french artistic movement in late 19th C early 20th C fascination with change. Opposed to romantic art, pleasant subjects.
– Monet, Renoir, Degas
French, poems suggestive of images and moods without specific details, can be static.
– Debussy, Mallarme
Claude Debussy
1862 – 1918: harmonic language, Paris conservatory at age 11, Influenced by Wagner, went to paris exhibition (javanese), Chromatic, planing, rarely used whole orchestra, no sense of key, descriptive titles, planing let chromaticism sound pleasant.
Tome poem/symphonic poem
orchestral program music in one long movement. Genre –> unanswered question (Ives) or Prelude to the afternoon of a faun.
pentatonic scale
played on the black keys – five note scale
whole tone scale
6 tones a whole tone apart, sometimes used by Debussy
avant garde
in the most advanced style
1914 – 1918
1939 – 1945
Igor Stravinsky
1882 – 1871: Russian, famous for ballet in Paris. Rite of spring, Nijinsky, riot 1913 Russian Ballet, went to US because of WW2
endless images of scantily clad lazy exotic women for your viewing pleasure.
static, simple, preserving ethnic
Rite of Spring
Stravinsky, Nijinsky, 1913 Russian Ballet, Riot, Ballet score
multiple rhythms at once (right of spring)
simultaneous juxtapositions of multiple key areas in different parts of the orchestra (rite)
sound unstable, or tense
sound stable and tension free
money given to an artist in advance of the composition
plucking strings
extended technique
unconventional ways of using an instrument
reaction against romanticism and impressionism. It was a conscious some 18C imitation (form, genre, ensemble). Rejected nationalism and subjective personal expressions and returned to absolute, non-programmatic music.
expressionism (style)
1880 – 1925: scandanavia/germany, intense, subjective emotion, isolation, madness, deranged psychological state. Reaction to impressionism, wake of WW1
– Munch, Kirchner, Schoenberg, Berg, Webern
Second viennese School
impressionist composers (before 1920)
Arnold Schoenberg
1874 – 1951: taught berg and Webern, Influenced by Brahms and Wagner. Abandoned tonality in 1908, atonal music in string quartets and art songs and orchestral movements. Jewish and emigrated to US in 1933.
1883 – 1945
1885 – 1935
speaking that follows contours of music
purposeful avoidance of tonal centre, dissonant, schoenberg
12-tone system
a row contains all 12 chromatic notes of the scale and all must be used before repetition. Can be prime, inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion.
prime form
original line of 12 tone system
prime form backwards
prime form inverted (intervals reversed)
retrograde inversion
prime row backwards, then inverted
Bela Bartok
1881 – 1945: Hungarian, compiled folk songs (ethnomusicologist)
compilation and study of folk songs, relevant in the contexts of nationalism and primitivism
symmetrical musical structures
musical symmetry
symmetrical musical structure
organized and coordinated dances
Ballet score
the music associated with a ballet performance
Pierre Boulez
1925 –> avant garde, anti-romantic, advocated integral serialism – which took the 12 tone system one step further having instrumentation, notes, dynamics all pre-determined in a system
Darmstadt school
avant garde, Boulez, Anti-romantic (romantic – emotion, individualism and imagination/subjectivity)
integral serialism
controlling for all aspects of music (orchestration, form, instruments, notes, dynamics)
vocal syllables with no precise wording or meaning
experimental notation
notating scores in unconventional ways – example, a map of the stars or no order
Graphic notation
aleatoric performances accomplished with this – require performers to improvise and interpret – but not all aleatoric music is graphically notated.
Aleatoric music
indeterminate, chance
quotation music (style term)
taking from previous works (style term)
incorporation of electric sound into compositions
musique contrete
transmission of natural sounds together onto a tape and you can manipulate the sounds to create new timbres
1) filtering out, 2) overdubbing, 3) manipulation, 4) sound reversal
filtering out
in musique concrete you can cut out bits of tape and put other bits of tape in
in musique concrete combining different sounds,
in musique concrete changing the playback speed
sound reversal
in musique concrete playing the tape backwards
electronic music
music made artificially
additive synthesis
sounds created by combining sine waves, pure pitches without overtones
sine wave (generator)
pure pitches without overtones generated by a machine
white noise
every audible pitch at the same time
Edgard Varese
poeme electronique 1883 – 1965
Poeme electronique
synchronized with film, philips pavilion, 1958, human voices and sound, themes of human existence, images, shapes like a stomach
Gyorgy Ligeti
1926 – 2006: jewish hungarian, went to forced labour camp during WW2, most of his family died in Auschwitz, influenced by serial method. Electric sound with acoustic, influenced by Darmstadt (Boulez)
Sound Mass Composition
sliding and merging orchestral clusters, creating a succession of various timbres that might be status or dynamic or both simultaneously.
textual effect where individual parts are lost within an overall effect
John Cage
1912 – 1992 – avant garde, percussion lover
4:33 – 1952
Percussion ensemble
ensemble of percussion only
prepared piano
type of extended technique involving inserting things into the piano to alter the sound
aleatoric music/indeterminacy
determined by chance performers and interpretation
chance operations
things unplanned or improvised
mixed music
live performers with pre-recorded tape
live electronic music
sound produced by performer and modified electronically at the time of production controlled by another performer, made possible more easily in the 1960s by voltage control
film score
established mood, genre, sets place, time (lietmotifs)
film music 2 types
underscoring, source music
underscoring (type of film music)
outside the action of a film
source music (type of film music)
inside the film, like in crouching tiger hidden dragon, there are live performers in the back room of the restaurant
functions of film music (4)
establish mood, establish setting/time, running counter to juxtapose and leitmotifs or character development
Tan Dan
chinese ‘new wave’ composer, very famous, composed pipa concerto
1957 –>
New Wave
composers who explored modern/western/avant garde in china
traditional stringed chinese instrument
Stylistic pluralism (style)
combination of western (atonal, aleatory) with traditional chinese instruments and aesthetic
construction of new piece using previously existing art
minimalism (style)
incessant repetition of short musical motifs
post minimalism (style)
more dynamic and active textures than minimalism, faster development, more complex and interesting neo-romantic harmony, and a wide variety of performing media
Arvo Part
1935 —>
estonian, spiritual minimalism, quotation, serial technique
Steve Reich
1936 –> well known classic minimalist
vocal number for solo singer and orchestra in an opera, cantata, or oratorio
Thy Hand Belinda – Purcell, Dido and Aeneas
(lament aria)
art song/lied
monody for solo voice and piano accompaniment
Clara Wieck Schumann – Der Mond kommt still gegangen
ballet score
music for a ballet
Stravinsky – The rite of spring
composition in several movements for solo voices and instruments perhaps also chorus. can be sacred or secular.
Christ Lag in Totesbanden – Bach
chamber music
music played in small groups – string quartet or piano trio
The Joke (No. 30) Haydn
reciting words to music, generally monophonic, and for liturgical purposes
Ave Maris Stella – Guillaume Dufay
character piece
short romantic piano piece that portrays a particular mood
Chopin – Nocturne in F#
concerto (solo)
a large composition for orchestra and solo instrument
Concerto No. 23 – Mozart
concerto grosso
less important after 1750, early baroque, small concerto and group of solo instruments
double concerto
concerto for two soloists (triple concerto)
film score
music to a film, establish mood, setting, juxtapose or character identify/develop
roman catholic services: 5 sections, kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, agnus dei
Pange Lingua Mass, Kyrie – Josquin Desprez
slong semi-dramatic piece on a subject for soloist, chorus and orchestra (no drama, costume, setting)
Handel – Messiah
drama presented in music with singing instead of speaking – has arias and recitative
Madama Butterfly – Purcell
opera seria
italian, serious subjects, heros, history, mythology. Baroque italy
Madama Butterfly – Purcell
opera buffa
italian, comedic opera
german, arias, spoken (no recitative), ensembles, songs, ballads, spoken-dialogue
The Magic Flute – Mozart
piano quintet
string quartet and piano
half singing, half speaking style of presenting words in opera, cantata, or oratorio following spoken rhythm closely. Secco + continuo and accompanied recitative is with an orchestra
chamber music, in several movements or solo piano or piano and soloist.
Beethoven – Moonlight sonata
song cycle
group of songs with a general theme or motif, something connecting them
Schubert – Erlkoning
Schoenberg – Pierrot Lunaire (mondefleck)
string quartet
chamber music, 2 violins, viola and cello
Haydn – string quartet No. 30, the joke
piece consisting of multiple dances
symphonic poem
orchestral program music in one movement
(impressionist) Clouds – Debussy
multi-movement work for orchestra
5th Symphony – Beethoven’s
40th Symphony – Mozart
woodwind quintet
french horn, bassoon, clarinet, flute and oboe
450 – 1450 (9C)
Hildegard Von Bingen – Columba Aspexit
1450 – 1600
Pange Lingua Mass, Kyrie – Josquin Desprez
1600 – 1750
The Brandenburg Concerto – Bach
1750 – 1800(ish)
Piano Concerto 23 – Mozart
1800s – 1900s
Der Mond Kommt Still Gegangen
20/21st century
1900s –>
John Cage – Sonata 5