absolute music
instrumental music free of a text of a preexisting program
– no extramusical function
alberti bass
a pattern of accompaniment whereby, instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
– classical
elaborate lyrical song for solo voice
– part of opera
art song
“lied,” genre of song for voice and piano accompanied with high artistic aspirations
– Franz Schubert
– Romantic era
– Earl King
atonal music
music without tonality, key center
– 20th centruy popularity with Arnold Schoenberg
ballets russes
Russian ballet company of early 20th century
– led by Sergei Diaghelev
basso continuo
small ensemble of at least 2 instrumentalists who provide a foundation for the above melodies
– from Baroque period
Bayreuth Festspielhaus
opera house in the town of Beyreuth, Germany, constructed exclusively for the music dramas of Richard Wagner
bel canto
a style of singing and a type of Italian opera derived in the 19th century featuring beautiful tone and technique of human voice
brandenburg concertos
set of 6 concerti grossi composed by J.S. Bach between 1711 and 1720
in concertos, a showy passage for a soloist
literally means “something sung”
chamber music
instrumental music performed in small concert hall with just one performer per part
chance music
avant-gard technique for randomly composing music
character piece
brief work used to capture a single mood
– favored in Romantic era
comic opera
originated in 18th century, as common man’s opera, portraying everyday characters and situations, goes by different name regarding to location
– buffa
– comique
– ballad opera
– singspiel
instrumental genre in which one or more soloists play with and against a large orchestra
concerto grosso
variation in Baroque era where small group of soloists plays in turn with full orchestra (tutti)
da capo aria
2 section aria in which initial part is returned to
dance suite
collection of instrumental dances, each with its own distinct rhythm and character
seven notes that make up a scale
double exposition form (solo concerto)
first orchestra and then soloist present primary thematic material
– classical period
electronic music
sounds produced by computers and electronic devices
ancient Chinese two stringed fiddle
practice piece designed to develop technique
french overture
designed by Lully, containing 2 sessions (1st slow and in duple meter with dotted rhythm, second fast with fast triplet meter)
three, four, or five parts played or sung by voices or instruments, has one subject that is repeated and imitated
german for total art work
– designed by Wagner
Heiligenstadt Testament
music moves together
imitative counterpoint
type of counterpoint in which lines frequently use imitation
brief, distinctive unit of music designed to represent a character, object, or idea
text of an opera
German art song
four to five voices on love song, secular popular music
holding one vowel for a long time in singing
modern music that takes one small amount of music and repeats it a lot to form composition
moderate 3/4 dance with six step patterns (no up beat)
single line of music
chorus piece to a religious setting
music drama
term used for mature operas of Wagner
musique concrete
sounds recorded, like nat sounds
neo classical
twentieth century music returning to older styles
slow, introspective music on piano
– often 3/4, arpegiated, dissonant and mysterious
opera seria
Baroque opera
– serious, historicl and mythological subjecs
– da capo arias and lengthy overtures
large scale piece (sacred) using methods of opera without costumes or scenery
Ordinary of the mass
1) Kyrie
2) Gloria
3) Credo
4) Sanctus
5) Agnus Dei
early polyphony of church from ninth to thirteenth century
introcuctory movement that precedes opera
two or more rhythms sounding simultaneously
two or more independent lines sounding simaltaneously
proper of the mass
varying parts of mass (changeable)
indian scale
opera speech to tell the story
– uses a narrow range
ring cycle
cycle of four interconnected music dramas by Wagner that collectively tell the tale of Germanic legend Der Ring des Nibelungen
great liberties in tempo
Russian Five
five nationalistic Russian composers
1) Gorodin
2) Cui
3) Balakirev
4) Rimsky-Korsakov
5) Musorgsky
rapid, jovial work in triple meter often used in place of minuet in string quartet or symphony
Sexond Viennesi School
modernist composers centered around Arnold Schoenberg in Vienna
instrumental work for small ensemble
multi movement work for solo instrument, or instrument with keyboard accompaniment
sonata form
form involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation
– from classical period
song cycle
collection of several songs united by a common textual theme or literary idea
speech-like German vocals using approcimate pitches
string quartet
chamber music with 2 violins, chello, and viola
strophic form
stanzaic text, repeated anew for each stroph
ordered set of instrumental pieces in one key, intended to be played in a single sitting
symphonic poem
one movement work for orchestra giving emotions, expressions to story, play, political occurance
– romantic era
genre of instrumental music for an orchestra with several movements
terraced dynamics
sharp, abrupt changes in dynamics
– Baroque period
density and disposition of musical lines making up compositions
no noticable repetition
trio sonata
ensemble of four performers in baroque period