a large orchestral piece in several movements.
string quartet
four soloists (2violins, 1 viola and 1 cello) and the music that they play.
An instrumental genre in several movements for a soloist or an ensemble. slow, fast, slow, fast,
A drama set to music, usually sung throughout, originating in 17th century Italy. Opera is a combination of music, drama, scenery, costumes, dance, etc., to create a complete art form.
opera buffa
The Italian variety of comic opera.
Sonata form
exposition, development, recapitulation, short closing theme
Minuet and trio
An A-B-A form (A = minuet; B = trio) in a moderate triple meter that is often the third movement of the Classical sonata cycle.
theme and variations
A style of composition that first presents a basic theme and then develops and alters that theme in successive statements.
Term referring to a form of composition in which the first section recurs after the second section is performed in an A-B-A style. Also, a rondo could have more sections, arranged: A-B-A-B-A, or A-B-A-C-A, etc. This form is found especially in compositions of the Baroque and Classical eras.
double-exposition form
Theme stated once by the orchestra and then followed by the soloist.
first statement of the theme in sonata form
The second major division of the sonata-allegro form. The development is based upon the themes in the exposition and elaborates upon them by making new combinations of the figures and phrases while moving through a series of foreign keys.
Recap of the sonata-allegro form. The ending.
transition or bridge
Passing out of one key into another; also, a passage that takes the composition from one key into another. Transitional passage connecting two sections of a composition.
the concluding section of a peice or a movement, after the main elements of the form have been presented, Codas are common in sonata form.
An ornamental passage performed near the close of a composition, usually improvised, and usually performed by a soloist. Cadenzas are mostly to be found in arias or a concertos. Italian term for cadence. A stylized close in music which divides the music into periods or brings it to a full conclusion.
An ornamental passage performed near the close of a composition, usually improvised, and usually performed by a soloist.
a form developed by beethoven from the minuet to use for movements in larger compositions, later sometimes used alone by chopin.
A style of composition in which there is one melody, and all the voices and accompaniments move rhythmically together
art song or Lied
serious artistic purpose song designed for the concert hall German it is called lieder, in French, chanson.
song cycle
A group of songs that share a common theme or central idea and which have been designed to be presented as a unit.
character piece
a short romantic piano piece that portrays a particular mood.
concert overture
An early 19th century genre resembling an opera overture only without the opera following it. Single-movement concert piece for orchestra based upon a literary program.
program symphony
a symphony with a program(music associated with a literary work or idea)
symphonic poem
a piece of orchestral program music in one long movement.
through-composed song
a song with new music for each stanza of the poem; as opposed to strophic song.
strophic song
a song in several stanzas with the same music for each stanza
characterized by great, large ensembles, great dynamic fluctuations from fff to ppp , less tonal and melodic tunes, more discordant, atonal pieces, and immense, long compositions. The piano is a prominent instrument of the Romantic era
romantic macabre
ghastly or grim.
romantic nostalgia
romantic melancholy or longing
total work of art. Wagner’s term for his musical dramas
program music
piece of music associated with a literary work or idea.
cyclic form
Forms of music that are made up of individual, complete movements placed in contrast to one another. These forms include the sonata, the symphony, the suite, etc.
usually a serenade, to be played at night in the open air. The name “nocturne” has been used by composers for piano and orchestral pieces that suggest some aspect of the night and are usually solemn and contemplative.
A study or an exercise designed to train a musician technically as well as musically.
A lively Polish dance in 3/4 or 3/8 time with the accent usually on the second or third beat of the measure. The mazurka was popular in the 18th and 19th centuries.
A Polish dance in triple meter. The polonaise originated as a court dance.
Dies Irae
“Day of wrath” section of the Mass
bel canto
a style of singing that brings out the sensuous beauty of the voice.
Leading motive in Wagner’s operas
A vocal style in which the melody is spoken at approximate pitches rather than sung on exact pitches. The Sprechstimme was developed by Arnold Schoenberg.
Term applied to composers such as Debussy who were composing at the time of the impressionist painters. blurring of classical forms exaggerated attention to music. more of a symbolist than impressionist.
technique of composing with a series, generally a twelve tone series.
Term applied to 20th century composers who use the forms and thematic processes of the Classical era of music.
Pentatonic scale
a scale of five tones. pentagon.
whole tone scale
A scale built entirely of whole tone intervals. The whole tone scale was used commonly by the French impressionists.
octatonic scales
scale of 8 pitches. octagon
the absence of any feeling of tonality
twelve tone technique
Music produced by a compositional procedure of the 20th century based upon the free use of all of the twelve tones of the chromatic scale without a central tone or tonic.
A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout an entire composition or some portion of a composition.
A branch of musicology that involves the study of music of world cultures both of the past and of the present with an emphasis on cultural and racial influences and affects.
Second Viennese School
: Made up of Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, pioneers of the modern music.
wrote Symphony 95. Hive Five Haydn.
Wrote Don Giovanni, Symphony 40 and Piano concerto in A
Wrote 5th Symphony and father of romantic period
the time that all of the italian peninsula was unified.
The city where Wagner built an opera house for only his music in mind. King Ludwig II gave him the funds.
Wrote clouds
Wrote moonfleck
Wrote Wozzeck
Wrote Rite of Spring
Wrote Music for strings, precession and celeste
Wrote Orchestral set no. 2
Wrote Appalachian Spring
term used to characterize music which is thought to be ahead of its time
the fauves
modern artists that retained the strong colors that the impressionists used.
was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso