musical style which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy (flourished 1890-1920)
absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much music of the 20th and early 21st ceneturies
approach to pitch organization using 2 or more keys at one time, often found in 20th century music
Minimalist music
music characterized by steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns its dynamic level, texture, and harmony tend to stay constant for fairly long stretches of time, creating a trance-like or hypnotic effect; developed in the 1960s
Pentatonic scale
scale made up of 5 different tones, used in folk music and music of the Far East
In German, speech-voice, a style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing, typical of Schoenberg and his followers
musical style stressing intense, subjective emotion and harsh dissonance, typical of German and Austrian Music
Serial Music/12 tone composition
method of composing in which all pitches of a composition are derived from a special ordering of the 12 chromatic tones; developed by Schoenberg in the early 1920s
variation of a fugue subject in which each interval of the subject is reversed in a direction
variation of a fugue subject where the subject is presented by beginning with its last note and proceeding backward to the first
Inversion retrograde
backward and upside down
Chance music
(aleatory) composed by the random selection of pitches, tone colors, and rhythms; developed in the 1950s by John Cage and others
Pattern of notes serving as a melodic framework for the creation of an improvisation, characteristic of Indian classical music
Call and Response
(1) in jazz, a pattern in which one voice or instrument is answered by another voice, instrument, or group of instruments. (2) performance style in which the phrases of the soloist are repeatedly answered by those of a chorus, often found in African and other nonwestern music
(bop) complex jazz style, usually for small groups, developed in the 1940s and meant for attentive listening rather than dancing
style of composed piano music, generally in duple meter with a moderate march tempo in which the pianist’s right hand plays a highly syncopated melody while the left hand maintains the beat with an “oom-pah” accompaniment. It was developed primarily by African American pianists and flourished from the 1890s to about 1915
term referring both to a style of performance and to a form; an early source of jazz, characterized by flatted or “blue” notes in the scale; vocal consists of 3 line stanzas in the form a a’ b.
New Orleans Jazz, style in which the front line or melodic instruments, improvise several contrasting melodic lines at once, supported by a rhythm section that clearly marks the beat and provides a background of chords; usually based on a march or church melody, a ragtime piece, a popular song, or 12 bar blues
Rhythm section
instruments in a jazz ensemble that maintain the beat, add rhythmic interest, and provide supporting harmonies. The rhythm section is usually made up of piano, plucked double bass, percussion, and sometimes banjo or guitar
very fast tempo
system of writing down music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated
accenting of a note at an unexpected time, as between two beats or on a weak beat. Major characteristic of jazz
gradually louder
becoming faster
*diminuendo* gradually softer
A Capella
choral music without instrumental accompaniment
(f) loud
(ff) very loud
becoming slower
Piano (the dynamic)
(p) soft
(pp) very soft
degrees of loudness or softness in music
series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole
how chords are constructed and how they follow each other
combination of 3 or more tones sounded at once
series of pitches arranged in order from low to high and high to low
relative highness or lowness of a sound
Tone Color/ Timbre
quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another
single, melodic line without an accompaniment
one main melody is accompanied by chords
performance of 2 or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest at the same time
“distance” in pitch between any two tones
Organization of musical ideas in time.
Regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.
Organization of beats into regular groups.
Basic pace of the music.
Moderate tempo.
Anonymous— “Alleluia”
Medieval/Renaissance Period
Hildegard–“O Successores”
Medieval/Renaissance Period
Josquin–“Ave Maria—Virgo Serena”
Medieval/Renaissance Period
Bach, 1st Movement from Brandenburg Concerto No. 5
Baroque Period
Bach, Organ Fugue
Baroque Peirod
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Spring, First Movement
Baroque Period
Beethoven, String Quartet in C Minor, Fourth Movement
Classical Period
Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, First Movement
Classical Period
Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, First Movement
Classical Period
Smetana, The Moldau
Romantic Period
Puccini, La Boheme, Act. 1 excerpt
Romantic Period
Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, 4th Movement
Romantic Period
Claude Debussy– Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
20th Century Music
Igor Stravinksy- Rite of Spring, Introduction and Omens of Spring
20th Century Music
Arnold Schoenberg–Pierrot Lunaire
20th Century Music
Arnold Schoenberg-A Survivor from Warsaw
20th Century Music
Anton Wbern- Five Pieces for Orchestra (third piece)
20th Century Music
Bela Bartok- Concerto for Orchestra, Movement II
20th Century Music
Aaron Copland– Appalachian Spring, Section 7: Theme and Variations on SImple Gifts
20th Century Music
Alberto Ginastera- Estancia Suite, Op. 8A
20th Century Music
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich-Concerto Grosso Movement I
20th Century Music
Elliot Carter- Shard
20th Century Music
John Cage- Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano
20th Century Music
Edgar Varese- Poeme Electronique
20th Century Music