music in the Middle Ages
church was center of musical life; woman not allowed; no instruments; Gregorian Chant
Gregorian Chant
official music of the Roman Catholic Church; monophonic, set to Latin; flexible rhythm
secular music in the Middle Ages
Troubadors/ Trouveres; performed by jonglers; instrumental dances; about love and crusades
Polyphony Organum
2+ melodies playing together; initially parallel to chant, then developed its own melodic curve
word painting & unusual harmonies; several solo voices set to a short love poem; combined homo & polyphonic
Lute Song
song for solo voice and lute; popular instrument in the Renaissance home; homophonic
1600-1750; flamboyant; visual arts; fills the space
Early Baroque
1600-1640; homophonic
Middle Baroque
1640-1680; Major & Minor
Late Baroque
1680-1750; dominant chord to the tonic
Baroque characteristics
one mood; repeated rhythms; constant volumes with abrupt changes; mostly polyphonic; bass; extended words
note above, long
mini trill
sideways ‘S’, turn back on the note and go to the next one
Grace Note
superscripted note, go to the note above and back; can com in 2s or 3s
The Fugue
cornerstones of Baroque music; polyphonic composition based on one theme; sang in a round
opposite tones
opposite direction
Antonio Vivaldi
Late Baroque; sacred and secular vocal and instrumentational music; Il Prete Rosso; La Primavera
Johann Sebastian Bach
late Baroque; organist & violinist; wrote everything but opera
Baroque Suite
instrumental, multi-movement work; written for listening, based on dance; binary; often began w/ French overture
The Oratorio
like opera- large scale work with scales and ensembles; unlike opera- based on Bible w/o acting, scenery, or costumes
George Frederic Handel
England’s most important composer; had own opera company; buried at Westminster Abbey