Why might Isms be a useful way to think about the cultural past?
Provides relevant context with corresponding content without bias of “great works”, or “great men”
20th Century approximate time period. Why?
Wagner Tristan y Isolde Prelude (1857)
What is modernism’s goal?
The self-conscious avoidance of the ‘ways of the past’; Make it new
What perspectives does modernism yield?
Sequence of historically self-conscious aesthetic movements
Root of musical romanticism
French “Roman” for story/narrative
“trangressed rules and limits, and expressed the richness of natural and insatiable longing.”
Bonds definition of Romanticism
Will seek individual paths for expressing intense emotions, such as melancholy, yearning, or joy.
Tristan Prelude (1857)
Symphony #3 (Slow movement)
Beethoven (1803)
Symponie Fantasique
Berlioz (1830)
“The Wanderer in the Clouds”
Romantic painting by Caspar David Friedrich
Portrait of Beethoven (1804-05)
Romantic Painting of Beethoven
Beethoven (composers of 19th century) compared to what/who?
Promethius; Gift from the gods
Symphony #3 Eroica was dedicated to what “great man”?
What term best describes Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Goethe’s Faust genre?
Erlkonig (1815)
“I am heartily sick of the term ‘romantic,’ though I have not spoken it ten times in my entire life.“
Franz Shubert
Beethoven’s “Heirs”
Franz Shubert (1797-1828)
Hector Berlioz (1803-69)
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-47)
Franz Liszt (1811-86)
Overture to a Midsummer Night’s Dream
Mendelssohn (1826)
Chopin (1833)
Nocturne (1842)
“Cannons buried in flowers” by Schumann refers to which composer?
What factors drive the rise in middle class, public concerts, and the virtuoso?
Cheap sheet music
accessible music
free time
hard music sounds impressive and draws audiences (Liszt)
Clara Schumann
Influenced concert attitude and attire
Nuages Gris (1881)
Nocturne in E minor (1821)
John Field (1732-1837)
Nuages (1899)
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
Duex Reveries Nocturnes #1 (1919)
Erik Satie (1866-1925)
Music for a Summer Evening: “Nocturnal Sounds” (1974)
George Crumb (1929)
Progress in Industrial Revolution
Agricultural Technology
Domestic Science
Factory Life
Middle Class musical experience and value
King Cotton (1895)
John Philip Sousa
Maple Leaf Rag
Scott Joplin (1899)
Prelude to the Afternoon of the Faun
Debussy (1894)
Ionization for 13 Instruments
Varese (1929-31)
Prelude Book 1: Voiles
Symphony #4 in E minor Mov. 4
Brahms (1885)
Symphony #1 in D Major Mov. III (“Titan”)
Central Park in the Dark
Ives (1906)
Sonatina in Transylvania: Bagpipes
Bartok (1915)
Rite of Spring
Stravinsky (1913)
The Banjo
Gottshalk (1854)
Le cafe (1892)
Le The
Tchaikovsky (1892)
In the Steppes of Central Asia
Borodin (1879)
Origins of ballet
Court dances added to Italian operas when exported to France
What were the centers of ballet’s development?
Paris, France
St. Petersburg, Russia
Was ballet music typically more conservative or experimental?
“The Age of the Tone Poet”
Artists creating poetry with notes rather than words (Beethoven)
The Russian Five
Cui, Borodin, Balakirev, Rimsky, Mussorgsky
Classical Symphony III
Prokofiev (1918)
Charles Baudelaire
Noise Instrument invented by Luigi Russolo
Ballet Mecanique
George Antheil
Pierrot Lunaire
Schoenburg (1912-14)
Albert Giarot
French symbolist poet
Cocteau caricature of Stravinsky
Cubism, primitivism
What happens in arts scene in which artists, designers, composers, dancers, and writers are all experimenting and talking together?
More “new” sounds
Wanda Landowska (1879-1959)
Harpsichord virtuoso and enthusiast
What is the meaning or intention of “authenticity” in historical performance?
Composers original idea or vision
The philosophical outlook based on the premise that objects are a reflection of ideas in the mind was called what?
According to the Primary Evidence Box “The Perceived Superiority of Instrumental Music”, which piece of music struck Ludwig Tieck as ‘‘the poetic repetition of the drama”?
Reichardt’s Overture to Macbeth
E.T.A Hoffman’s List of “Romantic composers”
Who wrote that instrumental music was “the most romantic of all the arts…for its sole subject is the infinite”?
E.T.A Hoffman
During the 19th century, did the social status of composers rise or fall?
Which composer was described in 1848 as “sitting at the piano like a dreamy clairvoyant”?
Were 19th century composers more, or less, likely to incorporate autobiographical elements in their music?
More likely
The mid-19th century movement to embrace the forms and styles of earlier music is termed what?
In the 19th century, artists and critics were interested in which following ideas?
Newness and differentness
According to the Primary Evidence Box “Listz on the superiority of program music”, which composer was Franz Liszt referring to when he said, “In program music…the recurrence, variation, and modification of motifs are determined by their relationship to a poetic idea”?
According to the Primary Evidence Box “Superiority of Absolute Music”, who said “Music is a language that we speak and understand yet are incapable of translating”?
Eduard Hanslick
According to the American critic James Huneker, was it possible for music to escape “the meddlesome hand of the censor”?
Did nationalist composers sometimes use folk music from places other than their homelands as an “exotic flavor”?
In the Verdi citation quoted in “The Growing Division Between Art and Popular Music”, of which of his operas is Verdi speaking when he says “When the number was finished they broke out into the noisiest applause I have ever heard”?
Is the musical activity depicted in the illustration captioned “The expansion of musical literarcy” more likely a setting for “concert” music or “participatory” music?
Did the expansion of music’s availability in the 19th century continue or cease with the 20th-century invention of recording technology?
Over the course of the 19th century, do harmonies become more chromatic or more diatonic?
Over the course of the 19th century, do the contributions of a conductor become more necessary or less necessary?
More necessary
In the discussion “Music in the 19th Century: A Stylistic Overview,”which critic is quoted as saying that Beethoven’s Fifth is like a “beautiful tree”?
E.T.A Hoffman
Did musical critics of the classical era consider instrumental or vocal music more inferior?
19th century composers were viewed as what to the public?
High priests; Demigods
What is “Art Religion”?
Revelation of the divine through art
Did composers of the 19th century commonly recycle or reference well-known earlier composers such as Mozart or Beethoven?
Were “new” and “old” works commonly incorporated into one program?
What is absolute music?
Music cut off from the larger world of words and ideas; separate or music for the sake of music
Progressives VS. Conservatives
Programmatic music VS. absolute music
“A Life for the Tsar”
Opera by Glinka
Art music VS. popular music
Music through enlightenment (spiritual) VS. music for entertainment
Published music became more or less technically demanding?
What public musical genre increased in the first half of the 19th century?
Orchestral music
Why was there a need for larger concert halls? What else did this cause?
Larger audiences
New developments on instruments for more volume; trombone and flute added
Which theorist wrote that the symphony has “as its goal like the chorus, the expression of a sentiment of an entire multitude”?
Heinrich Cristoph Koch
Which critic wrote that the symphony “a story, developed within a psychological context, of some particular emotional state of a large body of people”?
Gottfried Wilhelm Fink
Which composer distinguished between Beethoven’s chamber works to which “Beethoven makes music” and his symphonies to which “the entire world makes music through him”?
How many symphonies did Beethoven write?
What is a march?
military form in duple meter characterized by a strong, repetitive beat to keep soldiers in orderly formation
What is a scherzo?
Italian term for “joke”; associated with a courtly dance
Passage that begins like a fugue but doesn’t sustain itself after a series of initial entries
4 notable 19th century symphony composers
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1854)
Ludwig Spohr (1784-1859)
Who is Harriet Smithson?
Irish actress whom Berlioz fell in love with as well as his inspiration for the idee fixe in Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique
Concert overture emerged from opera as what?
A work of instrumental music in a single movement connected with a known plot
Did concert overtures become more or less dramatic?
Typical form of a concerto
According to the Primary Evidence Box, which two composers did Bernard Shaw cite in his (ironic) discussion of the advantages of opera over drama?
Beethoven and Wagner
Is a Wagnerian leitmotiv fixed or can it be altered?
Can be altered
What did Wagner mean when he referred to onstage action as ‘’deeds of music made visible’’?
Onstage action should reflect shape of the music
What prevented Weber from following up on the early success of his 1821 German singspiel Der Freischutz?
His death
Did any other 19th century opera composers use musical materials in a similar fashion to the Wagnerian leitmotiv?
What is the basis for the story of Tristan und Isolde?
Northern European Myth
Composers of which nationalities dominated pre-19th century opera?
French and Italian
In what *two* countries were Gilbert & Sullivan’s operettas especially popular?
England and USA
Music of what composer was the principal influence upon composers who were members of the Caecilian movement?
Music of what century was the principal influence upon composers who were members of the Caecilian movement?
16th century
Did operetta use all-sung libretti?
Do Gilbert & Sullivan’s operettas sometimes include parody?
Who was Sir Arthur Sullivan’s principle collaborator in the genre of operetta?
Sir William S. Gilbert
In what country were Offenbach’s operettas most popular?
In typical 19th century dance music, are the melodies built on symmetrical or asymmetrical units?
Which nation was the most important source of ballet innovations?
Which family of composers was especially strongly linked with the Viennese waltz?
Since approximately what date has ballet played a role in opera?
Who is the author of the original story “The Nutcracker”?
E.T.A Hoffman
Who coined the term Symphonische Dichtung?
Franz Liszt
What is the most prevalent programmatic source for Liszt’s symphonic poems?
Does the 1889 symphonic poem Don Juan use percussion?
Who is the composer of 1889’s symphonic poem Don Juan?
Richard Strauss
How many symphonies did Brahms write?
In the late 19th century, which composer is best known for embracing the traditional symphonic heritage of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and other Viennese composers?
Of which composer was Brahms speaking when he said “you have no idea how it feels…when one always hears such a giant marching along behind”?
which young composer was Robert Schumann speaking when he said “If he lowers his magic staff where the massed forces of chorus and orchestra give their powers, then we shall yet have even more wondrous glimpses into the secrets of the spiritual world”?
Which genres were the primary focus of Mahler’s compositional output?
Symphonies and songs
What was Mahler’s principle source of income for much of his career?
Conductor/Music Director
What is the basis for the finale of Brahms’s Fourth Symphony?
Which genres are discussed as being most extensively explored by German composers?
Symphony and symphonic poem
Were Bohemian composers more likely or less likely to incorporate nationalist, folklore, or indigenous works in their orchestral works?
More likely
Which non-French composer is cited as a strong influence on d’Indy and Chausson?
What is the principle genre for most of the cited Italian composers?
What genre is cited as the principle genre of Gilbert and Sullivan’s collaboration?
What type of piece composed by John Field is cited as particularly influential upon Chopin?
Which two American composers are cited principally as composers of songs?
Foster and Emmett
Works for which two instruments are cited most frequently in the discussion of Spanish composers?
Piano and guitar
According to the chart ‘‘Milestones of Sound Recording’”, in what year was the 33 1/3 rpm long-playing record introduced?
In the illustration captioned “The technology of early sound recording”, what sort of device is being used to emphasize the sound of the solo cello?
Acoustical horn (“megaphone”)
According to the chart ‘‘Milestones of Sound Recording”, what is the most significant event in this area in the 1990s?
Which 20th-century musician said “All art of the past must be destroyed”?
Pierre Boulez
According to the Primary Evidence Box titled “Literary Modernism: The Stream of Consciousness”, in the quoted passage from Joyce’s Ulysses, who sings “When first I saw that form endearing”?
Simon Daudalus
What was a factor in the 19th-century growth of music production and consumption?
More church sponsorship of music
According to the Primary Evidence Box “Music and the State”, which 19th-century European composer said “Art, as such, does not ‘pay,’ to use an American expression…and…art that has to pay its own way is apt to become vitiated and cheap”?
What was a factor in the 19th-century expansion of public involvement in music?
Invention of music printing
In the 19th century, were romanticism and nationalism more likely to be linked or kept separate?
What is typically true of the Romantic outlook?
Interested in the social and political aspirations of the minority
Did Darwin’s theory of evolution have an influence in the realm of politics?
Who was the economist and philosopher whose phrase “the survival of the fittest” was based in Darwin’s evolutionary biological theory?
Which two nations’ populations expanded the most between 1800-1900?
United States and European Russia
In what year was the phonograph invented?
In which two countries, formerly broken into small independent states, did the Revolutions of mid-century catalyze movement toward national unification?
France and Italy
Who was the general and emperor who was defeated at Waterloo in 1815 and in whose aftermath the boundaries of the Continent were redrawn?
In what year(s) did revolutionary uprisings break out in many central European states?
Were the first films with sound released before or after first commercial radio station opened?
In terms of global politics, what was America’s reason for becoming involved in the Korean and Vietnam wars?
Limit the spread of the global spread of communism
Was the stylistic tendency in 20th-century music for composers’ styles to become more or less similar?
Less similar
In the 1920s, did economics affect political stability more or less than in the 1910s?
More than the 1910’s
What is content?
Time/Place/Circumstance/Ideas that shape changes in style
What is an -ism?
A suffix attached to an adjective to create a noun
Sonata Form
Make it “new”; unique is good and past is unoriginal
Musical preference style is…
Wagner used what as a tool to portray/convey subconscious?
Characteristics of Romanticism
What SHMRG characteristics of Wagner’s Prelude show unpredictablity?
Irregular Tempo
Deceptive Cadences
Different phrase lengths
Which figure bargained something precious for knowledge/wealth?
Doctor Faustus
Which mythic figure combines the ideas behind Faust and Adam & Eve?
Why is the Erlkonig by Shubert an example of early romanticism?
Text imitates folk song; storyline
What does the lyre signify?
Appolo/Orpheus; Accomplished recitation
Did -isms originate/apply to other forms of art before or after music?
Artists/composers borrow eachothers ideas because why?
What is gothic?
Stories of supernatural or the horrific
What was/(were) Berlioz primary instrument(s)?
Voice and guitar
Why did Berlioz choose his specific harmonic structure for the Symphonie Fantastique?
Orchestration possibilities
Weber’s operas are strongly influenced by which composer?
Why is the Erlkonig often cited as exemplory of “romantic aesthetics”?
Plays out gothic
Formal structure became more or less strict/traditional?
What are the four common techniques of nationalism?
Which composer is most associated with the birth of romanticism and the virtuoso?
What are some characteristics of the nocturnal?
Myserious, supernatural, subjective, intuitive, dreams, night, dreams, night, moonar
What two musical elements united to exude unpredictability and chromaticism?
Harmony and Form
What two musical elements united to exude unpredictability and chromaticism?
Political narrative and propoganda drive what -ism?
Which american-born composer borrowed from his hungarian gypsy background to create virtuosic show pieces?
Unlike the symphony, what is often a forum for compositional experiments?
Music for dancing and marching coincide with which -isms?
Primitivism and Exoticism
Harmony and Form moved toward the importance of which two musical elements?
Sound and Rhythm
Neoplasticism originated from form of the arts?
Visual (Pablo Picasso)
What two elements have to work together in a ballet program?
Sound and Visual
Utopia; Optimistic/idealistic future outlook
What new communication innovations contributed to musical progress?
Telegraph, Telephone, Radio
In what year was the first paid orchestra founded?
Age of Revolution was driven by what ideology?
What is the relationship between progressive topics and progressive techinques in various media?
Color and instrumentation/narrative and musical sound
Which composer worried the wax cylinder would change how the audience listened to music?
Explored fundamental approaches to music
2 important impressionist composers
Claude Debussy
Maurice Ravel
Form of Impressionist music
flow from one moment to the next, building and receeding in tension without striving to resolution; less emphasis on them and harmony and more on mass of sound
Harmony of impressionist music
less tonal; 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths; non-diatonic scale use
Voice-leading in impressionist music
Individual independent voices; Parallel 4ths, 5ths, and octaves
Rhythm of impressionist music
Fluid; no definite sense of rhythmic meter
Timbre of impressionist music
orchestration distributes thematic ideas
Whole tone
six note scale entirely of whole step intervals
5 note scale
scale of alternating whole and half step intervals
Growing number of composers returned to use of what kind of scales?
Greater or less possibilities of harmonies based on unconventional scales?
Quartal harmony
chordal harmony based on 4ths rather than thirds
Usually associated with negative connotation; rejection of self-imposed, arbitrary conventions of typical western culture
Motoric rhythm
repetitive patterns
Absence of tonal center
Broad artistic movement that sought to give voice to unconscious to evoke deep emotion
Expressionism avoids conventional techniques and favors what?
Devices that exaggerate and distort
“The Scream”
Painting by Edvard Munch
Spontaneous reaction to something that caused pain/fear
Albertine Zehme’s collection of 21 Poems were used by which expressionistic composer?
Style of singing reinforcing surreal quality of text music; not quite song or speech
Wozzech (1922-25)
Alban Berg Opera
“nobody must be filled with anything except the idea of the opera”
Five Pieces for String Quartet Op. 5 (1905)
Anton Webern
Serial compostition
Created by Schoenburg; row/series of 12 different pitches to provide a structure of work(s)
use of all 12 chromatic pitches
4 basic forms of a row/series
Retrograde Inversion
48 possibilities of specific row
Demonstrates manner in which different elements contrast in theme, timbre, harmony, rhythm… on a deeper coherence
scale consisting of six pitches
Alan Howhaness (1911-2000)
rejected atonality; “atonality is against nature…fine for a moment or two but sounds all the same”
Deliberate imitation of an earlier style with contemporary aesthetic
Classical Symphony Op. 5 (1917)
Sergei Prokofiev
Arch form
moving towards something and retracing steps to beginning
Ex: A B C D E D C B A
What genre came with the collaboration of film and sound in 1927?
Film genre
Socialist Realism
Style that evokes music of people with optimism
Non-retrogradeable rhythm (palindromic)
the same backwards and forwards
What form of musical drama arose from opera?
Largest vocal genre outside opera
Mathematical application of artistic expressionism by Xenaki
intervals smaller than 1/2 half step in diatonic scale
Hexachord that can be combined with one of the 4 basic forms without duplicating pitches
Dissonant counterpoint
reverse tonal counterpoint; Consonances resolve by step by Charles Seeger (1866-1979)
Integral Serialism/Total serialism
includes elements of rhythm and or dynamics
Aleatory music
Latin term for “die”; writing music by chance (roll the di)
one sided south-indian traditional drum
accompanies mrdangam; two sided hand drum
traditional reed instrument
guitar-like; 19 strings- 6 main pitched, 2 rhythm, 3 resonating
emotion driving art forms in India
Color Theory
Experimentation with colors relating to emotional experience; Red=intensity, white=rationality
non-literal depiction of perspective