hillbilly music
scornful term applied to the music of country fiddlers

coined by Ralph Peer

Grand Ole Opry
began as a radio show; originally in the Ryman auditorium; moved to Opryland later; used to be believed that if you had performed at the Opry you had made it in country music.

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in the nashville floods earlier in the 2000’s, they saved the circle of the original ryman stage thats on the new stage;

Roy Acuff
reversed the country pattern from instrumental with vocal solos to vocal with instrumental solos;

huge opry star for like 50 years

Ralph Peer
The Bristol Sessions

Victor Records talent scouts; he was looking for more blues singers in the south when he came across rural white musicians and realized there was a market for this;

coined the term hillbilly music

scouted The Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers

The Carter Family
Sarah, AP, Maybelle (guitar)
“Keep on the sunny side” “I’ll fly away”

1st to put music into a traditional song format

typified the close conservative family

Maybelle Carter
June Carter Cash’s momma
most important guitar plater in music history. played with the Carter scratch by using her fingernails on guitar strings to play melody and chords at the same time

also played autoharp

Jimmie Rodgers
1st big solo star; called him the “blue yodeler”

enunciated his stuff

a rapid alternation between full voice and falsetto
Blue Yodel No. 9
accents on 2 and 4 instead of 1 and 3
(white) gospel
hillbilly/ old time music and religious country music
The Ballad of Casey Jones
Bill Monroe
the father of bluegrass who played mandolin
a virtuosic instrumental style rooted in mountain music
Earl Scruggs
banjo player who played with 3 finger style

thumb and first two

Lester Flatt
played bluegrass guitar with Earl Scruggs
Earl’s Breakdown
Alison Krauss
fiddle and vocals
wood body resonator guitar with a metal cover plate over the sound hole and an aluminum cone for amplification
Nashville Sound
Country + Pop
Chet Atkins
guitarist, was head of nashville division of RCA records;
cover recordings
songs that you record that ain’t yours
western music with a country flavor;
includes: western swing, honky-tonk, and cowboy songs
western swing
the texas swing band style, influenced by Mexican and Hawaiian sounds and by jazz
Bob Wills
King of Western Swing
real life lyrics that was more intended for listening than dancing


Hank Williams, Sr.
america’s first confessional singer and songwriter who wrote about his real life experiences; used lots of steel guitar;

“Your Cheatin Heart”

Gene Autry
America’s first singing cowboy movie star

“silver haired daddy of mine”

some yodel

slack key guitar
hawaiian invention of loosening guitar strings and playing by fingering that allowed for new resonance
Mele of My Tutu E
Hapa Haole Song
steel guitar
metal strings guitar
mini guitar with 4 strings
Cajun music
a country music of cajuns;

vibrant, lighthearted, often with a dance beat

rock flavored black Cajun style of country music

“That was your mother”- Paul Simon

Patsy Cline
“Crazy” “Walkin’ After Midnight”
Kitty Wells
“It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels”
Loretta Lynn
“The Pill” “Coal Miner’s Daughter”
Dolly Parton
Duh. started with traditional ballads and gospel songs;


Reba McEntire
serious? what could he want to know?
Emmylou Harris
mixes folk, bluegrass, country, and rock
Linda Rondstadt
background in Mexican and Spanish music;
Lefty Frizzell
brought honest vocal style that accepted and showcased his southern drawl
George D. Hay
Announcer and General manager of the WSM Barn Dance which later became the Grand Ole Opry
Ernest Tubb
Founder of honky-tonk who embraced idea of everyday life;

added electric guitar

country rock records that actually found more favor with blacks than with whites

Rocking R&B + hillbilly music

Jerry Lee Lewis
Rockabilly boy who sings “Great Balls of Fire”

married 13 year old cousin

realized no such thing as bad press

recorded songs that he knew would get banned from the radio

popular music intended for a black audience
Joe Turner
boss of the blues
Willie Mae “Big Mama” Thornton
well known R & B performer
featured high falsetto voices, smooth harmonies, and subtle rhythmic backgrounds sung to nonsense syllables
Alan Freed
radio guy that played more R&B on his show ; coined term rock and roll
rock and roll
popular music of the mid 50s to mid 60s’ that combined characteristics of rhythm and blues and country-western music
Bill Haley and His Comets
country group that infused R & B with their music

“Rock around the clock”

Chuck Berry
duck walk; early black star of rock and roll;

“School Days” “Johnny B Goode”

School Days
rock and roll
Surfing songs
describing the relaxed California lifestyle about sun fun and the beach
Brian Wilson
one of the members of the Beach Boys who lead the group and had the lead vocal with the falsetto voice
Beach Boys
kings of surfing music

falsetto used

“I Get Around”

Frankie Avalon

Teen idol

Berry Gordy Jr.
formed Motown Records; wanted to level the musical and racial playing field; wrote many songs including “Money (That’s what I want)”

Bought a house and called it “Hitsville USA”

Worked with Smokey Robinson and the Miracles and The Jackson Five

a highly successful black company that recorded, published, and sponsored black popular music
British super group with: George Harrison, Ringo Starr, Paul McCartney and John Lennon

appeared on the Ed Sullivan show; always evolving musically; “I Want to Hold Your Hand”

Beatle Mania!

Thomas A. Dorsey
father of gospel music

turned from blues after a tragedy and began writing the gospel blues

Sister Rosetta Tharpe
“Down By the Riverside”

gospel singer

Down by the riverside
gospel song
stop in the name of love
motown song
Ray Charles
blind piano playing bad ass; added highly secular lyrics to gospel hits

“I Got a Woman” “Hit the Road Jack”

a fervent emotional black style rooted in the blues and gospel
Aretha Franklin
the queen of soul and Lady soul

if you get this wrong, go to bed, you’re a delusional idiot

James Brown
godfather of soul

never had a number one hit;

contributor in the creation of funk

Papa’s got a brand new bad
soul and funk
began as a new expression of black consciousness that was rooted in soul with lyrics often referring to specifically interracial issues

some say james brown helped create it

major proponents: Sly and the family stone; Commodores; earth wind and fire

had unpredictable harmonies and musical experimentation

“Brick House” and “Shining Star”

a collective term encompassing many styles of popular music that evolved from and succeeded rock and roll
Psychedelic Rock
music that attempts to evoke the sensations experienced by a person on LSD
Janis Joplin
sang psychedelic rock with a blues passion; “Me and my Bobby McGee”
Jimi Hendrix
probably the greatest guitar player in the history of the world
he loved to experiment and exploit the guitar
heavy metal
new style of rock and roll that was intended to be challenging and almost scary
Alice Cooper
overly sexual heavy-metal rockers
Iron Butterfly
heavy metal who used scratchy scary ominous vocals
helped come up with the term heavy metal; “Born to be wild”

Lip-sync on Ed Sullivan show because he had to

amazing guitar player who featured drummers and drum solos; used those latin percussion instruments with long breaks for them to showcase
Jefferson Airplane
woman lead singer– Grace Slick
The Doors
banned from the Ed Sullivan show
combined african elements with rock; 1st popular in England and then came to the US;

protest music

BOB Marley!

British Invasion Examples
Rolling Stones

The Who

The Beatles

Smokey and the Miracles
1st big artist to be signed by Barry Gordy Jr.
The Jackson Five
signed by Barry Gordy Jr. “I Want you back”

bringing rock to an even wider audience

urban folk
socially conscious movement popular in the 1960’s relating country music and mainstream pop
Johnny Cash
never a part of the country music establishment

“I Walk the Line”

Strong ties to rockabilly he still had a rock and roll audience as well

Woody Guthrie
used music as a vehicle for change and lyrics that protested things.

“This land is your land”

had a guitar that says “This machine kills fascists”

model for bob dylan

Pete Seeger
played banjo

sings “Barbara Allen” and “Shenandoah”

Huddie Ledbetter
aka leadbelly

gifted black blues singer and songwriter

the one discovered in jail! and didn’t want to be stereotyped

alan lomax
like john lomax, collected songs and discovered leadbelly
Joan Baez
folk singer who silenced woodstock with her song about a wrongfully executed boy
Bob Dylan
lyrics had meaning; folk rock style; crowds originally rejected him using electric guitar;
folk rock
the addition of light rock effects to urban folk music
mr. tambourine man
folk rock
alternative country
expressing country concepts in progressive ways
Sam Bush
Formed the New Grass Revival
a bluegrass style fusing elements of jazz, rock and blues
Crosby Stills Nash and Young
song about shooting Kent State University
Crosby Stills Nash and Young
song about shooting Kent State University
Bruce Springsteen
Born in the USA album saved music from disco and electronic pop with lyrical significance

The boss

Joni Mitchell
female singer who has used conventions of blues rock and folk to write unconventional songs about her own most personal experiences
Blood Sweat and Tears
jazz rock quartet with brass section and later a saxophone as well
jazz rock; included rock musicians who incorporated jazz in their rock music
promoted by the saturday night fever movie

music for dancing that had a lot of electronic instruments

donna summer
hot stuff
anti-pop music; intended to shock and annoy its audience
New york Dolls
punk band
sex pistols and the ramones
punk band
a punk band strongly attracted to andy warhol
patti smith
professional writer of poetry, plays, and articles, who wrote angry gutsy lyrics;
New Wave
modern sound; edgy looking artists with more pop than punk sound

the police, the b52’s , the cars, talking heads

aka seattle sound
combined aggression of heavy metal with a melodic element reminiscent of the beatles
led by Kurt Cobain

Grunge band

house, techno, electro, nu-wave
electronic dance music
hip hop
African American based culture derived from Jamaica, developed in the Bronx in the 70s

comprising breakdancing, graffiti, writing, DJing and rap

DJ Kool Here
earliest DJs and a founder of hip hop
a technique developed by jamaican disc jockeys of rapid patter talking over the sound of spinning records
Like a Virgin album

helped level the playing field for the female artist

business savvy; called her own shots in her music

Michael Jackson
King of Pop!

worked with Quincy Jones; Thriller album

lots of genres in his music; considered music videos to be mini movies

Twisted Sister’s D Snider vs Tipper Gore
Parents Music Resource Center started the whole parental warning bull shift.
Rappers Delight
Salt N Pepa
female self empowerment
Ice Cube
Kirk Franklin
melds hip hop and gospel
3 Popular Show Types pre-broadway
variety shows
comedy, dancing, strippers
music with a theme, pretty girls, and awesome costumes
Ziegfeld Follies
Staged by Florenz Ziegfeld; “Glorification of the American Girl”

Worked with Irving Berlin

“A Pretty girl is like a melody”

book shows
shows with an integrated plot- a story told in song, in spoken dialogue, or in some combination of the two
Light opera

shorter than opera with lighter subjects; solo singer with orchestra from europe

patter songs
ridiculed politics, manners, society in rhyming multisyllabic words that delight audiences and stimulate imitation in every kind of humorous entertainment
Gilbert and Sullivan
wrote british comic operettas including the HMS Pinafore
George M. Cohan
music comedy (statue of this man in NYC) triple threat performer that wrote things he could star in. wrote america’s first musical comedy- Little Johnny Jones

“Give My Regards to Broadway”

Musical Comedies
gaudy, boisterous productions barely held together by a thin excuse for a story
Give my regards to broadway
musical comedy
George White’s Scandals
in competition with Ziegfeld; got George Gershwin; “Somebody Loves Me”

Set design began here with “Stairway to Paradise”

minstrel shows
black people started in on these after the Civil War
Will Marion Cook
concert violinist who wrote much music for popular black shows
Noble Sissle
worked with Eubie Blake on Shuffle Along
Josephine Baker
star in Paris theaters; starred in Shuffle Along when it opened
Jerome Kern

changed the course of musical theater in America; used an integrated plot that actually focused on the story because it was based on a novel

Ol’ Man River
Broadway Musical
Golden Age of Broadway
1930 until 1955
Irving Berlin in Broadway
“Watch Your Step” and “Annie Get Your Gun”
George Gershwin in Broadway
“Lady Be Good”
Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart
“On Your Toes”

integrated the choreographer in the work

Lorenz Hart
Richard Rodgers
Rodgers and Hammerstein

“South Pacific”

Oscar Hammerstein II
Meredith Wilson
“The Music Man” with the song 76 trombones
West Side Story
Sondheim, Leonard Bernstein, and Jerome Robbins

ensemble scenes, choreographed fight scenes

basically kick ass

Frank Loesser
composer who wrote Guys and Dolls
Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe
Brigadoon, Paint Your Wagon, Gigi, Camelot, and My Fair Lady
Leonard Bernstein
basically the coolest man of all time

did the music for west side story, candide, wonderful town

pianist, conductor, composer

ensemble scene
used all the cast
broadway musical
Everyday a little Death
Stephen Sondheim
composer who is amazing;

Follies; Forum; A little night music; sweeney; assassins; company

concept musical
intellectually challenging and morally weighty that treated controversial subjects and intentionally left audiences wondering about the shows meaning
chamber musicals
large casts and extravagant set designs and breathtaking effects;
Andrew Lloyd Webber

Sunset Blvd.



Phantom of the Opera

Jesus Christ Superstar

multimedia shows
combine music, dance, drama, and special effects
drama that is all sung
sung dialog
songs that are more memorable and time stands still during these
words/ book of an opera
Porgy and Bess
George Gershwin’s folk opear

“I got plenty of nothin”

Gian Carlo Menotti
created an opera for TV called Amani and the night visitors

also did chamber opera

helped bring the spoleto festival

mickey mousing
certain sounds associated with certain motions (think roadrunner)
film score
music for a movie
all the songs for a movie
source music or diagetic music
characters can hear this on the screen

think save the last dance audition scene

functional or non-diagetic music
music that only the audience can hear

think scary movies

horror movie electronic instrument

ghostbusters scene

temp score
score of existing music for a composer to base the new music off of
pop scores
popular music with maybe some original pieces on a soundtrack
classical hollywood film scores
lush orchestral score particularly associated with films between the thirties and fifties
Alfred Newman
film music writer
Max Steiner
film music writer
Erich Korngold
film music writer
Bernard Herman
wrote the score for Citizen Kane and Psycho
The Murder from Psycho
Film Music
John Williams
film composer who wrote for Jaws, Jurassic Park, Indiana Jones, Superman, ET, Saving Private Ryan… oh and Star Wars

basically the bomb.com of movie music composers

Star Wars Main title
film music
quarter tones
tones lying half way between the half steps on a major or minor scale
Elvis Presley
king of rock and roll

hips that swing; early style was rockabilly; played simple chords on guitar but could he sing?!

credited the original writers of his songs and never lied about being a cover artist; sang with vibrato

also an actor

The Ed Sullivan Show
at the ed sullivan theater

variety show that introduced youth to countless rock stars; representative of the generation gap

Buddy Holly and the Crickets
“Peggy Sue”

Stated the idea of a rock band because they were 21 and he played a fender strat

their plane crash inspired the song “American Pie”

Bo diddley
guitar player who played R&B
Little Richard
very innovative “Tutti Frutti”
Dick Clark
American Bandstand

promoted the “teen idols” as all american kids that would be okay to bring home to the family

Tipper Gore
Al Gore’s wife who Dee Snider said had a dirty mind
Dee Snider
kick ass lead singer of twisted sister
Sylvia Robinson
founded sugar hill records and started to get the radio to play hip hop music
Roots of Rap
rooted in the early talking blues of Mississippi to relate to the people that motown wasn’t reaching
1st influential rap song
“the message” by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five
1st rap song on the radio
rappers delight by the sugar hill gang
huge in the rap world and helped make it nationwide with their raising hell album; 1st identifiable rapper look

walk this way with aerosmith that brought rap under the rock umbrella

Bess You Is my woman now
minimalist opera
general putnam’s camp
program music
At the river
the banshee
experimental piano muisc
gamelan gong kebjar: “Hudjan Mas” or “golden Rain”
gamelan music
sonata V
music for prepared piano
fanfare for the common man
band music
hoedown from Rodeo
modern dance music
adagio for strings
music for string ensemble
afro-american symphony, third movement, humor
symphony movement
ensembles for synthesizers
electronic synthesizer music
sound patterns
experimental choral music
large ensemble with several voices singing different vocal parts
Virgil Thompson
composer who was influenced by civil war songs
Gertrude Stein
used words for their sounds rather than their meanings
Philip Glass
wrote a plotless opera called Einstein on the Beach
Charles Ives
explored new sounds through the uses of bi-tonality, poly-tonality, poly-rhythms, and micro-tones

“Variations on America”

tones in between the keys
Henry Cowell
explored new musical sounds through “piano experiments”

used tone clusters

“Tides of Mananaun” and “The Banshee”

Milton Babbit
participated in the development of America’s first electronic synthesizers by working with Princeton and Columbia universities

“Ensemble for Synthesizers”

Pauline Oliveras
explored the use of voices in abstract ways
John Cage
the most influential of all the experimental composers; involved in many musical experiments including aleatory music (or chance music), the prepared piano and “silence”


“In the name of the holocaust”

Nadia Boulanger
organist, French, worked with young musicians
Aaron Copland
developed a characteristic style of formal concert music inspired by folk, jazz, and cowboy music and early American hymns; “Rodeo” “Fanfare for the common man”

pieces were originally modern dance pieces

Samuel Barber
emphasized lyrical melodies, dissonant harmonies, beauty, and emotion

adagio for strings

william grant still
created beautiful orchestral works that reflected the african american experience in the us
a brief, dramatic phrase or piece for brass and perhaps percussion instruments with the character of an announcement or celebration
classical ballet
formal dance that dramatizes a story
makes no radical departures from styles and conceptions of earlier music
music has a nineteenth century melodic, harmonic, and expressive characteristics
Harlem Renaissance
movement of the 20s in which black painters, sculptors, poets, playwrights, musicians, and writers broke from convention to promote racial advancement through artistic creativity
allowed players to slide through a range of pitches, unlimited by frets or keys
select out high and low ranges of sound
Total serialism
serial technique
application of the 12 tone technique to other aspects of the composition, which may also be arranged into series and repeated systematically
aleatory music
music up to chance
indeterminate music
chance music
random music
almost all aspects of a composition change from one performance to another