Beethoven’s early works are considered what?
Beethoven’s middle and later works are considered what?
Who did Beethoven study under?
What did Beethoven do to classic forms
he stretched the limits of them
What did beethoven struggle with
what did beethoven do that was unusual
made multiple drafts of his works
describe beethoven’s symphonies
greater complexity and emotional range
considered a masterpiece
Describe the theme for beethoven’s symphony #5
the theme is motivic
symbolizes struggle
what influence does beethoven’s symphony #5 have
follows question and answer format
what is the overall mood of beethoven’s symphony # 5
serious and dramatic in minor key
describe the first movement of beethoven’s symphony #5
sonata form
music restates itself
describe the 4th movement of beethoven’s symphony #5
ends triumphantly in major key
overall romantic aesthetic
when was the romantic period
what was the goal for romantic artists
emotional expression
what is the tempo for romantic music
describe rubato tempo
speeds up and slows down
describe the beat for romantic music
when was the metronome invented
describe the rhythm of romantic music
more complex than classic
describe the dynamics for romantic music
increased dynamic music
describe the melodies for romantic music
often have a surging or yearning quality, lyrical
describe the harmony for romantic music
composers created new chords and resolutions for more dramatic expression
describe miniature scale genres
use 1-5 people
what scale of music did beethoven use
large scale
what is a lieder
a german art song from the 1800s
what timbres are in a lieder
opera trained singer in partnership with a pianist
what scale genre is a lieder in
miniature scale
what is the lieder music set to
poetry, to enhance the text
Who was Franz Schubert
wrote more than 600 lieder songs
wrote the erkling
who was niccoli paganini
virtuoso pianist who was extremely talented
what was a key feature in romantic music
virtuoso skill
most of frederic chopin’s music did what
written for solo piano
influenced by paganini
emphasize on rubato
long lyrical melodies
who was giacomo puccini
wrote early italian operas that are standard repertoire for opera houses
what did many of puccini’s operas involve
love and death
what is libretto
the text of the opera
describe la boheme
an artist falls in love with a women who dies at the end of the story from an illness
what modern play is based off la boheme
who was hector berlioz
french composer
wrote symphony fantastique
what did hector berlioz do
worked with large orchestra
explored the sound of new instruments
explored new instrument combos never heard before
what is orchestration
act of combining 2 tone colors in an orchestra
what does orchestration allow for
increased range of dynamic contrast
what is program music
music based off something outside the music, like a story
describe the story of symphony fantastique
based off berlioz admiration for harriet smithson, he was upset she didnt like him, in the story the artist has a failed suicide
what did symphony fantastique contain
singular melody in all 5 movements called an idee fixee
describe the 1st 3 movements of symphony fantastique
depicts positive view of the girl
describe the 4th movement of symphony fantastique
artist imagines girl as being unfaithful, kills her, and hes executed
describe the 5th movement of symphony fantastique
artist is in hell
gregorian chant melody called dies irae is introduced
many composers in the 20th century did what
exerted energy toward independance
where did many 20th century artists gather
then ww2 forced many to the U.S.
describe impressionism
french style, reacted to increasingly emotional german art
objects suggested as impressions instead of realistic
who were the main composers for impressionistic music
claud debussy and maruice ravel
describe impressionist music
musical statement replaced by musical suggestion
harmony and melody used pentatonic and whole tone scales instead of major/minor
what strongly influenced debussy’s music
indonesian gamelan
what are gamelans made up of
mostly percussion instruments
who wrote the sunken cathedral
describe the sunken cathedral
piano solo
basic idea: a cathedral rises each morning to remind people of their sins then sinks back
what were the 3 early 20th century art styles
impressionism, primitivism, expressionism
who was igor stravinksy
primitivism composer
russian born, forced to leave and went to paris
what were igor stravinksy’s 3 important works
firebird 1910
petroushka 1911
rite of spring 1913
which of stravinksy’s ballets captivated their audiences
the first 2
what happened to rite of spring’s initial audience
the work shocked them
they made so much noise dancers couldnt hear music
what was the opinion on rite of spring after its premiere
it was embraced as one of the most important works of the 20th century
featured in disney film fantasia
how is rite of spring performed today
as a symphonic work without dancers
original coreography is difficult to perform
describe the dance in rite of spring
angular movements
difficult to perform
describe the rhythm of rite of spring
noticeably driving and complex
describe the meter of rite of spring
continually changing and shifting
describe the harmony of rite of spring
extremely dissonant, resolves to more dissonance
describe the melody for rite of spring
short rhythmic layered melodies, not lyrical
describe expressionism
highly emotional art that often portrayed the frustration, terror, and guilt suffered by humanity during the tortured period around the 2 world wars
what did expressionistic artists want for the audience
to directly experience the artistic expression of exaggerated and disturbed emotions
who were the main expressionistic composers
arnold schoenberg, anton webern, alden berg
what work did vincent van gogh create
the starry night
stars painted in swirling colors and potent expression
unrealistic and disturbed perceptions
what work did edvard munch create
the scream
central figure has head clasped in hands with eyes and mouth open in horror
what is atonal music
music with no gravitational pull towards a tonal center
how was atonal music revolutionary
nothing about it resembled traditional tonal music
describe atonal music melodies
virtually impossible to sing or recognize, partly due to wide interval leaps
describe atonal music harmony
high dissonance resolves to dissonance. chords were not built on major or minor triads
describe the rhythm of atonal music
no clear or obvious pulse
who created atonal music
what did schoenberg create to further his music atonality
12 tone music
what was the main goal of 12 tone music
give all 12 pitches of the chromatic scale equal attention to avoid gravitational pull to any one pitch
what did 12 tone composers do
put the 12 pitches of a chromatic scale in a new order called a row
what was the main rule of 12 tone music
no 1 pitch can be repeated until the other 11 sounded in the order established by the composer
once a musical row was stated in 12 tone music it could be changed how
what piece did anton webern right which adopted 12 tone technique
five pieces for orchestra
what happened to shcoenberg during ww2
migrated to U.S.
taught his composition at universities
what happened after schoenberg taught his composition in the U.S.
it became the establishment mode of writing music in the university system
when was minimalism
what was minimalism reacting to
atonal 12 tone music
what style is minimalism
evolutionary 20th century style
because it is tonal
who were the early minimalist composers
steve reich, philip glass, terry riley
describe minimalism
strong rhythmic pulse
involves the repetition of a minimum of music
what musical process was used in minimalism
minimalistic music is used in what
many films
some progressive rock styles
what is canon
when 2 or more voices/instruments play the same melody but start at different times
describe steve reich’s music in his piano phase
2 pianos play the same melody
one speeds up while other stays same tempo
continue same melody but at staggered times
what keyboard instruments were used in “music for 18 musicians”
4 pianos
what percussion instruments were used in “music for 18 musicians”
3 marimbas
2 xylophones
2 vibraphones
what woodwind instruments were used in “music for 18 musicians”
2 clarinets
what string instruments were used in “music for 18 musicians”
1 cello
1 violin
describe the voices used in “music for 18 musicians”
4 women’s voices
perform like the instruments
describe movement 1 symphony 5
simpsons at 10
music restates
sonata form
3rd movement symphony 5
similar to first
simpsons at 10
4th movement symphony 5
faster than 3rd
very triumphant
star wars sounding
symphonie fantastique sounds like
builds up and down rapidly
almost like cartoon background
symphony #9
opera singers
clanging cymbals
the erkling sounds like
jus listen for the words
paganini caprice sounds like
very fast violin solo
chopin etude 1
very fast piano
sounds like goin side to side on keys
chopin nocturn sounds like
slower lovey dovey piano
sunken cathedral
piano but sounds like organ
rite of spring
sounds like jaws
lots of violin
5 pieces for piano
verrrry slow piano
5 piece for orchestra
sounds ugly
cage prepared piano
sounds like gamelan
steve reich piano
piano repeats phrase
the who
think of tv
new york counterpoint
minimalist, repeating, sounds jazzy
music for 18 musicians
repeating phrase
very clear beat