the cultural and artistic movement that stressed expression of emotion, nonconformity, experimentation- “Do your own Thing!” – an age of extremes
compositions that have a specific national identify, such as marches, anthems, battle songs; music that evokes feelings of pride one’s homeland; patriotism in spirit ; action, whether in war or public service
compositions written about foreign lands; such as Dvorak (Armenian/Czech) writing about the U.S.A. in his Symphony No. 9– “New World”
Program Music
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, scene from a play, or as simple as an idea
the booklet/page that you receive when you attend a formal concert, play, ballet, recital, etc. It contains explanatory comments for Program Music called the synopsis
Art Song
one of the “extremely small” compositions of the 19th century; a solo song for man or woman, with piano accompaniment; 1 movement in length. Generally tells a story of Great sadness; loss ; sacrifice, death, sorrow, etc. This was the art of the survivors of the Napoleonic wars; the common person dealing with life
Song Cycle
later 19th century developmental song cycles were similar to multi-movement forms from the classical period, like opera or symphonies; made up of 3 or more art songs that together tell 1 story
trans. robbed time; an expressive gesture by the composer to indicate slowing of tempo, (ritardando, rallentando) or accelerating the tempo (accelerando, pressez, piu mosso)
Through-Composed Form
a Romantic form which has no repeats of music or lyrics, such as in Schubert’s art song, the Elf King. The diagram might be “A-B-C-D”, (vocal music only)
Strophic Form
(vocal music only); new lyrics for repeated music, such as verses in “hymns”
interpretive dance form; originated in France, before the Revolution; pairs composer & Choreographer in a 19th century collaboration that rivaled opera in popularity
Program Symphony
a 19th century addition to symponic composition; each movement of the Opus has a “title”, and an explanatory synopsis in the “program“. Berlioz’ Symphonie Fantastique is our example in this class
Sostenuto Pedal
the 19th century technology that added the ability “sustain” (let the strings ring) without having to hold-down the keys- “hands-free” chords!
a slow, lyrical piece for solo instrument with piano accompaniment; 1 movement
“night piece”; a short, 1-movement piece for piano solo only!
“Music Drama”
the name given to the operas of 19th century composer Richard Wagner- implies that they are much more involved and evoled than traditional opera; some of the largest compositions in history- 150+ orchestra, 200 character casts
“Idee Fixe”
a “motive”, or short melodic idea that adds the identify of a literary character in the 19th century Symphonie Fantastique by Hector Berlioz; the motive represents his beloved ; betrothed, Harriet Smithson (of the U.S. Smithsonian Institution family), and is present in all 5 movements
a 19th century version of a Classical “Theme & Variations” – the theme is very short, and employs a repeated bass line called a ground bass– we heard one during the Baroque chapter with “When I am Laid in Earth” from Dido ; Aneas by Purcell. Our example is Symphony No. 4-Brahms, 4th movement
“Study Piece” – written by most composers, but made into formal concert pieces by Polish pianist Frederic Chopin; these peices display a real technical skill and intense Emotion
Romeo ; Juliet
the most popular of Shakespear’s plays, and the most frequently set to program music during the Romantic Period. Berlioz’s beautiful setting utilizes a chorus in the orchestra, similar to Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9
the Medieval concept of choosing good over evil for no other reason than that “it is the good and honorable thing to do!” An echo of the Roman Empire’s Legionaire’s motto: “Strength & Honor!”
“Field of Honor”
another medieval area of fascination, where disputes of Honor were “decided by Almighty God in the Gentleman’s Duel“- either sword or pistol. These contests were to the death!
Dies Irae
trans. “Day of Judgement” – the Roman Catholic chant used by Berlioz in the 5th movement of Symphonie Fantastique; the most holy of Chants to the Romantics
the search by some Romantic authors, artists, musicians for answers outside traditional religious dogma for answers to the question of “Why?”- as it related to the horrors of death, disease, starvation following the revolutions and wars of the classical & early Romantic periods