Emerged in 1980s, widely popular by 1990s
• A loose, catch-all term describing a variety of different rock subgenres in the late 1980s and through the 1990s
• Given that it is called alternative, it is defined as much by what it isn’t as what it is
• Seen as an alternative to the mainstream; an alternative to commercial rock, an alternative to slick, overproduced music, an alternative to fakeness
• Influenced by the DIY mentality and stripped-down sensibilities of punk
• Often drawn to independent labels rather than the “majors”; often called “indie rock” (though the terms aren’t exactly synonymous)
• Encompasses a wide array of sounds: Nirvana, R.E.M., the Violent Femmes, Radiohead, and so on
• Reaction to pop metal, hair metal, pop, Michael Jackson, whitney Houston
• Although most groups were reacting to these people, they ended up becoming main-stream and in

Ex. Nirvana Smells like teen spirit 1991

Pop (as opposed to rock) –
Pop music is a genre formed in 1950’s as a softer alternative to rock’n’roll. In 80’s, Pop utilized key technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes developing with rock. Musically, incorporated funk and disco influences and frequent use of synthesizers.
Pop music was also communicated largely through the mass media, including radio, film, TV and, particularly since the 1980s,
Ex: Prince “1999” (1983)
Pop Superstar
– a musician who pushes and expanded the barriers and limitations of mainstream. Prince, Madonna, Tina Turner, Whitney Houston, and MJ used many complex styles to create their own distinctive genre. Household names with hits on top charts and wide ranging fan base.
Ex: Billie Jean Michael Jackson 1982
phenomena in music that creates a melting pot of stylistic influences in typically different markets. Example: Pop and R, Pop and Classical, etc. Legacy of Michael Jackson was that he not only musically crossed over, but also crossed the line of demographics, race, and transcended gender.
Ex: Michael Jackson “Billie Jean” (1982)
– went of air August 1, 1981. The emergence of cable in the late 70’s followed by increase of channels. First channel devoted 24hrs a day to playing music videos. Music television challenged the radio –> “Video Killed the Radio Star.” More emphasis on visual spectacles, it valued talented dancers, such as Madonna, Whitney Houston and MJ. Also valued the pretty untalented singers.
• There are two opposing theories: MTV would not have been as big of success without MJ, and vice versa.
• Milli Vanilli Scandal (German duo group using new technology caught lip-synching at live MTV event)
Ex: Michael Jackson “Thriller” (1983)
World Music
I wasn’t in class for these notes, but here’s a Wikipedia quote:
“World Music is the traditional music or folk music of a culture that is created and played by indigenous musicians that is closely related to the music of the regions of their origin. The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown who coined it in the 1960s. [2] The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry, and it is generally used to classify any kind of non-Western music.” Common instruments include “the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo.”
Paul ISmon influence by south african music , The boy in the bubble 1986
Jam Band
A Jam Band is a concept that can be applied to most any musical group or genres that can perform their music live. Founded in the 1960 groups such as Grateful Dead that thrived in their live performances of psychedelic rock the tradition has continued throughout the years as seen in Phish and similar bands of recent years. The most distinguishing feature of a jam band is the use of extended musical improvisations (or jams) throughout the song that allows the artists to explore rhythmic grooves and chord patterns throughout long sets of music.

Example: Phish: “Stash” (1995)

In relation to popular, mainstream music, independent or “indie” music is a term used to describe the group’s disassociation with major commercial record label and commercialism. Embodying a “Do-it-Yourself” approach to recording and publishing, the indie approach opens up many avenues of self expression and can be applied to any genre from folk to electronica. Indie artists operate under the desire to control the music they produce without record-labels getting in the way, indicating that they would rather sacrifice sales or profit in order to see their more experimental and self expressive music enter the market purely for the sake of art and experimentation of the artform.
Example: Bright Eyes: “When the President Talks to God” (2005)
Independent record labels (e.g., Merge, Sub Pop, Righteous Babe
Independent record labels are the companies that represent their indie artists. In accordance with the indie approach, Independent Record Labels strive for minimal influence upon their artists, allowing the artists to express themselves freely without the concern of fitting a mold or sacrificing depth or content to sell records. Independent Record Labels work with the artists to make sure quality music is being produced, but would rather sacrifice sales or profit in order to see their more experimental and self expressive music enter the market purely for the sake of art and experimentation of the artform.
Merge Records is an independent record label based in Durham, North Carolina Superchunk
Sub Pop is a record label founded by Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman in Seattle The Postal Service, Flight of the Conchords and The Shins on their roster
Righteous Babe Records- Buffalo New York

Example: Merge Records: Superchunk: “Slack Motherfucker” (1990)

Local Music Scene
A local music scene is pretty self-explanatory. Given the area you live in, and considering its surroundings, the local music scene is comprised of the music found in your particular region of the world. Most often, local music scenes serve as a reflection of the people within the area, tending to be in tune with the culture, their audience, and often share the same views of life whether it be political, etc.
Chapel Hill venues (e.g., Cat’s Cradle, Local 506, The Cave)-
The venues in Chapel Hill such as Cat’s Cradle, Local 506, and The Cave represent the local music scene of Chapel Hill and the greater Triangle Area. They are all similar in feel, employing a laid-back “hipster” attitude often associated with indie music, but are different in scale. Cat’s Cradle is the largest of the three, with the ability to bring in some of the bigger names in the country such as Andrew Bird and Girl Talk, which makes them a great asset to the community for bringing such talent through to University and Carrboro crowds. Local 506 is the 2nd biggest of the three, bringing primarily alternative rock and grunge bands to play. The Cave, is an extremely small venue that is reminiscent of an actual cave, but allows bands of low-notoriety play for audiences. Occasionally, the Cave will get a really talented artist to perform for them, but it may be because the artist prefers the smaller scale of the venue. It is rumored that James Taylor and Andy Griffith both got their start in their music career playing in the Chapel Hill music scene.