* In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum (Motet)
Phillipe De Vitry

* form is created by repetitions in the tenor (color), the tenor melody consists of two statements of the same phrase of chant

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* in the second statement, the note values are diminished by half
* each statement of the chant is divided into three segments (tale)

* the first three have identical rhythmic patterns in the tenor
* the last three have the same rhythm as the first
* apart from the hockey, the voices are mostly independent
* uses a double leading tone cadence at the end of the piece

* Rose, liz, printemps, verdure (Rondeau)

* composed most of his polyphonic chansons for three voices, rather than four
* full refrain heard at the beginning and end
* constructed around a two voice frame work, the contra tenor reinforces th tenor in the same range and the triplum shares the upper octave and exchanges motives w/ the cantos
* Long melismas at the beginning of lines and some times in the middle;

* Non avra ma pieta (Ballata)
Fransisco Landini

* there line refrain is sung before and after a seven line stanza
* the contra tenor fills out the counterpoint and adds rhythmic interest
* built around two voice framework comprising the cantos and tenor
* frequent use syncopation, varied rhythms and many sonorities including thirds and sixths
* mostly clear almost syllabic texts setting, less angular contra tenors, smooth/ more stepwise and rhythmically regular melodies

* Quam plchra es (motet)
John Dunstable
* Unlike many other motets, there is no strong difference in character between the tenor and the other voices
* all are in similar style and importance
* largely homophonic with short melismas at the ends of both main sections
* resembles that of a conductus or its english relative, the Cantilena
* Musical form determined by the text/musical phrases are molded to the rhythm of the words
* frequent use of melodic thirds and the occasional outlining of a triad
* some passages feature parallel 6/3 sonorities
* almost every vertical sonority is consonant, and thirds and sixths are prominent
* Resvellies vous (Ballada)
* standard AAB form repeats for each stanza
* florid treatment at the end of each line of the poem is part of the Ballade tradition
* imperfect tempus w/ major prolation (6/8 time)
* hemiolas and syncopations throughout
* combines elements from three main traditions of the 14th cent.

* Ars Nova: ballade form and syncopations
* Ars Subilior: rapid complex rhythmic passages
* Italian Trecento: smooth vocal melodies and syllabic declamation
* Missa Le la face ay pale (cantus firmus mass)

* Missa Le la face ay pale (cantus firmus mass)
* cantus firmus is heard at different speeds throughout the setting
* as the setting progresses, the borrowed melody becomes more prominent, eventually in its original durations
* Tenor provides scaffolding
* basses provides the harmonic foundation
* top two voices are the most active moving in stepwise motion varied w/ skips
* each movement has a head motive at the beginning of each movement, establishing a relationship between sections
* also linked by sharing the same mode
* Consonance and dissonance are carefully controlled
* includes many thirds and sixths
* De plus en plus (Rondeau)
G. Binchois

* great number of thirds and sixths show the influence of English music
* quickly moving cantos(top voice) indulges in runs, dotted figures and syncopations
* slower moving tenor (middle voice) provides a foundation, harmonizing the cantos mostly in thirds and sixths
* Contratenor (bottom voice) livens the rhythm and fills in the harmony, often supplying the third
* music fits the shape of the poem
* cantus is mostly syllabic
* cadence marks the end of each poetic line

* Missa Plus en Plus (cantus firmus Mass)

* used the tenor rom Binchois’ chanson of the same name
* achieved a full harmonic sound by including three different consonant pitches in the simultaneous sonorities, except in the las chords of important cadences
* where the tenor or lowest voice descends at a cadence, on or more voices syncopate to cause a suspension
* the only other dissonances are brief passing tones
* Phrases are long
* blurred cadneces via motion in the other voices
* His continuous flow and fondness for syncopation reflect a concentrated French style

* Ave Maria: (motet)
Josquin des Prez
illustrates the style that would characterize the 16th cent.
* Each phrase of the text hs its own musical motive which is presented in imitation by each voice in turn.
* multiple points of imitation
* the musical sentance is initiated and comes to a cadence and a similar sentence with its own motive begins
* the cadences overlap with the next sentence and are concealed.
* This means that the music continues without an obvious division of sections
* Mille Regretz (Chanson)

* simpler and more homophonic than most of his other chansons
* each phrase of text is given an distinctive musical phrase that fits the rhythm and meaning of the words
* several of the cadences include thirds, as was becoming common in this period

* Da le belle contrade: (madrigal)
Cipriano de Rore

* Through composed
* Represents the second generation of madrigals in 5 and 6 voices
* using a single voice for SOLA MI LASCI (thou leaves me solitary)
* minor descending half-steps and thirds covey sadness
* dramatic pause before ah, cruel love
* long and mournful descent for the phrase “end in tears”
* Words and feelings are conveyed through striking musical devices(tone painting)

* Solo e pensoso (madrigal)

* rising and falling chromatic lines represent the measured steps as he wanders in the deserted fields
* lots of chromatic motion

* Pope Marcellus Mass:
* he possibly composed it in order to demonstrate to the council of trent that is was possible to write a polyphonic mass that was reverent in spirit and did not obscure the words
Teleion Melos
Greek Music in its perfect form.In its perfect form, Greek Music was associated withe words, dancing or both; its melody and rhythm were most intimately bound up with the melody and rhythm of poetry
The Doctrine of Ethos
* the moral qualities and effects of music

* Music affects character and different kinds of music affect it in different ways
* It divides music into 2 classes

* 1: music whose effects was toward calmness and uplifting

* Worship of Appollo
* 2: music which tended to produce excitement and enthusiasm

* Worship of Dionysus

Responsorial psalmody
* the leader sung the first line of the psalm and the congregation responded by singing the second
* Antiphonoal psalmody
* two parts of the verse or alternate verses were sung by two choruses
* 1: Kontakia/Kanones:
Byzantine Hymns with an elaborate structure (contrasting with hymns of the Western CHurch)
* A Kanon consisted of 8 divisions, called Odes. Each Ode had its own melody which remained the same for each stanza of the ode.
* Each Ode corresponded to a specific Bible Canticle (certain lyrical portions of the Bible, similar to hymns or psalms.
The melodies were note wholly original

* they weren’t organized on a specific scale, but rather a group of given short motives
* the singer combined these motives to create his own melody
* some were used for beginning, middle or end of the melody.

* The Hymn:
* introduced by St. Ambrose (Ambrosian:Milan)

* gradually became a poem in Strophic Form
* the sanzas were sung within the same melody
* Mostly Syllabic structure
* aimed toward a congregation rather than a trained choir or soloist
* Not necessarily from scripture

* Gregorian Chant consists of:
single line melodies sung to Latin words by unaccompanied men’s voices

* Features a flexible rrhythm articulated by means other that regular accentuation
* It’s in a scale system different from our major and minor
* it has an impersonal and other-worldly quality
* Sensuous beauty and emotional appeal are subordinate to expression of religious content

Liber Usualis-
contains a slection of the most frequently used chants from bothe the Antiphonale and the Graduale
Liturgical Dramas
* grew out of the liturgy/tropes
* Eariest was for Easter/ Introit of the mass for Easter
* Dialogue was sung and was accompanied by appropriate dramatic action
* Scope became larger and acting grew more realistic
* eventually became separate from the normal church service
Guido of Arezzo
(11th cent.)
* Perfected a method for sight singing hexachordal patterns
* became the basis for modern solfeggi
* In order to learn a melody that went beyond a specific hexachord, he employed a process called Mutation
* A certain note was taken as if it was from one hexachord and quitted as if it were from another.
* Similar to a pivot chord

* By the 11th century, Guido of Arezzo was using a four Line staff for F;C; and G
* These letters evolved into modern Clefs
* The invention of the clef enabled a precise notation and also freed music from the dependence of exclusive oral transmissions
* It did not convey rhythm or duration of pitches
* The modern practice is to treat notes as if they had the same basic value
* Usually grouped rhythmically in groups of 2s or 3s

The Guidonian hand:
* a pedagogical aid for sight singing
* pupils were taught to sing intervals as the teacher pointed with the index finger of his right hand to different joints of his open left hand
* each one of the joints stood for one of the twenty notes of the system
* It was used in all medieval and renaissance era text books
Goliard Songs
: Earliest Form of Secular Songs (11th and 12th Cent.)

* The Goliards: the basis for these songs
* students or footloose clerics who migrated from one school to another before the founding of the universities
* Their way of life was celebrated in their songs
* Songs were usually about Wine, Women or Satire
* Spirit of the songs is keen and informal
* Only a little of the original music is notated
* modern transcriptions are conjectural

a 13th century monophonic song

* originally may have been part of a Liturgical Drama when a person “Conducted” from one position to another
* Texts were like metrical verses, like the texts of sequences
* By the end of the 12th cent. the term Conductus was applied to any non-liturgical Latin Song
* Generally Of a serious character
* Metrical text
* On either a sacred or secular subject
* Its melody was newly composed, rather than borrowed or adapted from another source

* Parallel Organum:
the plainsong melody (Vox principalis) is duplicated either a fifth above or a fourth below by a second voice (Vox Organalis)
* Either voice can be further duplicated at the octave and at other intervals
* Organum with Parallel Fourths: The voices start at a unison with the Vox principalis moving away from the Vox Organalis until it is a fourth away. They move back towards a final unison at the cadence
* 11th Century: Progress towards melodic independence
* contrary and Oblique motion became regular
* Consonant invervals: Unison, 8va, fourth and fifth
* Dissonant: All others
Florid Organum
* new type of organum appears in the 12th century
* the original plainchant melody always lies in the lower voice; but each note is prolonged to allow the upper (solo) voice to sing varying phrases in length above it.
* increased the music’s length and deprived the lower voices of its original character as a definite tune
* probably originated in improvisation
Discant Style
note-against-note counterpoint in the rhythmic modes (often improvised in two voices, and lower being a Cantus firmus); usually in contrary motion and mostly in imperfect consonances.
Notre Dame Organum
* Leonin (late 12th cent)
* Choirmasters at Notre dame
* their works and contemporaries became known as the “Notre Dame School”
* Polyphonic Composition of the 12th-mid14th cent. developed primarily in Northern France
* 3 priniciple styles of Composition to Come from this school
* Organum
* Conductus
* Motet
Polyphonic Conductus
* 2-4 voices within a narrow range. featured crossing voices
* organized around the consonant intervals
* thirds sound prominently but were still not considered perfect
* triple division of beat
* Voices usually moved in the same rhythm
* produced a “Chordal Style”
* this was called “Conductus Style”
* Words were set syllabically
* The Tenor was a newly composed cantus firmus, rather than a chant melody
* Both Organum and Conductus dropped out of favor by 1250 in favor of the Motet
“Cut up song” the flow of the melody is interrupted by the insertion of rests, in a way were they missing notes are filled in by another voice

* They occur occasionally in secular conducti and motets
* some in the late 13th and more in the early 14th Cent
* Pieces that use it extensively are called “Hockets”
* Can be either vocal or instrumental
* Usually have a fast tempo
* Slow: Cruce Motet Style
* Medium: Franconian Motets
* Fast: Hockets

* a Round or a Canon
* Used in English Medival Music
* Featured a full chordal texture
* Free use of Thirds a consonance
* and a distinct “Major” tonality
* Below the Canon, two tenors sitha pes (Foot or repetitive bass motion) with continuous interchange of the voices
* a song in which all parts were systematically interchanged by each voice singing every phrase in turn
* each section was like a round except that all the voices began together instead of individually
* Philippe De Vitry
: Ars Nova “New art”

* treatise written C. 1316-18
* term became used to denote the musical style in France through the first half of the 14th century

* Musicians of the time were conscious of striking out a new path

a Medical principle by which a repeated rhythmic pattern (the talea) unifies the structure of a composition. It often appears in the tenor, but may include all parts, and it is often interlocked with a melodic pattern (the color) of a different length, the two coinciding only intermittently at the end of the piece.
* Ballades
* On of machaut’s important achievements

* Ballade or Cantilena style
* aabC (C is the refrain)
* consisted of 3 or 4 stanzas, each sung to the same music and ending with a refrain
* the first 2 lines had the same music, but often w/ different endings
* consisted of 2-4 parts for various combination of voice and instruments
* typical setting was for high tenor solo voice with two lower, more slowly moving instrumental parts
* IT is organized in distinct phrases, each ending with a definitive cadence

* Landini Cadence
: Mannerism of the late 14th and early 15th cent

* Upper leading tone moves down to the 6th before rising to the tonic

Messe de Notre Dame:
* most famous composition of the 14th century

* A four part setting of the Ordinary of the Mass
* Not the first polyphonic setting
* Important because of:

* Spacious dimensions
* four part texture
* clearly planned as a musical whole
* it is a first-rate work

* Madrigal
* first polyphonic genres to appear in Italy
* usually written for 2 voices
* Pastoral texts or satiricle poems of 2 or 3 stanzas; Stanzas were set to the same music
* At the end of the stanzas an additional pair of lines called the Ritornello was set to different music and in a different meter
* Caccia
* Influenced by the French Chace with lively pictorial descriptive words and a melody designed to be sung in strict cannon
* flourished between 1345-1370
* featured two equal voices in unison
* unlike the french and spanish, it had a free supporting instrumental part in slower movement below
* Like Madrigals, it featured a Ritornello
* COmposers’ use of canon was a reflection of contemporary popular practice
Musica Ficta
* Chromatic alteration was common at cadences where the 7th note of the mode was a whole step leading into the final

* a third contracting into a unison must be minor
* a sixth expanding into an octave must be major
* chromatic alteration was used in order to avoid sounding a tritone above the lowest note of the chord

* later became known as “the devil in music”
* May also be introduced to create a smoother melodic line
* these alterations were not always written down

* players were often left to make the nessecary alterations according to the rules
* or it might happen according to their own fancy
* It was called Musica Ficta due to the fact that it did not fall into the Guidonian System

Fauxbourdon Style
* The melodic line is accompanied in parallel motion by the 2 other voices
* it would be described in modern theory as a succession of first inversion triads
* it was a composition written in 2 voices which progressed in parallel sixths with octaves interspersed and always with an octave at the end of the phrase
* to these written parts an unnotated third part was added in performance, moving constantly at a fourth below the treble.
* Made for passing 6/3 chords
* The Old Hall Manuscript
* The chief collection of English Music in the early 15th Century
* contains147 works dating from Ca. 1350-1420
* 80% are settings of the Ordinary of the Mass
* 20% are motets, hymns and sequences
* Most of the mass settings are in chordal discant style

* Melodic activity is on the top
* often find a plainchant melody in one of the inner voices
* Leonel Power’s Sanctus features a 4 voice texture w/ a Liturgical cants firms in the tenor that lies above the contra tenor.
* This type of setting, plainsong melody in the next to lowest voice, is important as a forerunner to the manner of using a plainsong tenor in the masses of the lat 15th and early 16th cent.
* 1/7th of the works are isorhtymic

* Votive Antiphon:
First half of the 16th century

* A sacred composition in honor of some particular Saint, most often the Virgin mary
* Charactaristics:

* Full Sonoroty
* Alternation of Larger and Smaller voice groups
* Large Scale division into sections of perfect and imperfect time

Burgundian Cadence
a disguised V-I cadence often used by the Burgundians in three-part music. The highest voice moves from the seventh to the octave (perhaps in Landini fashion) the middle voice leaps up an octave from the dominant, and the lowet voice descends one step to the tonic.
* The Armed Man:
* The tenor may have been a folk song and may have been played rather than sung
* Dufay’s Setting

* The cantus firmus was not necessarily used continuously throughout the piece
* The prevailing four part texture was frequently replaced by duet or trio sections

* these were usually free composed w/o a C.F.
* The C.F. might have been subjected to various rhythmic modifications or elaborated melodically

* Inverted or in Retrograde
* Armed Man masses from the 15th and 16th cent. are notable for complications of this sort.

Harmonice Muisces Odhecaton
* Petrucci: (One Hundred Songs)

* One of the most famous music anthologies of the time
* a selection of Chansons written between about 1470 and 1500
* Pieces ranging from the Late Burgundian Composers to the “modern” generation

* COmposers: Isacc, Josquin, Agricola, Compere
* Most of the Chansons have either no words or only a text incipit
* Text did not imply a soley vocal performance

* Soggetto Cavato:
A subject “carved out” of a word or sentence by letting each vowel indicate a corresponding syllable of the hexachord

* EX: Josquin’s Missa Hercules dux Ferrariea

* the theme is spells out the Name of The Duke of Ferrara

* Parody Mass:
A mass or motet that over not merely a single voice, but severals

* including the characteristic motives, progressions or even the general structure and musical substance of some pre existing chanson, mass or motet.

* EX: Josquins” Mass Malheur me bat
* The trend of the parody mass accelerates greatly in the 16th cent. The full fledged parody mass not only borrows musical material to a significant extent, but also makes something new out of it, especially by means of combining borrowed motives in an original contrapuntal striation with systematic imitation in all voices.
* It Replaces the CF mass as the dominant form by about 1540

* From 1504-14, Petrucci published at least 11 collections of Strophic Italian songs, set syllabically to music in four parts
* they have marked rhythmic patterns
* simple diatonic harmonies
* homophonic style
* Melody in the upper voice
* They Flourished in the late 15th and early 16th cent.
* Usual method was to sing the top voice w/ the others in accompaniment
* They were possibly a reaction against the artificial sentiments and the contrapuntal style of the nethelands Chansons
* It is a forerunner to the Italian Madrigal!!!
* the extent of the Influence on the style of the French Chanson began to appear in the 1520’s
* The religious counterpart to the Frottole

* a popular non liturgical devotional song
* texts were sometimes in Italian or Latin
* set to four part music with melodies often taken from secular songs
* Two books were published by Petrucci in 1507-08
* Commonly sung in semi public devotional gatherings, either a cappella or with instruments playing the bottom 3 voices

* they were syllabic, homophonic, regularly rhythmic with the melody in the top voice.
* They seldom incorporated Gregorian Themes and did not show many traces of the franco-flemish church style
* Netherlanders in Italy learned from the Frottole/Laude style

* harmonic writing and simple syllabic text setting
* passages in familiar style in the music of man late 15th cent. composers

* Lochamer Liederbuch
1452: On the earliest collections of Germain Polyphonic songs

* contains both monophonic and polyphonic songs

* Polyphonic songs feature a 3 voice texture with the melody in the tenor
* Composers combined German melodic material with a conservative method and contrapuntal techniques form the Netherlanders

* Ricercare:
* early ones were improvisatory with limited imitation
* later ones have a clearer form by means of repetition of phrases and balanced passages of paired imitation
* by 1540, they consist of a succession of themes without marked individuality or contrast
* each developed in imitation and interlocked with the next by overlapping with the cadences

* it is like an instrumental, textless motet
* they were intended for ensemble playing but were also written for solo keyboard

* differ from voice: freer voice leading and instrumental embellishments

Madrigal (16th Century)
* Had nothing to do with the 14th cent madrigal

* Trecento Madrigal was a strophic song with a refrain (ritornello)
* The 16th cent. Madrigal made no use of a refrain or any of the older Forme Fixes
* It was a through composed setting of a short poem

* Constructed as a series of overlapping sections,
* some contrapuntal and some homophonic, each based on a single phrase of the text
* It resembled more of a motet

* Features
* Homophonic setting
* symmetrical phrasing
* occasional repetition in the music following the structure of the text
* at this point the madrigal still resembled the French Chanson and Italian Frottola

* Canzon Villanesca
(Peasant Sont)

* appeared around Naples in the 1540’s
* three voiced strophic, lively piece in homophonic style
* composers often deliberately used parallel fifths
* Not popular or Nationalistic
* Composers also wrote serious Madrigals and other types

* Vaudevilles:
different type of Chanson that appeared about 1550

* Strictly Homophonic
* short
* strophic, often w/ a refrain
* usually performed as a solo with lute accompaniment
* Musical meter is bound to the meter of the texts
* Later was known as an Air de Cour

* Ballett
: derived from the Italian form, the ballet

* Mainly homophonic with the tune in the top voice and in a dance meter
* Distinct sections w/ full cadences and repetitions resulting in a formal pattern: AABB
* two or three strophes sung to the same music
* Fa La La refrains

* Consort Songs:
* Solo songs or duets with accompaniment of a consort of viols and later a chorus

* Mainly secular and for household use
* They are relatively conservative and concentrate on musical qualities rather than text painting

* Composers:

* WIlliam Byrd (1543-1623)
* Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625)

rhymed, metrical translations of the Book of Psalms

* set to melodies either newly composed or adapted from plain chant
* They were originally sung in unison and unaccompanied in the church service

* also used for devotional use at home
* settings were maid in four and mor parts with the tune in the tenor or soprano
* some were in simple chordal style while others were in a more elaborate motet style

* The Council of Trent
was held to formulate and give official sanction to measures for purging the church of abuses and laxities

* with regards to the music, the principal complainers were about its secular spirit
* Complicated polyphony made it difficult to understand the words
* excessive use of instruments in church
* bad pronunciation, carelessness and irreverent attitudes of church singers
* The effect of the council’s decrees was to recognize and station stylistic tendencies in church music which were already established by the middle of the century

* New Style:

* smooth, curved, stepwise melodic lines
* regularity in rhythm
* simplification of counterpoint
* frequent use of homophony
* pure diatonic harmony
* clarity of text
* composer to avoid using secular suggestions

* The Canzona:
* AN Instrumental composition with the same general style of the French Chanson

* light, fast moving, and strongly rhythmic with fairly simple contrapuntal texture
* Composers took over these characteristics along with the Long-Short-Short opening rhythmic figure.
* Became the leading form of contrapuntal instrumental music
* Earliest Italian Examples were for organ
* about 1580, Composers began to write ensemble Conzonas
* THe Organ canzonas were the forerunners of the fugue!!!!
* The Ensemble canzona eventually developed into eh Church sonata of the 17th cent
* The essential step in this development was the division of the canzona into a number of distinct sections

* many of the early ones had a single theme
* Others introduced themes of contrasting character, each theme going through its contrapuntal work out and then yielding to the next theme
* The piece as a whole began became a series of contrasting sections
* Repetition became extremely important

* before the 16th cent, the use of repetition was a liturgical requirement by the poetic form
* In instrumental music, the decision to use repetition was strictly musical; to give coherence and variety to polyphony without the text
* Other Names:

* Capriccio
* Ricercare

* The main improvisation style of this era became the

* The harmonic structure is animated in all voices by embellishments and scale passages in freely varied rhythms
* ornaments probably played with a rather free rubato like delivery
* A contrasting middle section is a short ricercare with three themes
* After the middle sections comes a passage similar to the opening but with harmonies more broadly laid out with even more fantastic play of brilliant running passages
* It was a speciality of the Venetian organ composers

* Merulo was the first to introduce the ricercare middle section
* Most toccatas of this time were in one movement in strait improvisatory style
* Other Names:

* Fantasia
* Intoazione
* Prelude

* A particular mannerism of English Polyphony

* To express an intense feeling, the sounding of a pitch in its natural and sharped form.
* It results in a clash of a diminished or augmented unison or octave
* This stretches the rules of consonant counter point

* The higher (Sharp) version of the specific pitch is presented in a line that moves upward
* The lower (flat) version of the specific pitch is presented in a line the moves down
* THe momentary grating is justified by the strongly directed linear motion

* Two principal Aria Styles:
* Bel-Canto: Generally syllabic setting in relatively slow motion, usually i triple meter.

* gave the singers the opportunity to let the vocal sound resonate
* Florid Style: features rapid coloratura passages, showing off a singers’ vocal agility.
* The structures of these two styles became somewhat standardized into two patterns.

* One was the vacation, either in strophic form or with a melody unfolding over a short obstinate bass
* the other was the symmetrical ternary design, with later evolved into an elaborate large scale scheme.

* Lament Bass:
* A bass line that was a descending minor tetrachord:

* 2 whole steps followed by a half step down
* might by disguised by octave transfer or chromatic passing motion
* often depicts sadness

The Oratorio
* Developed from the Motet and Sacred Concerto as an outgrowth of musical settings of biblical texts in dialogue
* It was a natural development of the liturgical drama
* As the composers’ imagination led them to develop the interaction between characters and portray dramatic events, the pieces could no longer be incorporated into the liturgy

* They were performed in a prayer hall adjoining the church, which was called an Oratorio

* The name of the genre was established around 1640
* The stories were taken from the Bible, usually from the Old Testament

* Modern poets filled in details and added dialogue for interest
* Oratorio Latino: an oratorio in Latin
* Oratorio Volgare: AN oratorio in the Vernacular
* It became common to divide the action into two acts, similar to an opera

* The action was not staged like an opera, but narrated by a singer know as testo.

* This was a crucial distinction between oratorio and opera
* There was also a greater use of chorus than in opera
* Composers

* Giacomo Carissimo (1605-1674)

* worked in Rome
* Mostly composed for a society of devout laymen: The Brotherhood of the Most Holy Crucifix

* The Fantasia:
* Composers began to realize a flaw in the Ricercare
* In taking the motet as its model, it retained its free form, interlocking sections based on points of imitation
* without the words to provide coherency, the textless ricercare often gave the impression that the music wandered aimlessly from one point to the next
* The solution, achieved in ricercares and keyboard fantasias was to concentrate on working out one point of imitation, or Subject.
* It Provided unity to the entire piece as well sas keeping w/ the aesthetic assumption that an entire piece should be governed by a single affect
* To provide variety:

* Subject may be altered at each new polyphonic exposition
* present the subject in a different voice
* rhytymic augmentation or diminution
* accompanied by one or more countermelody
* ComposerS:

* Jan Sweelink: (1562-1621)

* Organist at the Famous Old CHurch.

* The Sonata:
* Canzona developed in the opposite manner of the ricercare

* THe canzona tended to fall apart into short contrasting sections that maintained interest more through contrast than by unity
* The division between sections of the sonata resulted in the formation of clearly distinguished movements, each conveying a different affect.

* generally related by contrasting tempos: between slow and fast
* While the ricercare/fantasia continued w/ a contrapuntal style, the sonata was a more modern monodic style. One or more parts w/ continuo
* The texture of 2 solo parts w/ continuo was very popular

* called Trio Texture and Trio Sonatas

The Baroque Suite
* The individual dances tended to adopt a binary form w/ 2 equal halves. They are separated by a strong cadence and each half is commonly repeated
* Practice of pairing slow and fast dances slowly expanded into movements, forming a Suite

* Suites loosely follow a simple plan of contrasting tempos and rhythmic characters
* Free Piece as an introduction: Prelude
* Opening dance movement: Allemande

* moderate tempo
* duple meter
* Followed by a Courante

* faster and using a triple meter
* Followed by the Sarabande

* triple meter
* slow tempo
* durational stress on the second beat
* Gigue came into favor as the closing movement

* fast tempo
* compound meter
* This positioning and order of movements became standard around 1550 due to the influence of the keyboard suites of Johann Froberger (1616-67)
* Another possibility in the suite was to have the movements share a fundamental musical idea

* French Overture:
* Influential contribution to the history of instrumental music
* Composers found it a satisfying manner of treating the opening large scale musical work.

* I began w/ a slow and stately passage in homophonic style
* featured dotted rhythms
* followed by a faster and lighter commonly fugal section
* possibly a brieft return to the opening style at the end.
* French string writing is in five parts as opposed to Italian scoring which featured 3 or 4 parts.
* French also preferred plenty of wind instruments, especially double reed instruments

* Da Capo Aria.
* Consisted of two large contrasting parts

* the second marked w/ a return to the first with “da Capo:
* First part opened w/ an instrumental ritornello in the main key
* Section for solo singer followed w/ the first half of text
* Next is the instrumental ritornello in a new key
* Another solo section with the same text
* It comes back to the main key with the second half of the text
* It is important for coordination of the textual and thematic material with harmonic plan and scoring to create a musical design that operates on several levels.
* Embsellishment was inherent to the tradition. Singers were expected to ornament the return of the A material

* Masters of this were the Castrati
* usually took heroic roles and were masters of vocal technique

* Fugue:
* The fugue had already been anticipated by the use of a single subject throughout an imitative polyphonic ricercare and fantasia
* THe subject became sharper in rhythm and pitch than the smooth and lyrical motet like ricercare
* the subject also had a clearer musical design

* manipulation of the subject in the course of the fugue took on many forms
* Inversion of the pitch contour was common
* Rhythmic augmentation or diminution
* With regard to the harmonic design, one important step was the normalization of the tonal answer; whereby the second voice presented the subject a fifth above

* it could be adjusted so that it stayed within the key
* The exposition not only presented the subject, but also established the harmonic center
* Once the key was established, the fugue could depart from it.

* modulation might use free material or fragments of the subject in an episode.
* Once it arrives at a new pitch level, the subject or exposition could be restated
* This process could be repeated in several stages
* Stretto: rapidly overlapping imitative entries of the subject to increase a caadential climax

* THe comic relief was provided by separate works performed between Opera seria acts
* These works were called Intermezzo

* Standared Opera Seria had three acts; thus the Intermezzi had two
* Plots were simple, set in modern days and often slapstick
* They were stock comic situations used in Commedia dell’arte
* usually centered around a clever young woman getting the better of a domineering but bumbling man

* The literary style was unsophisticated
* Music included: SImple recitative/ Da Capo Arias/ensembles for the solo singers
* SOlo parts were true Italian Opera Slyle, not English Ballad opera
* Distinctive feature was the employment of a Bass Voice
* Accomapniment was provided by a reduced orchestra
* Most famous and important Intermezzo of the genre was Giovanni Pergolesi’s La Serva Padrona 1733

* Just 2 singing actors and one mute actor provides an accurate representative of the genre’s main characteristics

* Traite de l’harmonie in 1722

* This led him to a new perspective on harmony
* Instead of viewing chords as combinations of various intervals above the bass, he regarded it as a permutation of a harmonic abstraction built on Triads
* As a result he had to articulate the concept of the inversion and the root
* the triad, identified by its root rather than the bass note, offers the consistent index of how the tones in the harmony will function
* He argued that a particular progression of chords seemed to control the flow of the music

* Gave the name Tonic to harmony of closure
* Gave the name Dominant to the triad that most strongly lead to Tonic
* Once the functions were identified, modulations could be explained
* Rameau also insisted that melody should be derived from harmony

* he suggested that the composer should have in mind a progression and that the meld should derive from those harmonies

* It supported the inclination of melody to clarify harmony
* The tendency of melody to proceed in vocal fashion, mostly stepwise motion became weaker, while the outlining of triads and more instrumental skipping became stronger
* This lead to a slowing down of harmonic rhythm

* Ealier it would have been on every beat
* Now it was likely to be once per measure
* a phrases would generally consist of only a few, functionally directed harmonies over which a melody could unfold.

* Galant
: implies elegance, charm, intimacy, grace, clarity and naturalness
* It opposed the weighty, affective style of the Rationalist style
* It was particularly associated with France, were intellectual control had always tempted the aesthetic of the rhetorical intensity
* Characteristics:

* General Lightness of texture

* a single melodic part without any pretense of counterpoint
* accompanying textures are voiced sparingly
* rhythmic flexibility
* rhythmic anmation via the use of the Trommelbass

* the steady rapid reiteration of a note in what is really a slow-moving harmonic baseline
* Murky bass: in which the notes are played in alternating octaves
* Decorative surface ornamentations in the form of agreements
* Forms are simple: the binary dance structure, or the rondeau with a recurring refrain that keeps the music from launching ambitions expeditions

Opera Buffa
* As the Intermezzi grew in popularity in Italy, Composers launched an independent genre of Opera
* it was a national response to the current demand for less artificial, more immediately appealing genre than the opera seria

* Took plots from contemporary situations
* it offered for explicit rather than obscurely allegorical morel or cultural critique
* Opera Buffa became more of a progressive social force
* Like the Intermezzo, it adopted a two act division
* Employed stock characters and situations
* Longer than Intermezzo and had a larger cast
* It maintained the use of recitative for dialogues and called fro a more elaborate style of singing
* the new flexible approach to musical expression lowered the rhetorical stakes in the genre

* La Guerre des Bouffons
* It was an argument between those who support the French and Italian Styles
* French thought the Italian style was busy and artificial
* while their own music seemed to them simpler and more natural
* THe antagonists could frame the argument as between conservatism and progressivism, patriotism and cosmopolitanism
* Emfindsamkeit
: the term associated with this spirit
* in order to achieve this expression, the composers adopted and often exaggerated some of the more obvious rhetorical gestures of the past

* In a single movement, there might be a large number of these gestures in variety, rather than focusing on a single affect
* They believed that emotional experiences are not made up of static passions, but rather by constantly fluctuating feel ins
* Charactarisitcs

* There is no text to show emotion
* Many gestures are influenced by recitative
* frequently descending half step motions
* lines broken up by rests
* Chromaticism and surprising chord changes
* Rhythmic flexibility

* FIrst Berlin School:
a group of Composers, Including CPE Bach, cultivated keyboard accompanied lied with new concentration

* Many of the Poems they set belong to a literary style that works well with Emfindsamkeit style
* Authors of the same time and artistic inclination produced the sentimental novel, which culminated in a style know as Sturm and Drang, WHich exploits raw emotion.

* Composers interited musical rhetoric a repertoire of common and commonly understood rhetorical styles or

* The Military Style: strong rhythms; dotted patterns; duple meters; simple diatonic harmony; melodies that outline triads
* Heroic/Agresion
* The Singing Style: flexible rhythm; cantabile lines in a melody and accompaniment texture
* Amorous/Tender
* Pastoral Style: featureing melodies that resemble shepherd’s pipe tunes; somethimes in parallel thirds set over drone like basses
* Dance Types: Landler, Gavotte, Bourree, Bourgeois Contredanse
* Brilliant Style: rapid virtuosic passage work
* Sturm and Drang: Minor modes, chromatic harmonies and melodies and recitative like phrasing
* Emotional Distress

Basso Continuo
a continuing bass part indigenous to Baroque music; it requires realization by a keyboard player and, usually a string instrument. a basso continuo part may be figured or unfigured.
Three basic terms requrie definition. The subject is the main theme of the fugue and might well consist of a distinct head, middle and tail. The countersubject is a melody sung against the subject. An episode takes place between statements of the subject; its thematic material may either be new or drawn from the subject or countersubject
Sonata Form
the standard form employed by composers in first movements of symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, and with modification concertos. It features tonal contrast, thematic contrast, and a true development section. THe early Classical sonata form reveals its heritage in that it remains rounded binary; in the High Classical period it soon adopts a three part form: exposition, development, recapitulation. Finally with the usual occurrence of a coda in teh works of Beethoven, it becomes a four part form.
Rhythmic Modes
A rhythmic system based upon teh meters of poetry and employed, not without some flexibility, in the thirteenth century before the advent of mensural notations. There are a total of six, each based in a triple meter.
Second Berlin School
* Some of the most influential composers of lieder around the turn of the century were based in Berlin,
* They based their style on musical simplicity and their intention to let the poetry speak clearly for itself

* Raised the ideal of the Volkston (Folk tone)
* Suggests both folk like simplicity and reflection of the national folk character
* Leader of the school was composer and director Karl Zelter (1758-1832)

* felt the at the setting should privid a medium for the delivery of the text; not an attempt to interpret it
* They wanted to avoid a musical style that seemed operatic
* A strophic text called for a strophic seeing of a spirit that broadly suited the song text

* Desinged to conform to the meter and verst structure of the poem
* The intention of composers and the Zelter song aesthetic led to songs that employed strophic form with symmetrical melodic phrasing, light textures and simple harmonies
* Singer and pianist used shadings of dynamic, timbre and tempo to interpret what the composer leaves open
* THese were good for drawing rooms of the Middle class

the Ballad (Romantic)
* Alternative to the Strophic Lied was

* Texts were narrative and dramatic
* Irregular poetic rhythm
* Musical settings were usually through-composed
* They could be long and rambling and passing through numerous vocal styles and accompaniment textures, musical meters an keys to that the story could be unfolded

Modified Strophic Design
* Modified Strophic Design: comparible to variation form; strophic principle operated as far as the poetic content would allow

* gave the impression of Volstumlich without tying the composer’s hands

Scena ed Aria
* Italian Romantic composers developed a 2 part form structure for any large number and particularly for a soloist’s

* first section is a slow reflective movement referred to as a Cavatina
* its often in 2 strophes and may be closed or open ended
* A transitional passage leads to a fast and brilliant concluding movement known as the Cabaletta

* it may be in binary form or have more than one strophe
* it expresses powerful emotion and becomes the climax of the scene
* This forwardly directed plan is more dramatically conceived artistic shape than the rhetorical 18th century da capo aria
* this structure could also incorporate interpolations for additional characters or chorus and could also be applied to a duet scene

Concert Overture
* Opera overtures had been popular on orchestral concerts and in 1826, he established the genre of the with A Midsummer Night’s Dream op. 21
* he did not intend the work as an instrumental introduction to a specific performance of the play
* it provided the model for a one movement orchestral composition with definite literary content
* THe concerto overture normally takes the form of a sonata movement, often with a slow introduction
* It does not try to outline a narrative of events
* its Themse and styles capture the characters or qualities of its extramusical subject matter
* It’s more appropriately throughout of as “Characteristic” rather than “Programmatic”
New German School
* At the mid point of the 19th cent. some leading composers pursued the principles oand the stylistic tendencies of Romantic Music even further
* These progressive composers were identified as a and adopted the slogan “The Music of the Future”
* Founders of this school were Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt
* They also felt it nessecary to write about their philosophical, artistic and musical views
* in 1855 in the Neue Seitschrift fur Musik here appeared under Liszt;s name a major essay in the defense of Programme music

* represented in Berlioz’s Harold et Italie
* The ideals of the progressive movement found their expression
* Liszt sums up his guiding principle by saying the artist can peruse beauty outside of academic rules with out having to fear failure
* reliance on convention is no longer essential in music.
* Direction of musical development is toward more explicit emotional content and that the artist must demand emotional content from the formal framework

* Symphonic Poems:
* a designation invented by Liszt for a single movement orchestral work with specified programmatic content
* Unlike Concert overtures, symphonic poems tend to depart from the conventions of sonata form

* through roots in the sonata form can be discovered, others form is merely vestigial
* Their structure in the the freest pieces in best explained by reference to the events and shape indicated by the program
* The works amount to poems expressed in tones rather than words
* Literary programs did not necessarily precede eh musical composition

* Liszt’s Les Preludes (1854) the music came first.
* the program, a reflection of the fact that life is only a prelude to the mystery of death, was adapted from on e of the poetic meditations of Lamartine

* Stabreim:
which has its basis in the use of alliteration between the strong work roots or syllables
* It produces a poetic dictation that diverges sharply from the four-square structure and it naturally finds an equivalent freedom and flexibility in the phrase structure of the music
“Endless Melody”
* As in the symphonic poem, the processes of musical form in the dramas are similar to the symphonic method
* The ideas form an integrated weblike network rather than clearly articulated sections of sonata form or the traditional opera

* This avoids much that defined form in the preceding period

* Such as: square phrasing, clear cadential formulas and filler passages for transitions and ending
* Wagner described this continuous flow of the musical line as the

* Unity and contrast came from the statements, juxtaposition and developmental use of important motives

* He described their use as resembling that i a symphonic development
* they would be intertwined, juxtaposed, developed and combined
* Rather than appearing as vocal melodies, they mostly occur in the orchestra
* in many cases they are associated with characters, objects or ideas in the text or on stage
* They aren’t simply motives by also part of the dramatic material of the work
* Weber provided the most direct model but these motives war vastly more complex than any of his predecessors

Lyric Opera
* The Late Romantic movement was manifested partly in the operatic genre

* Composers backed away from the hugeness of the grand opera and concentrated n the expression of personal feeling, mainly through the emphasis on the voice and the melody
* The Librettists turned the spotlight on the characters and their subjective experience rather than treating serious philosophical or political matters as in Wagner’s music drama

Tone Poem
* The symphonic poem founded by Liszt led to the development of the by Strauss

* Feature a large and colorful orchestra and a musical style that is harmonically and structurally free
* Dominated by content
* Two types of programs;

* Narrative:

* Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks, 1895: adopts a flexible rondo like structure to follow a series of scenes centered around a single character
* Don Quixote 1897: Designed around a similar purpose by as a set of Variations
* Abstract and Philosophical:

* Death and Transfiguration 1889: Employs a free treatment of sonata form

Mystic Chord
Alexander Skryabin; experimented with non triadic tonalities. : built of a stack of perfect, diminished and augmented fourths.
* Exoticism:
the application of new tonal patterns derived from musical styles from outside the leading musical nations of Europe

* A significant resource for exoticism was the publication of folk songs of various nations, including spain, russia and Asian countries
* They were often regularized to make the more intelligible to ears accustomed to the mainstream musical tradition
* A major event was the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1889

* many musicians heard music of the far east for the first time
* Many composers set Asian subjects and attempted to imitate asian music

* Puccini in his Japanese Madame Butterfly 1904 and Chinese Turnadot 1926

Mighty Handful
* The more strongly independent nationalistic movement in Russian music was the work of the group of five composers

* Alexander Borodin 1833-87
* Cesar Cui 1835-1918
* Mily Balakirev 1837-1910
* Modest Musorgsky 1839-81
* Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov 1844-1908
* They concentrated on mostly vocal and program music with nationalistic content
* Topics included:

* Russian history: Musorgsky’s Boris Gudenov
* National Music: Rimsky-Korsakov’s Russuan Easter OVerture
* In attempting to create their national music, they quoted and imitated the style of folk tunes

* melodies may be simple and diatonic with an emphasis on skips of fourths and fifths
* sinuous and chromatically ornamented in a more asian style
* Rhythms sometime depart from regular meters
* Mussorgsky created a special vocal style that deliberately resisted forcing Russian texts in to patterns crafted for and suited too Italian or German

* he worked out a distinctive style guided by natural linguistic declamation of his own language
* Harmonies of Russian music are not particularly advanced in chromaticism or dissonance, but the harmonic progressions may be nonfunctional, reflecting modal qualities of the folk song based melodic conten

a movement lead by a new group of authors that began to explore the seamier side of life and portray the detractive and violent aspects of the human condition
* In Italy, the realistic opera style

* Pietro Masagni’s Cavalleria: deals with Sicilian Peasants and moves rapidly toward its climax; a duel between a husband and his wife’s lover
* The Musical style features violent contrast
* Vocal parts are more declamatory tahtn other italian styles and tend to have sweeping , wide ranges and high tessituras
* They are often heavily reinforced by orchestral doubling, which demands considerable vocal power
* The orchestra is large and colorful
* Chromatic harmony adds to the emotional intensity

* The French whose national predilection had run in the vein of elegance and grace, many artists found the weighty pretensions of eth New German Style unsympathetic
* at the same time, they could not fall back on the conventions of the French “Classicising” tradition
* as the century came to a close they developed characteristically French approaches to painting, literature and music

* they offered alternatives that absorbed what seemed useful in Wagnerianism, such as the sensuality of the sound and the free interplay among senses and symbols; expressed a french viewpoint with integrity
* These movements include and Symbolism
* Impressionism dealt with a lack of clarity and sense of being vague

* Timbres and Harmonic colors receive the greatest emphasis
* Less important are rhythm, melody and harmonic function
* The least important is form

* Expressionism
* the term is derived from the opposite of impressionism, since the artist relied not on sensual appeal, but on a deliberate attack on the senses
* It is a logical outgrowth of Romantic Emotionalism
* Sprechstimme;
* Pierrot Lunaire 1912: a set of 21 setting os poems by poet Albert Giraud

* For voice and chamber ensemble consisting of combinations of Piano, flute or piccolo, clarinet or bass clarinet, violin or viola and cello
* In addition to a dissonant, atonal style and scoring for instruments whose tone colors generally clash, Schoenberg empaled a special type of vocal declamation
In which the performer uses the timbre of regular speech but follows a contour of high and low

* No. 15 “Heimweh”

The Twelve Tone method
* The method grows logically from the governing axiom that in order to avoid tonality no pitch class among the twelve equal tempered chromatic system should receive greater exposure than any other

* 12 pitch classes are simply ordered in a row, called the Prime or original row, set or series-such that none is repeated
* The series must be stated in its entirety before the first of its pitch classes can return
* there are 479,001,600 possible series
* The composer’s first task is to determine the character of a new composition’s row by means of selecting the intervals that it features, we might compare this to the choice of key or mode
* In addition to providing equal play of the pitch classes, the method also provides very strict structural unity

* this is accomplished by using various permutations of the original series
* Because a simple transposition still gives the 12 pithces of the series exposure, who the musical patterns of intervals are recognized as representing the series, transposition is permitted as long as it applies to the entire row
* Other manipulations are possible

* Interval for interval inversion:
* Retrograde: reverse order
* Retrodrade Invesion

* Les Six
* Louis Durey 1888-1979
* Arthur Honegger 1892-1955
* Darius Milhaud 1892-1974
* Germaine Tailleferre 1892-1983
* Francis Poulenc 1899-1963
* Georeges Auric 1899-1983
* Although they differed in personality and style, they shared a rejection of impressionism and expressionism and a belief in the strength of tonality
* Milhaud, the most progressive of the group, was affected by Latin American music and jazz as exemplified in his La Creation du Monde

* He also explored the extension of tonality to polyharmony and bitonality

* Gebrauchsmusik:
Paul Hindemith

* Includes all compositions that arise from or are intended form particular situations
* promotes musical usefulness ratherthan expression
* works from unusual groupings of performers, instruments that had been neglected as soloists; for amateurs and for teaching purposes

Night Music
* The Third movement of Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta 1936 illustrate his experimental techniques
* it employs unusual sounds, extending the range of musical tones to include effects that some would have thought to be mere noise
* Timpani glissandos and violent pizzicatos
* Bartok
* Socialist Realism
* Art/Music must be understandable by the masses
* must be worth of the great classical and romantic Russian tradition
* must be optimistic and thereby help to build socialism
Dixieland/New Orleans style
* First important style of jazz came out of New Orleans

* scoring includesa rhythms section of piano and drums; possibly joined by banjo and double bass as well as solo winds including clarinet, trumpet and trombone
* most striking feature was its syncopated rhythms and its most important performance technique was improvisation on a simple melodic or harmonic foundation
* Typical was the twelve bar blues pattern

* Three four bar phrases consisted of a first phrase establishing tonic, a second moving from subdominant to tonic and a third moving from dominant to tonic

Big Band/ Swing
* In the 1930’s and 40’s commercialism

* represents a distinct part of the growing process in the history of jazz
* The leaner, simpler and classic sound of 20’s Dixieland was enriched by larger ensembles
* As a result, it became necessary to compose music ore thoughtfully
* Improvisattion was limited to one performer at a time and virtuosos multiplied
* Function of musical also changed as it was increasing used for dancing
* Most notable composer of the time was Duke Ellington (1899-1974)

* brought classical symphonic scope and techniques of motivic development in to juxtaposition with jazz idioms
* also composed musicals, film scores and sacred works

Musique Concrete
* In the early years the sources of sound available to composers were recorded tones and noises

* By the 1940’s, Composers with tape recorders and microphones were collecting sounds in which to make their works with
* This sort of composition is known as

* Ussachevsky’s Linear Contrasts: uses sounds of a gong, harpsichord invoices, thought these sounds are so modified that their sources aren’t evident

Chance Music/Aleatory Music
* Some composers questioned the fundamental assumption that in the course of the history of music tab tit is inevitable that composers should be greater and greater in control of their music
* They reasoned that music has involved some degree of flexibility in actual execution and that aspect of the art deserves more exploration
* This lead to the idea of

* Concept was pioneered most notably by John Cage (
* Strongly influenced by Eastern mystical philosophy, he argued against the western compulsion for rigorous control in art
* He valued freedom, flexibility and randomness
* In Indeterminacy, the composer exercises partial control, usually to establish the conditions for the performance

* Imaginary Landscape no. 4: Calls for 12 radios tuned to various frequencies and manipulated according to a specific set of instructions
* 4’33”

Some composers who had begun as modernists,using styles that were at least difficult and sometimes so deliberately challenging that the listener could no longer draw on any received assumptions about the musical material and form. began to write more approachable music

* Composers expressed postmodern diversity within their styles or techniques in many different ways

* SOme worked in “old” Styles such as Post romantic
* Old musical styles reemerged

* The music of the early periods experienced a tremendous renascence as musicologists transcribed and published quantities of piece
* Some early works achieved a degree of recognition in the popular media
* Early music infiltrated the imaginations of composers

* Peter Maxwell Davies opera Taverner is based on the composer John Taverner combined music of that period with modernist techniques
* Luciano Berio (1925-2003) based the third movement of his Sinfonia for eight voices and orchestra, on the scherzo of Mahler’s Symphony no. 2, layering fragments of music from Bach to Stockhausen

* sometimes known as process music, embodied the postmodernist idea that forward directness was not necessarily an essential attribute of experience
* Can be related to some of the ideas of Cage, coming out of Eastern philosophical conceptions that allow for stays or very slow and unmotivated mutation
* The composer typically establishes only a limited number of brief musical motives

* These are played in continuous repetition, perhaps with periodic additions of new ones or delention of ones already used
* Terry Riley (1935) In C consists of 53 motives, to be used in ostinato like fashion as long as the performers wish.

* This results in a musical form that evolves continuously in slow moving apparently suspended time
* Steve Reich (1936-) Crafted similar effects by presenting a single musical motive in several simultaneous lines that are slightly out of phase

* Come out 1966: based on a recorded phrase spoken by a young African American describing his police station experience
* Piano Phase 1967
* Violin Phase 1967

* The music tended to make an appeal to audiences accessibility. since it produces lasting rhythmic regularity and clearly oriented pitch framework

* Commonly employed diatonic pitch vocabularies
* the degree of dissonance is relatively limited
* Expressive effect is often hypnotic
* Minimalist music denied many of the Traditional Western Concepts that had governed music

* Dialectical resolution of dualistic opposites
* Sense of beginning, middle and end

The Hot Five
Louis Armstrong’s first jazz recording band led under his own name.
It was a typical New Orleans jazz band in instrumentation, consisting of trumpet, clarinet, and trombone backed by a rhythm section. The original New Orleans jazz style leaned heavily on collective improvisation, where the three horns together played the lead: the trumpet played the main melody, and the clarinet and trombone played improvised accompaniments to the melody. This tradition was continued in the Hot Five, but because of Armstrong’s creative gifts as a trumpet player, solo passages where the trumpet played alone began to appear more frequently. In these brilliant solos, Armstrong laid down the basic vocabulary of jazz improvising, and became its founding and most influential exponent.
The Hot Five was a recording group organized at the suggestion of Richard M. Jones for Okeh Records. All their records were made in Okeh’s Chicago, Illinois recording studio. The exact same personnel recorded a session made under the pseudonym “Lil’s Hotshots” for Vocalion/Brunswick. While the musicians in the Hot Five played together in other contexts, as the Hot Five they were a recording studio band that performed live only for two parties organized by Okeh Records.
There were two different groups called “Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five”, the first recording from 1925 through 1927 and the second in 1928; Armstrong was the only musician in both groups.
Tragedie en musique
(Musical tragedy), also known as tragedie lyrique (French lyric tragedy), is a genre of French opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully and used by his followers until the second half of the eighteenth century. Operas in this genre are usually based on stories from Classical mythology or the Italian romantic epics of Tasso and Ariosto. The stories may not have a tragic ending – in fact, they generally don’t – but the atmosphere must be noble and elevated. The standard tragedie en musique has five acts. Earlier works in the genre were preceded by an allegorical prologue and, during the lifetime of Louis XIV, these generally celebrated the king’s noble qualities and his prowess in war. Each of the five acts usually follows a basic pattern, opening with an aria in which one of the main characters expresses their feelings, followed by dialogue in recitative interspersed with short arias (petits airs), in which the main business of the plot occurs. Each act traditionally ends with a divertissement, offering great opportunities for the chorus and the ballet troupe. Composers sometimes changed the order of these features in an act for dramatic reasons.
Hexachordal combinatoriality
is a concept in post-tonal theory that describes the combination of hexachords, often used in reference to the music of the Second Viennese school. In music that consistently utilizes all twelve chromatic tones (particularly twelve-tone and serial music), the aggregate (collection of all 12 pitch classes) may be divided into two hexachords (collections of 6 pitches). This breaks the aggregate into two smaller pieces, thus making it easier to sequence notes, progress between rows or aggregates, and combine notes and aggregates.

take the first six notes of the row and mutate them in some way and produce the other six; to enhance unity;

Phillipe De Vitry
appears to have been on the outstanding composers of the time

* Motet tenors are often laid out in segments of identical rhythm

* Longer tenor, rhythms are more complex, the whole line mores more slowly under fast notes

* it functions as a foundation on which the piece is constructed
* As the 14th cent progressed composers began to think of the motet tenor as two distinct parts

* talea: the pattern of rhythm
* Color: the set of intervals
* These two might be joined in various ways

* if they are the same length, one may be halved “Diminished”
* They might be of differing lengths so they do not coincide with each other

* These motets are called “Isorhythmic”

* in some instances, the upper voices as well as the tenor is isorhythmic
* This basic idea of isorhythm was not new in the 14th cent

* during the 14th cent and into tho 15th, it came to be applied in ever more extended and complex ways
* It also helped give a sense of unity to longer pieces of music

In late medieval Western music, a clausula was a newly composed polyphonic section for two or more voices sung in discant style (“note against note”) over a cantus firmus. Clausulae eventually became used as substitutes for passages of original plainchant. They occur as melismatic figures based on a single word or syllable within an organum (a composition where one or more voices have been added to a plainchant melody to create polyphony). The text of a clausula differs from that of the plainchant melody underneath it. Each clausula is clearly delineated by a final cadence.
Clausulae emerged from the compositional practices of the Notre Dame school in Paris c. 1160–1250 (during the stylistic period known as ars antiqua), especially those of the composers Leonin and Perotin. Rather than write entirely new music, the preference was to take existing music, that is, plainchant melodies, and develop or improve upon them. Perotin’s clausulae make use of the rhythmic modes, whose strict metrical feet necessitated that voices change notes together (discantus). This was in contrast to the earlier practice of one voice moving in a free rhythm above a “tenor” voice (Latin tenere: “to hold”) sustaining the long notes of a cantus firmus. The tenor line was often repeated to allow for expansion of the clausula; this was the origin of the technique known as isorhythm.
* The Concertato:
* Composers now favored contrasting timbres
* The term for this type of scoring is called Concertato

* It began as a way of indicating that a vocal piece was doubled in performance by and instrument
* The exploration of this contrast was the hallmark of the Venetian School
* First appearance of pieces called concertos in G. Gabrielli’s 1587 publication of his uncle’s polychoral works
* Later, the term Concerted applied to the use of contrasting voices or instruments with separate functions.

* Aquitanian Polyphony:
* Region of France
* More ornate
* Developed in SW France
* Origin of a piece containing both florid and disc ant styles
Spectral music
(or spectralism) is a musical practice where compositional decisions are often informed by sonographic representations and mathematical analysis of sound spectra. The spectral approach focuses on manipulating the features identified through this analysis, interconnecting them, and transforming them. In this formulation, computer-based sound analysis and representations of audio signals are treated as being analogous to a timbral representation of sound.
The spectral approach originated in France in the early 1970s, and techniques were developed, and later refined, primarily at IRCAM, Paris,
Common-tone diminished seventh chord
Common-tone diminished seventh chord About this sound Play (help·info).
A diminished seventh chord may alternatively resolve to a major or major-minor seventh chord whose root is one of the notes of the diminished seventh chord, the most common being the raised supertonic seventh, which resolves to the tonic in major keys and the raised submediant, which resolves to dominant triad or seventh in major keys, with the altered tones resolving upward by half step.[8]
* Vorimitation:
Process of integrating the CF in the main melody w/ long notes. and introducing each of its phrases by motives from the chorale presented in imitative texture in the other parts before the chorale begins: lutheran Chorales: Bach’s Gott und Herr.
* Stretto:
rapidly overlapping imitative entries of the subject to increase a cadential climax
Gebunden Style:
Organ piece based on a Chorale Melody
interval cycle
is a collection of pitch classes created from a sequence of the same interval class.[1] In other words a collection of pitches by starting with a certain note and going up by a certain interval until the original note is reached (e.g. starting from C, going up by 3 semitones repeatedly until eventually C is again reached – the cycle is the collection of all the notes met on the way). In other words, interval cycles “unfold a single recurrent interval in a series that closes with a return to the initial pitch class”. See: wikt:cycle.
Interval cycles are notated by George Perle using the letter “C” (for cycle), with an interval class integer to distinguish the interval. Thus the diminished seventh chord would be C3 and the augmented triad would be C4. A superscript may be added to distinguish between transpositions, using 0–11 to indicate the lowest pitch class in the cycle. “These interval cycles play a fundamental role in the harmonic organization of post-diatonic music and can easily be identified by naming the cycle.”
is large-scale meter (as opposed to surface-level meter) created by hypermeasures which consist of hyperbeats (Stein 2005, 329). “Hypermeter is meter, with all its inherent characteristics, at the level where measures act as beats.”
a form of German-language music drama, now regarded as a genre of opera.[1] It is characterized by spoken dialogue, which is alternated with ensembles, songs, ballads, and arias which were often strophic, or folk-like. Singspiel plots are generally comic or romantic in nature, and frequently include elements of magic, fantastical creatures, and comically exaggerated characterizations of good and evil.
Choralis Constantinus
-extensive collections of settings of the mass proper by Henric Issac. compiled after he died by one of his students. Similar in scope to the magnus liber organ. 3 volumes.
Cambiatta –
palestrina: resolution of dissonance by movement down of a third and the to the original resolution. Pope marcellus mass. Opposite of a Landini Cadence.
Geistliches Gensang Buchlein –
Little Spiritual Book: Polyphonic Lutheran settings by Johann Walter; Ein Fesberg by Luther is one of the chorales; Wereen’t allowed in church:
Cumulative Form –
20th century; Charles Ives: Part of his procedure of how he reversed the traditional Sonata form: Fragments appear first followed by the entire theme: First Piano Sonata/THird Symphony
Tleological Genesis:
Instead of having a theme and then fragmenting it, the fragments are presented first followed by the presentation of the entire theme: Charles Ives:
The Triumph of Oriana
: A collection of 25 Madrigals by different composers ; edited and published by Thomas Morely in 1601

* Each of the madrigals acclaims Queen Elizabeth I
* Each on ends with “Long live fair Oriana”
* Large portion of English madrigal texts are pastoral poems

Intabulation –
Arrangement of a vocal piece for a Lute or string instrument using tablature: Navaraez arranged Mille Regrez by Josquin
Estampies –
Dance that has open and closed endings; Medival; with or without text; Love song with several stanzas w/ refrain;
Bass Seguente:
The lowest line of a Basso Continuo section: Basso Continuo plays the bottom line: Gabrielli; Symphony Sacrae;
Ballad Opera:
John Gay: The Beggar’s Opera: London didn’t like serious opera: uses popular songs: Satiracle; More humorous: Spoken Dialogue that alternates with Songs; That’s why Handel turned oratorios
Ars Subtilior:
They are almost exclusively secular songs, and have as their subject matter love, war, chivalry, and stories from classical antiquity; a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered on Paris,Avignon in southern France; Primary sources for the ars subtilior are the Chantilly Codex, the Modena Codex (Mod A M 5.24), and theTurin Manuscript
Roman de Fauvel:
* collection of manuscripts, mostly monophonic with some polyphonic
* several introduce the new duple division
* many are denunciations of the clergy and also allude to contemporary political events
Phrygian Cadence
: a half cadence from iv6 to V in minor, so named because the semitonal motion in the bass (flat sixth degree to fifth degree) resembles the semitone heard in the II – I of the ancient (fifteenth century) cadence in the Phrygian mode.
Free Jazz:
an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s; free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed chord changes or tempos.; Free jazz is most strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of saxophonist John Coltrane; the role of improvisation is correspondingly increased.
Ars Cantus Mensurabilis:
a musical treatise from the mid-13th century, c. 1260-1280 (Medieval Period) written by German music theorist Franco of Cologne; the first treatise to suggest that individual notes could have their own rhythmic durations. This new rhythmic system was the foundation for mensural notation system and the ars nova style.
Maddalena Casulana:
was an Italian composer, lutenist and singer of the late Renaissance. She is the first female composer to have her music printed and published in the history of western music; Her style is moderately contrapuntal and chromatic, reminiscent of some of the early work by Marenzio; A total of 66 madrigals by Casulana have survived.
Benny Goodman:
was an American jazz and swing musician, clarinetist andbandleader, known as the “King of Swing”;
Anna Renzi:
was an Italian soprano[1] renowned for her acting ability as well as her voice, who has been described as the first diva in the history of opera; Born in Rome, Anna Renzi made her debut in 1640
s part of the opening of the liturgical celebration of the Eucharist for many Christian denominations. In its most complete version, it consists of an antiphon, psalm verse and Gloria Patri that is spoken or sung at the beginning of the celebration.
first opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg;regarded as the first opera produced in the 20th century avant garde style;using free atonality to express emotions and even the thought processes of the characters on the stage;The tritonal pair B natural and F natural, for example, represents Wozzeck and Marie, permanently in a struggle with one another. The combination of B-flat and D-flat (a minor third) represents the link between Marie and the child. In this way the opera continually returns to certain pitches to mark out key moments in the plot
Virgil Thompson
American composer and critic. ;instrumental in the development of the “American Sound” in classical music; described as a modernist,[1][2][3][4][5] a neoclassicist,[6] a composer of “an Olympian blend of humanity and detachment;
Medieval Sequence
HIldegard of Bingen

* initially as extensions of chant by later became elaborate new editions

* these extensions and additions became known as Sequences
* Popular sequences were adapted to secular tunes


The fundamental line (German: Urlinie) is the melodic aspect of the Fundamental structure (Ursatz), “a stepwise descent from one of the triad notes to the tonic” with the bass arpeggiation being the harmonic aspect; There are no tonal spaces other than those of scale degree 1—scale degree 3, scale degree 3—scale degree 5, and scale degree 5—scale degree 8. There is no other origin for passing-tone progressions, or of melody.[4]
Donizettie/Rossini: Barber of Seville

* Scena ed Aria

* first section is a slow reflective movement referred to as a Cavatin a
* its often in 2 strophes and may be closed or open ended
* A transitional passage leads to a fast and brilliant concluding movement known as the Cabaletta

* it may be in binary form or have more than one strophe
* it expresses powerful emotion and becomes the climax of the scene

* This forwardly directed plan is more dramatically conceived artistic shape than the rhetorical 18th century da capo aria
* this structure could also incorporate interpolations for additional characters or chorus and could also be applied to a duet scene

a sedate and dignified couple dance, similar to the 15th-century basse danse. The music which accompanied it appears originally to have been fast or moderately fast but, like many other dances, became slower over time
Allen Forte
music theorist and musicologist; Forte has published analyses of the works of Webern and Alban Berg and has written about Schenkerian analysis and American popular song;
Walter Frye;

* Originally was a monophonic dance song with alternating solo and chorus portions
* by the 15th century, it had become 2-4 voice setting of a religious poem
* often on the subject of Incarnation and written in a mixture of English and Latin

The process of placing a new text over preexisting music. Savonarola’s Laude’s -> Medici’s Florentine Frottola
Semi-Opera/Drammatic Opera
entertainments that combined spoken plays with masque-like episodes employing singing and dancing characters. ; Semi-operas were performed with singing, speaking and dancing roles. When music was written, it was usually for moments in the play immediately following either love scenes or those concerning the supernatural.
Tabulatora Nova
Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654);an important event in the history of organ music; title refers to the musical notation used: keyboard tablature in the Italian sense (i.e., staff notation, rather than the alphabetical tablature used in earlier German organ music; contains fantasias, toccatas, “echo pieces,” organ responses for liturgical use, and, most important, variations on chorale melodies.
Fiori Musicali
a collection of liturgical organ music by Girolamo Frescobaldi, first published in 1635; Generally acknowledged as one of Frescobaldi’s best works, Fiori musicali influenced composers during at least two centuries
Sinfonia (17th Century)
most commonly refers to a 17th- or 18th-century orchestral piece used as an introduction, interlude, or postlude to an opera, oratorio, cantata, or suite;
festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century; A masque involved music and dancing, singing and acting, within an elaborate stage design; tradition developed from the elaborate pageants and courtly shows of ducal Burgundy ;
involves quick alternation between a static note and changing notes, that form a melody either above or below the static note.; Bach’s Preludio to the E major Partita No. 3 for solo violin.
Bitches’s Brew
studio double album by jazz musician Miles Davis, released in April 1970 on Columbia Records; one of jazz’s greatest albums and a progenitor of the jazz rock genre;

* Modal Jazz

* in which chord progressions were replaced by a slowly changing harmonic background over which improvisation explores the notes of a single scale or mode

Babbitt: 3 Pieces for Piano
1947; Babbitt expands upon the methods of twelve-tone composition developed by Arnold Schoenberg. He is notably innovative for his application of serial techniques to rhythm; Unifies the piece with the use of Hexachordal Combinatoriality; First work of “Total Serialism”
Vincent d’Indy
1851-1931; French composer and teacher;
Developing Variation
technique in which the concepts of development and variation are united in that variations are produced through the development of existing material; term was coined by Arnold Schoenberg; This means that variation of the features of a basic unit produces all the thematic formulations which provide for fluency, contrasts, variety, logic and unity, on the one hand, and character, mood, expression, and every needed differentiation, on the other hand–thus elaborating the idea of the piece.
A phenomenon that occurs towards the end of the lifespan of a musical style; When the creative artists attained such great facility with the techniques of the style that indulgence of technique becomes an end unto itself; Attributed to the Ars Subilitior in France in the Late 14th century.
Ars Subilitior
a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered on Paris, Avignon in southern France; Often the term is used in contrast with ars nova, which applies to the musical style of the preceding period from about 1310 to about 1370; One of the techniques of the ars subtilior involved using red notes, or “coloration”, where the red notes indicate an alteration of note values by one third; Primary sources for the ars subtilior are the Chantilly Codex, the Modena Codex
Squarcialupi Codex
Single largest collection of music from the Italian Trecento (14th century) period; Music by: Landini, Perugia, and Lorenzo Firenze; Secular songs in Italian Ballata, Madrigals and Cacce; 1340-1415
Florestan and Eusabeus
Characters made up by Robert Schumann; representing the duality of his personality. Eusebius depicts the dreamer in Schumann while Florestan represents his passionate side; Two leaders of the Davidsbundler and represented in pieces in the Dichterliebe piano cycle; Also used as aliases in his writings in the Neue Zeitschrict fur Musik.
Style Berise/Style Luthe
Lute music; French imitated the style; Bach imitated the style in his allemandes; Imitated a strummed arpeggiated on the keyboard. Englebert.
Ancient voices of Children
Crumb; cycle of four song w/ 2 instrumental interludes; toy piano, musical saw, harmonica, temple bells, electric piano;
18th century Concervatory
In italy, the term conservatory was an orphanage; Vivaldi; Concertos;
La L’estro Armonico
Harmonic Inspiration: Opus 3. of Vivaldi’s concertos. Set of 12 concertos; First Publisshed of Vivaldi’s concertos; for 1,2 and 4 violin solo. 1711; Inspired Bach-arranged 9 of the 12 for keyboard. Ritornello form.
Just Intonation
Tuning system: Renaissance; Pure intonation; Perfectly tuned thirds and sixths; Zarlino
fifiths are tuned small so that the major thirds sound well;
Equal temprament
Every interval is tuned equally; Bach’s Well Tempred Clavier; Instrumental in the development of the use of key signatures; paved the way to distantly related keys.
Pythagorean Tuning
Developed by Pythagoris; Ancient Greek;a system of musical tuning in which the frequency ratios of all intervals are based on the ratio 3:2; Produces perfectly tuned fifths with badly out of tune thirds resulting in dissonance.
Book of keyboard music by Bach in Leipsig. Goldberg variations; Partias; Quidolbiet
Moses und Aaron
Schoenber; Unfinished; his last work; response against the growing movent of anti-semitism; Hexachodral Combintorialty.
All combintorial hexachords
six of them;sets are sets whose hexachords are capable of forming an aggregate with any of its basic transformations transposed;(A) 0 1 2 3 4 5 // 6 7 8 9 t e
George Muffat; Brought 2 collections of orchestral sutes in the style of Lully to Germany; corell
Made popular by Chopin; Usually in Ternary form; Extremely repetitive in both motive and phrases; Features chromatic alterations on repeats; Took the dance like qualities of the original dance music into the parlor.
Chopin;While meters and keys vary, the nocturnes are generally set in ternary form (A-B-A), featuring a melancholy mood, and a clear melody floating over a left-hand accompaniment of arpeggios or broken chords.[9] Repetitions of the main theme generally add increasingly ornate embellishments, notably in Opus 9 No. 2 in E?.
additive motivic development
Redisovered and made popular by Strivinsky ;where notes are subtracted or added to a motif without regard to the consequent changes in metre; found in the styles and madrigals of Rore.
Additive Rhythms
Bartok; Developed out of his musicological studies in Bulgaria; The addition of beats to a normal time signature creating 7/8 9/8 etc; Mikrokosmos
Character Variations
Concept developed by Beethoven; variations don’t merely decorate the theme but tend to take on different expressive content or personalities; Found in the Finale of Eroica; Could be considered a precursor to the thematic transformations of Liszt.
Carl Maria von Weber: Der Freischutz; Uses spoken dialogue over an expressive musical accompaniment; Used along with recitative in German National romantic operas.
French Grand Opera
Giacomo Mayerbeer; Rather than concentrating on subtle expressions of personal feelings, Grand opera presented striking experiences; The Exotic, Violen Passions, Supernatural; Les Huguenots (1836)
Reminiscence theme
Carl Maria von Weber; Orchestral themes that represent a feeling, person etc. in the opera; Precursor to the leitmotif; Der Freischutz
Neue Zeitshrift fur Musik
A music journal started by Robert Schumann; Offers review and critiques of new music; Often features articles by his alias’ Florestan and Eusabius; Became a major literary force for Wagner and Listz and “The Artwork of the Future”
The Artwork of the Future; Hallmark of the New German School founded by Wagner and LIst; Musical expression should not be bound by musical form; Set the stage for Wagner’s music drama and Listz’s Symphonic Poem; Les Preludes and The Ring Cycle
Music Drama
Wagner; The music was subordinate to the words; Used an Endless melody rather than separated aria/recitative structure; Leitmoif; Delayed resolution; The Ring Cycle/Tristan und Isolde;
Winchester Troper
* : Largest collection of pieces in organum style; two 11th cent. manuscripts
* Polyphonic mass settings were used in the troped settings (Kyrie, Gloria, Benedicamus Domino) of the Ordinary Mass

* the portions set polyphonically were sung by soloists

* Anonymous 4:
* Suspesion that it was written by someone in England
* Because of this treatise that we know the existence of Leonin and Perotin
* Leonin; An excelent organum writter
* Credits Leonin for compiling the Magnus LIber Organi
* Perotin edited the Magnus and added substitute cla
* The Greater Perfect System
* “Scales” that put two tetrachords next to each other

* Conjunct: Tetrachords with common outer notes ABCD DEFG
* Disjunct: Tetrachords with a tone in-between them ABCD EFGA

Accompagnato (or Obbligato)
THe use of orchestral accompaniment in recitative; Less declamatory, more song like; Mozart, Haydn and Handel; “Thus said the Lord” from Messiah.
Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782)
LIbrettist; Italian Opera Seria; Dialogue in simple recitative that leads to an aria expressing an affection; Emphasis on solo aria rather than interaction between characters;
Rossini’s Dramatic Opera: Otello 1816; The first attempted to let the drama control the musical conventions; breaks away from the older Italian Style
Fresh Keyboard Fruits:
Kuhnau: First published keyboard sonata: 25 in total; Sonata didn’t start as a keyboard piece, made them into keyboard pieces. 7 multi-movement sonatas. Aiming towards the amateur keyboard player with the title, tried to sell many copies.
Prima Prattica/Seconda Prattica:
Started w/ Monteverdi; Broke the rules of dissonance by Zarlino for the purpose of emotional reasons; Preparing and resolving dissonance; Words were most important, breaking the rules by expressing the text.
The Art of Playing Harpsichord
: Talks about the agraments/ornamentation: Couperan; early 1700’s; also talks about fingerings; Known to have been used by J.S. Bach
: Division of the semibreve: Ars Nova: Mensuation signs:
Musica Transalpina:
Younge: 2 anthologies of italian madrigals translated into english; Marenzio;
Mannheim School:
Johann Stamitz: Mannheim roller/rocket/ Dynamics
Air de Cours:
Simple strophic; Diatonic: French; late 1500’s: Worked its way into French Opera:

* Airs derive form air de cour as opposed to Italian arias.
* employ a binary dance like form
* more metrically regular than recitative and are simple and syllabic

John Dunstable:
Contonance angloise: Veni Sanctus Spiritus-Sequence: Most celebrated Motet composer; Lived-1453: influenced the Burgundian Compsers
Small acts between the early opera: 6 in total; Dance/Music Singing; No real Plot: Direct influence of the Early Opera: 1589: Jacobo Perri: Musical Interludes between plays:
Interval Cycle:
6 types; set class comprised of repeating motion by the same interval;
New Objectivity:
(German); Hindemith; accecable, communicate clearly, such as the affections of the Baroque;
Banchetto Musicali:
Musical Banquet; Johann Schein: set of 25 Suites: 1617; Rise of Instrumental Music: The suite Began to be formed: for 5 instruments with continuo
Technique of my musical language
: Massaen
Lutheran version of the Oratorio. Schutz. “The seven last words of christ”
Le istitutioni Harmoniche
Zarlino: Treatise
* Primitivism
* In certain forms, music could provide ways to express th underlying impulses of the human character

* Hungarian Pianist Bela Bartok: Allegro Barbaro for piano solo

* piano was treated more as a percussion instrument
* irregular rhythms

Schoenberg: 12 Tone Method

* 12 pitch classes are simply ordered in a row, called the Prime or original row, set or series-such that none is repeated
* The series must be stated in its entirety before the first of its pitch classes can return

Webern; extension of the 12 tone method. Symphony no. 21

* Extended the idea of serialization to musical style elements other than pitch, creating a series of rhythms, dynamics, articulations and timbres

* THis led to a type of compositional method sometimes called Serialism

Webern: Symphony no. 21

* The serialization of timbres may also produce a type of instrumentation in which each player may have only one-three notes before passing the line to the next player
* Schoenberg had envisioned a style and called it

Webern; Serialism; Symphony no. 21

* ensemble becomes a succession of tiny point of sound,

* Neoclassicism
* The tonal music of there period after WWI
* specifically because it draws on the tonal basis, clear textures and forms of the 18th cent. styles and generally because of its aesthetic objectivity; Satie; Ravel; Stravinsky; Tombeau de Couperin: Homage to French Galant style
The Craft of Musical Composition 1937
Hindemith; committed to the necessity of tonality as a musical force.

* He developed his own theory of harmonic and melodic construction based on the harmonic constituents of musical tones
* This Theory is described in his book

* Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
* Writer and Visionary
* excelled in the composition of Sequences
* texts were full of rich, mystical imagery
* music is quite original
* Works and Style:

* Morality Plays
* Sequences
* Mainly monophonic melodies with soaring melodies often outside the normal range of Chant
* melismatic with a close relationship between melody and text

* Ordo Virtutum: Morality Play

* Leonin (1135-1201)
* First significant composer of polyphony
* extended the use of organum to the entire liturgical repertory
* Creator of the Magnus Liber Ogani
* probably the first composer to employ modal rhythm on a large scale in polyphonic music
* Works and Style:
* may have composed the Magnus LIber organ
* Graduals, Allelujias, Responsories
* two voice organum either in Melismatic or Discant Style
* Octave, Unison or Fifth at the Cadences
* Alternates Polyphony with plainsong

* Perotin

* Perotin (1160-1205)
* Expanded to 3/4 voice organum
* renowned as a composer of Clausulae (passage of organum in Discant style), which developed the principle of modal rhythm and contributed to create minsural notation
* Revised Leonin’s Magnus Liber Organi, adding a third and sometimes fourth voice
* Works and Style:

* Organum in 3/4 voices, two faster moving voices over a sustained tenor
* Clausulae
* Conducti
* short, reiterated patterns are frequent
* contrasting textures and rhythmic modes are employed to create tension
* major sections are articulated by a rhythmic drive to the cadence

* Phillipe de Vitry (1291-1361)
* He was a French composers, music theorist and poet

* May have been the author of the Ars Nova treatise
* Widely acknowledged as the greatest musician of his time.
* His treatise, The Ars Nova, show innovations in musical notation, particularly in mensural and rhythmic notation, allow music to break free of the rhythmic modes and allow composers complete freedom of rhythm
* These innovations made possible form music to be free and complex over the next 100 years
* He is also credited fro developing the concept of Isorhythm, a line that consists of repeating patterns and pitches, with the patterns overlapping rather corresponding.
* Works:
* Chansons:
* Motets

* Guiamme De Machaut (1300-1377)
* dominant french composer of the Ars Nova Style
* Polyphonic ballades, rondeuax and virelais
* Introduced the treble dominated style called ballade/cantelina style. this resulted from composing the treble melody first and only then adding the lower voice. This was an important change from the tenor centered CF technique
* May have been the first to set the complete mass ordinary in polyphony (Missa de Nostre Dame)
* Caused 6 large manuscripts to be compiled, becoming the first composer to preserve his complete works
* Works and Style;
* in his polyphonic works, he wrote generally in 3 voices with the melody in the top part or in equal voice counterpoint w/ 3-4 voices
* 5th and octave remain principle consonances
* sometimes complex rhythms: Isorhythm and hockey
* In secular works the lower parts adopt the rhythmic nature of the lyrical treble
* music reflects the Ars Nova: time and probation and the use of duple meter
* Rhythmic variety, particularly syncopation
* Missa De Nostre Dame
* Francesco Landini (1335-97)
* most prolific composer of the Italian Trecento (14th cent) Period
* Style represents a synthesis of the Italian lyrical melody and the French influenced concern for rhythmic variety
* Usually wrote 2/3 voice polyphony with a lyrical and ornamented upper part over one or two less active parts
* much use of 3rds and 6ths
* Landini Cadence
* Works in the French style use less ornamentation
* Penultimate syllables have long melismas
* late works use imitation at the beginning of phrases
* Works and Style

* Ballatas
* Madrigals

* Gram piant’agli occhi (ballata)

* John Dunstable (1390-1453)
* noteworthy for combining characteristic English features with the French polyphonic tradition
* received much of the credit for innovations common the the entire English school of this period
* beautifully shaped, long breathed melodies and strongly consonant full triads
* Isorhythmic works feature isorhythm in all 4 voices
* textures also alternate between equal voice 2 part counterpoint and treble dominated 3 voice polyphony
* Rhythmic imitation is frequent but brief
* carefully controlled dissonance
* piece begin and end in triple meter with a duple meter middle section
* Works:

* Motets (40 w/ 12 isorhythmic)
* Mass Sections
* Secular Songs

* Quam Pulchra es (motet)

* Guillaume Dufay (1400-74)
* celebrated as the greatest composer of his time
* important figure in the creation of the expressive and vertically oriented Burgundian Style.
* This style was a synthesis that leavened the subtle French contrapuntal art of the Ars Nova with the simpler mdlidc art of the Italians and homogeneous triadic textures of the English
* Played an important role in the development of Fauxbordon Style
* early chansons are 3 voice and are treble dominated w/ burgundian cadences
* after 1450, most notable works are Masses with an equalized SATB texture with either strict paraphrases use of the CF
* texture is triadic w/ controlled dissonance
* Later: more frequent use of imitation and more care in the setting of the text, some V-I cadences
* WOrks:

* Masses (8 complete including perhaps the first “Armed Man mass”
* Chansons (over 70)
* Motets (about 90)

* Armed Man Mass
* Adieu m’ amour (Chanson)
* Ave Regina coelorum (Motet)

* Johannes Ockeghem (1420-97)
* Leader of the second generation of Netherlands Composers
* raised the Mass to the principle form of composition of the time; concealing it with extraordinary skill of technical devices such as the double mensuration canon and music that can be sung in any mode by changing clefs
* achieved free contrapuntal style in four throughly equalized voices within an expanded vocal range, with the bass exploring new depths
* established an instrumental type of piece based on one or more parts from a pre-existing chanson
* independent voices in SATB with infrequent cadences, avoidance of sequences, clear phrases formation, strict use of modes
* tone painting
* Works:

* Masses: 13 cyclic; one Requiem Mass
* Chansons: about 20 most in 3 voice and written in the formes fixes, especially the rondeau
* Motets: 9, most of them in honor of the virgin Mary

* Missa Caput (cantus firmus Mass)

* Josquin Des Prez (1440-1521)
* universally acclaimed as the greatest composer of his time, while he was alive
* music expresses the meaning of the words to a degree never before attempted, thus reflecting the impact of Humanism
* first to use systematic point imitation as the basis for a composition, a style that became standard for the remainder of the Renaissance
* Greatest chanson composer of his time, often forgoing the form fixes and employing the imitative style of the motet
* contrasted passages in familiar (Chordal) style with imitative style
* usually wrote in four or five equalized voices combined in interlocking phrases often using double counterpoint, canons, ostinatos
* expressiveness of his music comes from his skill in matching melodic and harmonic materials to the text
* Works:

* Motets: 100; generaly imitative with some being base on a CF and some using paraphrase
* Masses: 18: Mostly based on CF; often w/ technical ingenuity
* Chansons: 70: miscellaneous secular works such as frottole

* Salve Regina (motet)
* Miserere mei Deus
* Mille Regretz (Chanson/frottole)

* Giovanni Palestrina (1525-94)
* created an exemplary style of church music expressing the spirit of the counter-reformation( officially sanctioned by the church)
* First renaissance composer whose works were published in a complete edition
* composed in a smooth balanced stylet that marked a refined culmination of the traditional Netherlands technique
* treatment of harmony and rhythm is completely controlled; nothing is allowed to dustup the smooth, continuous flow; all dissonance except suspensions are placed on unstressed beats
* melodies unfold in balancing curves, with infrequent larges leapts that are countered by a change of direction in the melodic line
* text settings always faithfully reflect a natural accentuation
* textures range from choral to imitation
* interlocking entries, antiphonal writing, reduction in the number of parts, invertible counterpoint
* Works:

* Masses: 104 (paraphrase, CF, cononic, free composed
* Motets: 375
* Madrigals: 140

* Pope Marcellus Mass

* Orlando Lassus (1532-94)
* culminating figure in the line of Franco-Flemish composers; most versatile and cosmopolitan
* mastered the Italian madrigal, Netherlands/Parisian Chanson and German Lied
* Netherlands Imitative counterpoint
* texture, rhythmic motion, phrase length, melodic contour and harmonic progressions all serve the dramatic depiction of his texts
* motives are often short and clearly derived from particular words: wide leaps, dotted rhythms and much chordal declamation
* refined his art rather than moving forward to the Baroque: chose greater density and complexity of contrapuntal texture

* Works:

* Motets: 500 (largest collection in the Magnum opus musicum)
* Masses: about 60/ 100 Magnificats, many employ the parody technique
* Sacred works: psalms, hymns, passions etc
* Secular works: 150 CHansons, 150 Madrigals, 100 Lieder

* O faible esprit (Chanson)

* William Byrd (1543-1623)
* one of the first Elizabethan composers; continued the tradition of English vocal polyphony
* first Englishman to master the four and five voice contrapuntal art of the Netherlanders
* English bent for harmonic effects and expressive chromaticism
* after 1590, he turned to a more concise style with more homophony and unassuming binary forms
* tone painting is present, avoids madrigalist
* used the parody technique as his structural basis for his masses
* Works:

* Latin Church Music: 3 masses and many motets
* English Church Music: both Great and Short services as well as anthems
* Sacred and Secular Music
* Keyboard Music:

* Luca Marenzio (1553-99)
* Perhaps the greatest Italian composer of the period
* has complete technical mastery wedded to sensitive setting of the text
* Madrigals were published in Yonge’s Musica Transalpina
* Masterful use of all the various trends in Madrigal writing
* early style featured contrapuntal ingenuity and light pastoral character; later ones were more serious
* treatment of tonality, dissonance and tone painting was subordinated to a more integrated structure and a smoother rhythmic flow
* progressive nature was reflected in large cycles of madrigals
* Works:

* Madrigals: 16 books; 9 for five voices, 6 for six voices
* Popular styles: 5 books of villanelles
* Spiritual Madrigals: 1 book
* Motets: 3 books
* Masses: 3

* Giovanni Gabrielli (1556-1612)
* significant for having established a truly instrumental style in his canzonas and sonatas
* perhaps the first to write vocal works with independent instrumental accompaniment; one of the first to designate specific instruments for pieces as well as dynamics
* Vocal and instrumental traditions of the Venetian style were brought to their culmination
* composed in a colorful, polychoral tradition, using both instrumental and vocal choirs as well as soloists in concertato texture
* progressive features include: strong reliance on speech rhythms, freer dissonance, and the use of short contrasting motives
* an effect of unity is often achieved by use of recurring sections
* Works:

* Motets in Concertato Style
* Instrumental ensemble works: canzonas, sonatas
* Organ Music: ricercare, canzonas, fantasias, toccatas
* Madrigals: 30, som for two groups of four voices

* Sacrae Symphoniae: Concertato Style

* Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
* Without sacrificing traditional practices as tone-painting, he led the madrigal away from Renaissance contrapuntal and harmonic practices towards the continuo-accompanied monody with freer dissonance treatment, ritornelli and stile concitato
* first to consciously and successfully to compose in two such disparate styles or practices as those of the traditional madrigal and the new monody
* With Orfeo, he established opera as the leading musical genre through his extraordinary gift for expressing emotion
* also contributed to the development of the orchestra through the number and selection of instruments in his operas as well as by employing such devices as string tremolo and pizzicato
* Master of the late Reinaissance contrapuntal style he called the “first practice”
* his belief in the primary importance of the text and his desire to move the emotions led to a new freedom of voice leading and an expressive and much freer treatment of rhythm and dissonance – the so called “Second practice”
* about 1600 he turned to ositnato basses, strophic variations and contrasts of concertato style
* he raised the Baroque theatrical styles of recitative and aria to a higher artistic level, and he integrated them with choral music, dance and instrumental sinfonias and ritornelli to create the new mixture of styles that culminated in The coronation of Poppea
* Works:

* Chamber music: 250 pieces
* Operas: 1
* Church Music; 3 masses

* Orpheo
* The Coronation of Poppea

* Giorlamo Fresbaldi (1583-1643)
* the most significant of early Baroque composers of keyboard music
* brought the culmination of the toccata, canzona and ricercars into the Early baroque
* famed virtuoso organist
* created an individual style of expresivity and improvisory boldness while maintaining strict masterful control
* the fantasias and early ricercares depend of imitation and variation, as do the early toccatas
* mature style explores the middle ground between modality and tonality
* irregular rhythmic flow and greater use of textural, metrical and tempo contrast show his progressive Baroque orientation
* Works:

* Organ Music: 6 books: toccatas, canzonas, ricrecares, fantasias
* Chamber music: collection of canzonas for instrumental ensemble
* Church music: 3 organ masses
* Vocal Music: 2 books of arias

* Fiori musicali
* Toccata per l’Elevazione

* Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672)
* Introduced the new Italian monodic and concertato style to Germany
* Set the german language in music
* masterful fusion of motet like imitative writing/ madrigal tone painting, keen sense of the dramatic possibilities of Monody and concertato style
* Brought Venetian Music go Germany
* Went beyond Gabrieli by differentiating clearly between solo parts and choral parts
* Works:

* German Motets: small scale works for one or more soloists with limiter accompaniment
* Latin Motets:
* Oratorio Like Works:An Easter Oratorios
* Psalm Harmonizations
* Madrigals: one Italinan Collections
* Operatic works: Wrote the first german Opera

* Symphoniae Sacrae II
* Psalmen Davids
* Symphoniae Sacrae III
* Die sieben Worte Jesu Christi am Kreuz

* Jean-Babtiste Lully (French/Italy, 1632-87)
* he was a Florentine born composer who spent most of his life working in France
* He is considered the chief master of the French baroque style
* His music is known for its power, liveliness in its fast movements and its deep emotional character in the slow movements
* the influence of his music produced a radical effect in the styles of the court dances
* His orchestra used five voiced strings, rather than four along with winds, brass, percussion (timpani), lute, harpsichord and organ
* He created the French style opera as a musical genre (Tragedie en Musique/ Tragedie Lyrique)
* 12 and 10 syllable poetic lines were used in recitative
* He also forsook the Italian method of dividing musical numbers into separate Arias and Recitatives, choosing instead to combine and intermingle the two for dramatic effect
* He is also credited with the invention of the French Overture
* Works:

* Sacred Music
* Ballets
* Intermezzos
* Operas/Tragedies

* Armide

* Arcangelo Corelli (Italian, 1653-1713)
* Achieved enormous fame entirely through instrumental composition, the first composer to do so
* Laid the foundation for the flowering of instrumental music in the 18th century
* All of his works were for instruments, nearly all for strings
* Ho composer until Haydn enjoyed the number of reprinted editions achieved by Corelli
* In keeping who his serene and conservative nature, his music avoids extremes of mood, range, and technical difficulty
* Depends upon judicious us of occasional imitation and fugue, obstinate and cantabile melody
* Also used such characteristic devices as sequences, constantly moving bass lines (walking), chains of suspensions and cadential clashes of a second
* helped establish the new harmonic works of functional tonality, giving preference to a homophonic texture within a diatonic idiom
* church sonatas have a slow-fast-slow structure
* sonatas and concerti gross follow a five movement pattern.
* Works:

* Trio Sonatas: 48, for books: two for the church and two for the chamber
* Solo Sonatas: 12, published in one book
* Concerti Grossi: 12, published in one book

* Henry Purcell (English, 1659-95)
* leading English composer of the Baroque
* Style represents a fusion of Italian and French elements with such native English traits as simultaneous cross-relations and a singular master of declamation, tone painting, and composition on a ground bass
* melodic style on disjunct motion, syncopation, and augmented and diminished intervals
* Harmonic daring and characteristically english love for rich harmonic sonorities were more directed towards functional harmony
* Works:

* Songs: more than 100: most published in Orpheus Britannicus
* Chamber Music: much instrumental music, some with continuo
* Dramatic Music: one chamber opera

* Dido and Aneas (opera)

* Alessandro Scarlatti (Italian, 1660-1725)
* Leading Italian composer of vocal music in the late 17th century
* Among the greatest masters of opera, cantata and oratorio
* master of the principal form of Aria, the Da-capo
* development rested on his shift away from an emphasis on the text to a music first
* after 1700, he transformed his contrapuntal bass part into harmonic support for a liberated vocal line
* also increased the role of the orchestra as a foil for the voice
* his later cantatas display the full range of his harmonic daring
* Works:

* Operas: 100, al but one are Opera Seria
* Cantatas: 600, range from continuo accompanied to orchestrally accompanied Christmas cantatas
* Oratorios: c. 40
* Serenatas: 25, more elaborate than operas
* Church Music: several masses
* Instrumental Works: Concerti grossi, chamber sonatas, toccatas

* Tigrane
* Griselda (Opera)
* San filippo Neri (Oratorio)
* St. John Passion (Church Music)

* Antonio Vivaldi (Italian, 1678-1741)
* leading composer of the Late Baroque, master of the concerto
* driving rhythmic style and his use of ritornello principle, three movement structure and use of cadenzas
* figured prominently in the development towards the homophonic emphasis and contrasting textures of the Classical period
* Stressed wide leaps, syncopation, Lombardic Rhythms, sudden shifts of harmonic rhythms, obstinate, frequent use of 7th chords
* juxtaposition of major and minor modes
* improvisatory character emerges from his frequent re-use of vivid thematic material, propensity for asymmetrical and irregular phrasing, colorful orchestral violinist effects and increase of violin technique
* featured arpeggios, scales, bariolage and a rich variety of embellishment
* Works:

* Concertos: 500, 350 solo string concertos
* Operas: 50
* Cantatas: 40
* Church music: oratorios, motets
* Instrumental Works: 90 Sonatas

* The Seasons (Concerto)
* Orlando Furioso (Opera)

* Jean-Phillipe Rameau (French, 1683-1764)
* Leading French composer of the mid 18th century, primarily for his operas and ballets
* the Leading theorist of the Baroque period
* Best known for his Treatise on Harmony in 1722, which was significant for its emphasis on the common chords and his establishment of functional harmony
* Style is noteworthy for its varied and masterful treatment of rhythm, descriptive instrumental music
* Harmonically music is expressive
* Theoretical studies brought the use of secondary dominants and skill in use of modulation
* melodies are often triadic and have a clear harmonic basis
* Works:

* Operas and opera-ballets:
* Harpsichord music: 3 collections
* Misc. Works: Trio sonatas, cantatas, church motets

* Hippolyte et Aricie (Opera)
* Castor et Pollux (Opera)

* Johann Sebastian Bach (Germany, 1685-1750)
* regarded as the consummate master of Baroque styles
* known during his lifetime as a great organist
* His music constitutes a fusion of national styles
* The rhythmic and thematic vitality of the Italians, the style and dance forms of the French and the contrapuntal tradition of the Germans are all assimilated in an idiom unique for its harmonic richness, linear integrity, expressive intensity timbral diversity, structural grandeur, and technical mastery
* his music reveals his genius for inventing themes that lend themselves to fugal treatment or to combination with sharply contrasting counter themes
* his comprehensiveness in the working-out of a bas it theme or motive brought about its fullest possible realization and led him to create movements and composition of unprecedented length
* achieved unity by endowing each movement or piece with totally consistent development of a specific technique and character
* By fusing traditional and contemporaneous styles and forms, he broght to a grand culmination the variety of the Baroque period
* Works:

* Church Sonatas: over 300, arranged 5 complete cycles for the church year
* Choral works: several masses, Magnificat, 2 Passions, oratorios, motets
* Organ Music: chorale preludes, preludes and fugues, toccatas
* Keyboard Music: preludes and fugues, suites, variations, fantasias
* Unaccompanied Works: 6 Cello Suites, 6 Sonatas/Partitas
* Ensemble Pieces: 6 Brandenburg Concertos
* Orchestral works: 4 orchestral suites

* B minor Mass
* St. Matthew Passion
* Well-Temperd Clavier

* George Frideric Handel (German-English, 1685-1759)
* The Major force in English musical life; his influence extended to the work of Haydn, Beethoven and Mendelssohn.
* principal master of the Italian opera in the Late Baroque and found and greatest master of the English Oratorio
* His writing for voice was unsurpassed, gift for characterization was remarkable and his mastery of the conventional Baroque forms was enhanced by unexpected dramatic effects
* Melodic richness, freedom and breadth distinguished his works despite his penchant for borrowing melodies
* Dissonance was largely reserved for moments of emotional tension, it is found more frequently in accompanied recitative
* He was always willing to break the rules to achieve the desired effect
* Variety of accompaniment textures include: basso continuo alone to imitative counterpoint in as many as 6 voices
* composed with the consummate French and Italian forms and drew freely from the German contrapuntal style and English Choral tradition

* Operas: more than 40, all are serious or heroic
* Oratorios: 26 English, 2 Italian; 2 Passion oratorios
* Sonatas” c. 40
* Concertos: 18 for the keyboard, 12 concerti gross
* Cantatas: c. 100, all secular
* Misc. Works: Choral Music; Suites

* Giulio Cesare (Opera)
* Belshazzar (Oratorio)
* Saul
* Israel in Egypt
* Messiah

* Domenico Scarlatti (Italian, 1685-1757)
* Perhaps the finest harpsichordist and harpsichord composer of his time
* first to employ the thematic contrast and free homophonic textures of the Early classical period
* harpischord music is wholly idiomatic, frequently virtuosic and inexhaustibly varied
* He has a masterful use of contrast of texture, thematic material, mood or character and figuration
* hand crossings, wide leaps, passages in parallel thirds and sixths
* Works:

* Harpsichord Music: c. 600 pieces, mostly sonatas
* Misc. Works: operas, cantatas and church music

* Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (German, 1714-88)
* An influential composer working at a time of transition between the Baroque and Classical eras
* Personal approach was an expressive and turbulent style known as Empfindsamer Still, or Sensitive Style
* It applied the principles of rhetoric and drama to instrumental musical structures
* The content of his work is full of invention and most importantly, extreme unpredictability. It also features a wide emotional range within a single work
* He was the first composers who made use of harmonic color for its own sake since the late renaissance
* His style and contemporaries became known as the First German School
* Works

* Solo Keyboard: Sonatas, Preludes and Fugues
* Concertos
* Chamber Music
* Symphnies
* Songs and Arias:

* Christoph Willibald Gluck (German, 1714-87)
* won fame as an opera reformer: 1: attempting to subordinate musical to dramatic values 2: increasing the role of the orchestra, in particular by making the overture an integral part of the opera 3: narrowing the distance between the style of recitative and aria, by reducing vocal virtuosity and number of da capo arias
* Most of these were already part of the French Operatic theory, which Gluck and Calzabigi applied to Italian Opera
* He created an affecting dramatic language noteworthy for its seriousness of purpose and nobility
* Brought to Italian Opera, choruses, ballet and dramatic force of French Opera
* its a style that shows some influence from the simple and popular style of French Opera comique
* He also brought the Tragedie Lyrique to life again, rising to his greatest heights of melodic writing and characterization
* Works:

* Italian Operas: 27 Opera Seria, many with texts by Metastasio
* French Operas: 12, 8 Comic/4 Tragic
* Misc. Works: Ballets, symphnies, trio sonatas, Lieder

* Orfeo ed Euridice
* Alceste
* Iphigenie en Aulide

* Franz Joseph Haydn (Austrian, 1732-1809)
* Major contributor to the evolution of Classical Style, most importantly being the principle of thematic developments and integration in his style of a popular idiom capable of pleasing a wider audience
* Largely responsible for bringing the symphony and the string quartet to artistic maturity
* In both he added weight to the finale and re-introduced counterpoint as a compositional technique
* Style is noteworthy for its originality, diversity, craftsmanship, melodic simplicity and humor
* after 1780, his technical problems were solved and he brought to the sonata texture an ability to allow the thematic materials of a movement to determine its course and shape, thus creating a satisfactory artistic unity
* London Symponies represent the pinnacle of his instrumental art
* Works:

* Symphonies: 104
* String Quartets: c. 80
* Operas: c. 20
* Sacred Works: 14 Masses, Several Oratorios
* Misc. Instrumental Music: Piano Sonatas, piano trios, concertos
* Lieder: over 50

* London Symphonies
* Paris Symphonies
* The Creation

* Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Austrian, 1756-91)
* Perhaps the most universal genius among all composers, he mastered all of the genres of his era
* On of the greatest opera composers, he’s noteworthy for his ability to delineate character, for his master of the ensemble and the finale and for adapting the dynamic sonata style to opera
* Established the form and character of the Classical concerto by incorporating symphonic, concerante and dramatic elements in a new synthesis in which the solo instrument and orchestra function as equals
* greatly influenced as a youth by his international travels
* he effected a synthesis of Italian and German Styles
* Unique in its mastery of proportion and its balance of expressive intensity with Classical restraint
* Dramatic use of contrast, expressive chromaticism, richness of part writing and masterful treatment of larch scale tonal relationships
* Showed little interest in innovating or originality, preferring to bring technical perfection and expressive intensity to existing models
* Works:

* Operas: 22
* Concertos: 21 for solo piano, 6 for violin, 4 for horn
* Chamber Music: 33 Violin sonatas, 23 string quartents, 8 piano trios
* Symphonies: 50
* Misc. Music: Lieder, concert arias, organ sonatas, 19 piano sonatas

* Don Giovanni
* Cosi fan tutte
* Symphony in G minor (the Little)
* Jupiter Symphony

* Ludwig von Beethoven (Germany, 1770-1827)
* One of the great disruptive forces in the history of music
* He opened new pathways that were followed by Romantic Composers: 1: the use of cyclic and programmatic elements 2: the expansion of the orchestra 3: introduction of chorus and text into the symphony 4: writing out the cadenza sections in the concerto
* Expanded the underlying sonata structure of a single movement and of sole works with ought abandoning classical principles, ultimately integrating all movements of a composition in one unified conception
* Embraced greater contrasts, changed the traditional number and order of movements, spanned wider tonal relationships, adda a coda as a major element of structure, successfully introduced many other innovations
* Strove for master of the Classical style in his early works, the best of which are piano sonatas
* he asserted his individual ability through a powerful rhythmic drive and by placing more weight on the closing movements of large scale pieces
* He carried Haydn’s principle of thematic development by rigorously working out the possibilities of his material and forging a closer relationship between the basic motives and the overall structure
* His emphasis shifted to achieving an organic four movement unity in symphonic works (Sym. no. 5)
* After a time of emotional turmoil, his late period found him reconciling ever greater extremes of expression
* Heroic manner of his middle period was replaced by a more intimate tone.
* a transfigured lyricism becomes important as one extreme in a style given more and more to subtlety and uniqueness
* He gradually came to disregard traditional performance restrictions of medium and genre
* Later, he was drawn to the most austere media and to the most concentrated forms
* Works:

* Sonatas: 32 for piano, 10 for violin, 5 for Cello
* Chamber Music: 16 string quartets, 3 string quintets, septet, 9 piano trios
* Orchestral Music: 9 Symphonies, 11 Overtures
* Concertos: 5 for piano, 1 for violin
* Misc.: 1 Opera, 2 Masses, 1 Oratorio, 4 cantatas, 70 Lieder

* 9 Symphonies
* Fidelio (Opera)

* Franz Schubert (Austrian, 1797-1828)
* He helped establish the Lieder as a major genre
* His model inspired a host of successors, non of whom surpassed his scope of expression and variety
* Most remarkable features are his breathtaking lyricism and emphasis on harmonic color
* Expanded harmonic vocabulary within a keys complemented by an expanded range of relationships among keys
* His music s especially rich in bimodal allusions and mediant relationships
* Master of the unexpected, from astounding modulations to expressive silence
* Instrumental music began as an imitator of Mozart and Beethoven by soon expanded and transformed the dramatic Classical forms to accommodate his more lyrical and introspective style
* Works:

* Art Songs: more than 600 ranging from lyrical and strophic to declamatory and through composed as well as ballads and song cycles
* Orchestral Works: 8 Symphonies and 7 Overtures
* Chamber music: 35 works, octet and piano quintet, 15 string quartet
* Piano Music: 15 piano sonatas and character pieces
* Misc. : 6 Masses, 15 operas

* An die Musi (Strophic Art Song)
* Erlkonig (ballad)
* Die schoene Meullerin
* Die Wintereisse

* Gioacchino Rossini (Italian, 1792-1868)
* Leading Italian composers of the early 19th cent and one of the greatest composers of Opera Buffa
* By writing out out vocal ornaments in full in certain scores, he began the trend towards curtailing improvisation by singers
* Melodies are often memorable, with simple accompany harmonies
* Although his music can be complex, more often it displays his famed crescendo and a theatrical love for contrast
* Orchestra is colorful and important, often sating the principle melody while the voice declaims in recitative fashion
* In some of his operas, the orchestra is always present, replacing the continuo accompaniment in serious operas as early as 1816
* Raised orchestras standards throughout Italy
* He brought some of the general freedom of Opera Buffa to serious opera
* Works:

* Operas: 37: 19 opera seria, 7 semiseria, 9 Buffa, One Grand Opera
* Misc.: A Stabat mater, Mass, 20 Cantatas, 5 String quartets.

* The Barber of Seville
* Wiliam Tell

* Hecto Berlioz (French, 1803-69)
* The Leader in the new programmatic symphonic repertoire of the Romantic era, a result of his wide literary culture and interests
* Particularly significant for applying the cyclic principle on a large scale
* Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration is the first significant book on the subject
* Style is unconventional in its try orchestral conception
* Emphasis on continuous and irregularly phrased melody
* Later development towards greater restraint and classical objectivity
* Prophetic is the importance ogranted the parameters of timbre and space
* he tended to disregard contemporaneous categories of genre and formal principle, preferring instead to strive freely towards his expressive goals
* Works:

* Orchestral Music: purely instrumental symphonies, symphonic dramas w/ vocal soloists, 5 concert overtures
* Operas: 3
* Art songs/Song cycles:
* Sacred Music: Requiem and Oratorio

* Symphonie Fantastique
* Romeo and Juiet
* Les Troyens (Opera)
* Requiem

* Frederic Chopin (Polish/French, 1810-49)
* was distinguished by his originality, technical mastery and almost exclusive dedication to piano music
* redefined the etude as a poetic and technical piece, and invented the ballade for piano
* style was uniquely idiomatic for the piano
* founded largely on melody, which is composed over varied accompanimental textures
* melodies range from strait forward to operatic cantelina with subtle use of ornamentation and rubato to etude like figuration
* retained a strong propensity for dance movements with distinctive rhythms: Mazurka, Polonaise and Waltz
* Most striking musical events are: Chromatic and enharmonic effects, remote modulations, striking use of non harmonic tones and chordal prolongations, modality, linear dissonance
* Forms are basically simple, based more or less on improvisory treatments on ternary forms
* Usually lacking in thematic development sections
* Works:

* Small Scale piano pieces: 24 preludes, 19 nocturnes, 3 improptus, 30 etudes, 60 mazurkas
* Larger Piano works:4 ballades, 4 scherzi, 16 polonaises
* Large Scale works: 2 piano concertos, 3 piano sonatas
* Misc. : 1 Cello sonanta 17 polish songs;

* Franz Liszt (Hungarian, 1811-86)
* the greatest pianist in an age of virtuosos
* Immense influence on the further development of the medium both through his playing and his compositions
* As the creator of the Symphonic Poetm, he was a principal leader in the field of programmatic compositions
* Proved to be a significant experimenter with revolutionary harmonic and melodic ideas, including augmented triads, delayed resolutions, whole tone scales and enharmonicism
* Early style was eclectic, revealing his Hungarian heritage
* Works:

* Piano Music: 2 concertos, B minor Sonata, character pieces and etudes, transcriptions
* Orchestral Music: 13 Symphonic Poems, 2 Programmatic Symphonies
* Choral Works: Masses, 2 Oratorios
* Misc: art songs, organ music

* B Minor Sonata
* Faust (Programmatic Symphonies)
* Dante
* Orpheus (Symphonic Poem)

* Richard Wagner (German, 1813-83)
* Redefined and recreated opera under the term Music Drama, intending that every aspect of the work serve the dramatic purpose; musical unity was achieved through symphonic development of recurring themes (leitmotifs)
* Developed a revolutionary Harmonic language that greatly extended and weakened the functional role of tonality through harmonic vocabulary, increased chromaticism and dissonance as well as an avoidance of cadences
* Expanded the orchestra to include full homogeneous groups of related instruments; required technical virtuosity from all instruments; constantly employed a rich polyphonic texture
* Orchestra is given the task of conveying deeper meanings
* Writings about music were influential, particularly Opera and Drama (1851)
* His works culminated in the construction of his own Festspielhaus, devoted entirely to the performance of his works
* Style evolved from being highly derivative to an individual synthesis of traditional Romantic opera with Wagnerian elements of style and dramatic psychology
* With the achievement of a continuous vocal line within a unified symphonic texture and an expanded sense of time was born the music drama of Wagner
* Works:

* Operas: 14, the last 7 are music dramas, all are his own libretto
* Misc.: some orchestral music, choral works, piano music, piano music

* Tristan und Isolde (1859)
* Die Meistersinger (1861)
* The Ring Cycle (1854-74)
* Parsifal (1882)

* Giuseppe Verdi (Italy, 1813-1901)
* Leading Italian Composer of the middle and late Romantic period
* Through traditional elements of Italian opera, such as closed forms separated by recitative; emphasis on singing and melody and commitment to direct emotional utterance, he forged an individual and powerful dramatic language that stood against the style of Wagner
* Early operas are melodramatic
* the Middle period have an increasingly fine depiction of characters as well as dramatic unity. They lead to the grand operas that he wrote for Paris
* His later period came masterpieces of human drama
* Style is Voice dominated
* Earlier works, a predominant melody is generally only thinly accompanied by the orchestra, within a simple rhythmic framework
* Later, emphasis shifts to delineation of character, both by melodic means ad through an expanded harmonic vocabulary, subtle use of rhythm, and an enhanced treatment of orchestra
* Construction of scenes and acts reveals steadily increasing skill in recitative and ensemble writing, In the handling of dramatic intensity and climax, and in the deployment of tonal relationships and leitmotifs
* Works:

* Ernani (1844)
* La Traviata (1853)
* Don Carlos (1867)
* Otello (1887)
* Falstaff (1893)
* Requiem (1874)

* Johannes Brahms (German, 1833-97)
* The Great traditionalist of the Romantic Period
* Wrote in Absolute music vs. Programmatic Music
* Succeeded in reviving chamber music, the symphony and even Protestant church music
* Style is a remarkable synthesis of Romantic expression and Classical tradition; the latter is reflected in his use of Classical forms, conservative functional harmony and avoidance of programs
* the former is displayed in his love for dark sonorities and the alto register, lyrical melody and folk music and for cyclic unifying links in large scale works
* His respect and knowledge of tradition is evident by his revival of counterpoint and of the theme and variations, as well as by is subtle us of such rhythmic devices as hemiola, syncopations and cross rhythms
* Works:

* Chamber Music: 24 works: 3 string quartets, 3 violin sonatas,
* Art songs: 200 including a song cycle, vocal duets and quartets
* Orchestral Music: 4 Symphonies, 2 concert overtures, 2 orchestral serenades, a set of orchestra variations
* COncertos, 2 for piano, 1 for violin and cello, 1 for violin
* Choral Music: variety for Chorus and Orchestra
* Keyboard Music; piano music, organ music

* Gustav Mahler (Austro-Bohemian, 1860-1911)
* The leading post-Romanict symphonist and major song composer
* figured prominently in the development of new music in Austria, his approach to orchestration had noteworthy impact on Schoenberg and others of the next generation
* renowned conducted
* Brilliant master of orchestration, his effects ranging from large scale development of vast performing resources to small scale chamber textures
* Melodies are noteworthy fro their lyricism and for their folk like character
* March and Waltz rhythms permeate his music
* he retained both the strongly tonal context and the classical structural principles of the symphony; but he apparently used modulation i a symbolic rather than functional way, and he avoided literal repetition in his forms by subtle use of variation
* later works found him making more and more use of counterpoint
* Works:

* Symphonies: 10; 2,3,4, and 8 make use of vocal soloists and/or chorus
* Art Songs:. c. 50 including cycles

* Kidertotenlieder
* Lieder eines fahrende Gesellen
* Das Lied von der Erde

* Richard Strauss (German, 1864-1949)
* Ranks among the outstanding composers of opera, symphonic poem and Lied
* Brilliant orchestrator, in 1905 he published an enlarged version of Berlioz’s treatise
* He used leitmotifs and thematic transformation, and continued to stretch tonality in a post Wagnerian idiom until after Elektra in 1909
* he turned towards the less flamboyant Romantic style with a classicaly oriented framework
* placing new emphasis on soloists while subduing the orchestra
* Works:

* Operas: 15
* Symphonic Poems: 9
* Lieder: c. 200 including four sets with orchestra

* Salome (Opera)
* Electra
* Arabella
* Don Juan (Symphonic Poem)
* Death and Transfiguration
* Also Sprach Zarathustra
* Vier letzte Lieder (Lieder)

* Claude Debussy (French, 1862-1918)
* Created the unique and forward looking style that came to be know as impressionism, which constitutes on important facet of his style
* He was highly significant for writ in gin a new, coloristic manner for piano and for contributing greatly to the literature
* His style is lyrical and evocative of mood or atmosphere through unconventional use of rhythm and color, with chords selected for sound more than function and subordinate to the melody
* Melodically, he employs whole tone, pentatonic and pseudo modal scales in an attempt to avoid the half step cadential figure
* Dissonance is rich but mild, with much use of 7th and 9th chords that do not always resolve, many times in parallel motion
* FOrmas are fluxed and often symmetrical
* After 1915 his style moved towards greater melodic and harmonic simplicity
* Works:

* Orchestra Music:
* Piano Music: several sets and collections:
* Art Songs: c. 80
* Operas: Several begun but only one completed
* Chamber Music: a string quartet and cello sonata

* Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (Orchestral Works)
* Nocturnes
* La Mer
* Images
* Jeux (Ballet)
* Suite Bergamasque (Piano)
* Pelleas et Melsiande (Opera)

* Bela Bartok (Hungarian, 1881-1945)
* Perhaps the foremost 20th century representative of nationalism
* Made major contributions to the standard repertory of the symphony, concerto, piano music and string quartet
* he succeeded in bringing authentic folk elements into an unprecedented synthesis with the techniques of traditional art music
* Did extensive research into east European folk music, publishing 5 books and many articles including transcribing more than 9000 folk songs, largely Romanian, slovak and Hungarian
* he had a personal synthesis from sources as disparate as Romanticism, Epressionism, Neo-Classicism and Nationalism
* Nationalistic tendencies included pentatonic scales, modal harmonies, irregular meters from folk music 7/8
* dissonant character of his expanded tonality often stems from a contrapuntal texture
* this emphasis on the linear may well be reinforced by his vigorous and irregular treatment of rhythm and colorful use of orchestration
* Transformation from a few germinal themes often make for a strong thematic unity within his carefully molded and frequently symmetrical forms
* Works:

* String Music: 6 string quartets, 2 concertos, 2 rhapsodies 4 sonatas
* Piano Music: four works for piano and orchestra, a piano sonata, about 400 small scale pieces
* Orchestral Works: 2 ballets
* Vocal works: an opera, a cantata, songs
* Didactic Works:

* Allegro Barbaro for Piano
* Mikrokosmos
* Music for Percussion, Strings and Celeste
* Concerto for Orchestra
* Music for Children

* Arnold Schoenberg (Austrian, 1874-1951)
* An extremely important innovator: 1: he emancipated the twelve chromatic tones of the octave from their tonal roles in his atonal works; 2: he created a composition out of chanting tone colors alone (Klangfarbenmelodie); 3: he made prominent use of a speech like technique (Sprecstimme) ; 4: created the twelve tone method of composition
* Principle representative of Expressionism in music
* A highly influential teacher and a profound thinner about music.
* His music depends on motivic development in a contrapuntal framework whose texture and rhythm vary constantly
* early works were composed in a post-Wagnerian chromatic idiom
* Further chromaticism led to the composer’s atonal period in 1907
* after 1923 most of his composition employ the 12 tone method
* In his later years his music occasionally used the phrase structure, regular rhythms
* Works:

* Art song sets or cycles: 12, totaling 50 lieder
* Operas: 4
* Orchestral Works: 12, among them 2 chamber symphonies, a symphonic poem, concertos for violin and piano
* Chamber Music: 5 string quartets, string sextet, wind quintet, string trio
* Piano Music: 6 sets
* Misc.: 16 choral works and a symphonic Cantata

* Pierrot Lunaire
* Erwartung
* Moses and Aaron
* Variations for Orchestra

* Maurice Ravel (French, 1875-1937)
* He made a significant contribution to early 20th century piano literature
* He was an eclectic composer, drawing in an individual and masterful way on elements from Impressionism, ealier music in the western tradition, Spanish music and Jazz.
* Maintained a Neo-Classicist stance emotionally and its use of functional harmony and Clear classical structures
* He also frequently used modality and cultivated a high degree of dissonance through use of major 7ths, minor 9ths and chords with unresolved appoggiaturas
* Works:

* Piano Muisc
* Orchestral Music
* Chamber Music:
* Art Songs

* Pavane pour une Infante defunte
* Le Tombeau de Couperin
* Daphnis and Chloe
* La Valse
* String Quartet in F Major

* Igor Stravinsky (Russian, 1882-1971)
* One of the most influential and versatile composers of the 20th century
* His impact stemmed principally from his emancipation of rhythm, his orchestration, revival of traditional forms and style, his use of folk/popular/jazz styles and his ultimate recourse to serial techniques
* His style changed continually and yet always remained distinctive and individual; drawing at times on folk songs, dances and marches and the jazz sonorities
* also used forms from Western music history
* The closing portion of his career found him adapting to his purpose the serial techniques
* Style is characterized by novel rhythmic procedures, such as irregular and changing meters, unpredictable application of accents, motoric use of rhythm and frequent use of ostinatos
* Whether large or small works, his orchestration is always fully integrated into the compositional idea
* His highly dissonant harmonic language, which becomes bitonal at times, is generally oriented to unifying poles, or central pitches
* Structurally, he often builds in an episodic manner by fragmentation, rearrangement, and superimposing of thematic units
* Works:

* Orchestral Works: c.50 including 13 Ballets, 7 concertos, 3 symphonies
* Chamber Music: c. 30 works including instrumental and vocal pieces
* Operas: 4
* Religious Works: c. 15 for voices and instruments
* Misc. : several piano pieces 2 sonatas and 2 works for 2 pianos

* The Firebird (Ballets)
* Petruschka
* The Rite of Spring
* Octet (Chamber”
* A Soldier’s Tale
* The Rake’s Progress (Opera)
* Oedipus Rex
* Symphony of Psalms (Religious)

* Anton Webern (Austrian, 1883-1945)
* A Student of Schoenberg, he became one of the best known exponents of the twelve tone technique
* His innovations regarding schematic organization of pitch, rhythm and dynamics were formative in the musical technique later known as total serialism.
* His music is typified by verbs sparse textures in which every note can be clearly heard.
* Carefully chosen timbres often result inver detailed instructions to the performers
* Earliest works are in the Romantic style
* A distinguishing feature of his works is the use of traditional compositional techniques, especially canons, and forms in a modern harmonic and melodic language
* His tone row are often arranged to take advantage of internal symmetries, i.e. a row may be decided into four groups of three pitches
* This arrangement gives his work considerable motivic unity
* Works:

* Concerto for Nine Instruments
* String Quartet
* Variations for Piano
* Variations for Orchestra
* Symphony, Op. 21

* Alban Berg (Austrian, 1885-1935)
* Berg applied the twelve tone method with freedom and frequent recourse to traditional forms, creating an individual style with a post romantic warmth of expression
* He gradually abandoned the tonal style he derived from the late music of Wagner and Mahler in favor of atonality and ultimately dodecaphony
* His twelve tone music is noteworthy for its lyrical warmth and dramatic tension
* His cultivation of large scale works, classical approach to form and his frequent use of tone centers have also helped make his work widely acceptated
* Works:

* Operas: 2
* Orchestral Music
* Art Songs:
* Piano Music
* Chamber music: Chamber Concertos

* Wozzeck (Operas)
* Lulu
* Violin Concerto (Orchestral)
* Three Orchestral Pieces
* Seven Early Songs (Art Songs)
* Piano Sonata, Op. 1 (Piano Music)

* Aaron Copland (American, 1900-90)
* He was an American composers and teacher and instrumental in forging a distinctly American style of composition
* Studied in France with Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979), one of the most important composition teacher of the first half of the century
* He began as a Neo-Classicist, but by around 1930 his style had become complex and austere
* He was beginning to leave the general listener behind and deliberately turned to a simpler, more popular style in an attempt to bridge the gap between composer and public.
* His tonal style features: transparent scoring, clear in rhythm, tuneful, based on triadic harmony with sometimes modal and bichordal tendencies, THe use of folk material from both the US and Latin America, Like stravinsky, he wrote scores for Ballet
* Works:

* Billy the Kid
* Rodeo
* Appalacian Spring

* Olivier Messiaen (French, 1908-1992)
* European leader in the broadening of serial composition
* Much of his music is characterized by subjectivity and programmatic content or orientation
* He aborbed a variety of musical materials:

* newy types of tonal patterns and scales
* Ancient Greek poetic meters
* Non Western additive rhythms
* impressionist sonorites
* liturgical chant
* Asian musics
* Birdcalls

* Works:

* Exotic Birds
* Quartet for the End of Time

Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007)
* Following WWII, a center for avant-garde music was established in Darmstadt, German, were an annual International Summer course for new music begun in 1946

* to bring up to date composers who had missed out on new developments under Nazi control
* A leading German figure in the total control movement
* Kontra-Punkte 1953

* Questions/Problems with totally serialized music:

* does the writing become purely mechanical
* does the idea that specific moments during the playing out of the piece express anying disappear?
* What place does expression have in the sound experience
* /The execution of the score depends on clear distinction of often rapid or subtle rhtyms, dynamic levels, and articulations of individual notes

* The means by which performers express themselves have been usurped by the composer

* John Cage
* Some composers questioned the fundamental assumption that in the course of the history of music tab tit is inevitable that composers should be greater and greater in control of their music
* They reasoned that music has involved some degree of flexibility in actual execution and that aspect of the art deserves more exploration
* This lead to the idea of Chance Music or Aleatory Music

* Concept was pioneered most notably by John Cage (
* Strongly influenced by Eastern mystical philosophy, he argued against the western compulsion for rigorous control in art
* He valued freedom, flexibility and randomness

* In Indeterminacy, the composer exercises partial control, usually to establish the conditions for the performance

* Imaginary Landscape no. 4: Calls for 12 radios tuned to various frequencies and manipulated according to a specific set of instructions
* 4’33”

* Cage’s significance consists not only in his works but also in the aesthetic that underlies them.
* He wrote and talked extensively about the art in his book, Silence

* Steve Reich (1936-)
* sometimes known as process music, embodied the postmodernist idea that forward directness was not necessarily an essential attribute of experience
* Can be related to some of the ideas of Cage, coming out of Eastern philosophical conceptions that allow for stays or very slow and unmotivated mutation
* The composer typically establishes only a limited number of brief musical motives

* These are played in continuous repetition, perhaps with periodic additions of new ones or delention of ones already used

* Terry Riley (1935) In C consists of 53 motives, to be used in ostinato like fashion as long as the performers wish.

* This results in a musical form that evolves continuously in slow moving apparently suspended time

* Crafted similar effects by presenting a single musical motive in several simultaneous lines that are slightly out of phase

* Come out 1966: based on a recorded phrase spoken by a young African American describing his police station experience
* Piano Phase 1967
* Violin Phase 1967

* Futureism,
self consciously turning its back on the past
* The American Composer George Antheil (1900-1959) produced his Ballet Mechanique
* for percussion, eight pianos and an Airplane Propeller
Varese: Ionisation
Clausula Vera
a dyadic or intervallic, rather than chordal or harmonic, cadence. In a clausula vera two voices approach an octave or unison through stepwise motion.[25] This is also in contrary motion. In three voices the third voice often adds a falling fifth creating a cadence similar to the authentic cadence in tonal music.
Derivation/ Derived Row
Rows may be derived from a sub-set of any number of pitch classes that is a divisor of 12, the most common being the first three pitches or a trichord. This segment may then undergo transposition, inversion, retrograde, or any combination to produce the other parts of the row (in this case, the other three segments).Webern Concerto op. 24; twelve tone method;
Stile Concitato
Agitated Style; Monteverdi; 8th book of Madrigals; Baroque style that features repeated notes and extended trills
dramma per la musica
Monteverdi; L’Orfeo has dramatic power and lively orchestration. L’Orfeo is arguably the first example of a composer assigning specific instruments to parts in operas; plot is described in vivid musical pictures and the melodies are linear and clear.
elaborate and florid figuration or ornamentation in classical (late 18th century) and romantic (19th century, specifically bel canto) vocal music; Mozart; Queen of the Night in the Magic Flute
Colin Mcphee: first to do musicological studies in Bali; Composed in Mexico; Combines western and Balinese musical instruments
Ziegfeld Follies
a series of elaborate theatrical productions on Broadway in New York City from 1907 through 1931.
Gunther Schuller
American composer, conductor, horn player, author, historian, and jazz musician; co-founded the Modern Jazz Society; Coined the term “Third Stream”; Music that combines classical and Jazz
Square Root Form
John Cage; a short form that is squared; found in Canons; 5 bar form = 25 measures;
technique of using the diatonic (as opposed to the chromatic) scale without the limitations of functional tonality; No single pitch is felt as tonic; Aaron Copland: Appalachian Spring;
Giacomo Carissimi
one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accurately, the Roman School of music; One of the first composers of Oratorios.
* Impresarios:
someone who arranged concert series
* Public Concerts, called Academies, with tickets sold by subscription in advance
* In London: Johann C. Bach and Karl Friedrich Abel
* The Divertimento
* A common and important genre in the 18th cent. which was composed for less formal entertainment situations rather than concerts

* Term was given to specific pieces to can be used to cover a variety of sub types

* French Serenade
* Italian Serenata or Notturno
* German Nachtmusik

* The ensemble ranged from string quartets to wind ensembles to orchestras

Medial Caesura
an abrupt gap in the musical texture; usually uses a half cadence or authentic cadence in a new tonic and a rest; announces the arrival of the STA;
dialogic form:
the compositional choices that create an individual piece of music are in dialogue with generic norms and expectations; Sonata Form;
Trimodular Block
Sonata Form; When 2 medial caeusuras appear within an exposition; Creates a three part exposition; Often used by Schubert and Brahms.
* Sturm and Drang:
Topoi; Second Berlin School; Minor modes, chromatic harmonies and melodies and recitative like phrasing
* Emotional Distress ; Used by Haydn as a Rhetorical device.
Double Exposition
Mozart; Concerto;

* regarding the opening ritornello in the sonata form as the exposition
* it can be misleading due to the fact that the ritornellos does not establish contrasting keys; Piano concertos

* Le Nuovo Musiche
Giulio Caccini ( New Music, 1602)

* Two different styles:

* Strophic Arias continuing in the 16th cent. style
* Madrigals in Monodic style like the Italian madrigals in free form derived from divisions of the text; Seconda Prattica

Free melodic variation over a repeated bass ostinato; Bass line is shorter, only lasting a few measures
Free Melodic variation over a repeated bass ostinato; Bass lines last the entire stroph; Also called strophic variations
Ballet de Cour
* French had a special tradition of court entertainment

* Fulfilled the same function of court entertainment of the ITalian Opera
* Not a stage production
* Combined dance with instrumental music, spoken narrative and dialogue, airs and ensemble singing
* constumes, sets and machines

Venus and Adonis
John Blow, was considered a masque and included court participants; Based on Shakespeare;
* Vorimitation
: Process of integrating the CF in the main melody w/ long notes. and introducing each of its phrases by motives from the chorale presented in imitative texture in the other parts
Ritornello Form
ritornellos played by the full orchestra alternate with episodes that feature the soloist; Vivaldi; uses small repeated units that can be varied; Baroque Concerto
is a kind of polyphonic musical texture developed by Gyorgy Ligeti and then imitated by some other twentieth-century composers, which consists of many lines of dense canons moving at different tempos or rhythms, thus resulting in tone clusters vertically.
Pietro Aron
Renaissance; Italian theorist and composer; De institutione Harmonica; First to observe the change from linear writing to Vertical
Heinrich Glarean
Swiss Theorist; Renaissance; Dodecachordon; Proposed that there are 12 modes rather than 8; Aeolian and Ionian in addition Dorian, Lydian, Phrygian and Mixolydian; believed that Aeolian and Ionian were the most used;
Ancient Greek philosopher; Student of Aristotle; Elements of Harmony; Music should be judged by the ear, not Math; Against Pythagorus; Defined music into 7 categories;
Da Institutione de Musica; Roman; Divides music into 3 categories; Mundana-music of the spheres/ Humana- harmony of the human body/ Instrumentalis- Instrumental Music;
musical cryptogram
cryptogrammatic sequence of musical notes, a sequence which can be taken to refer to an extra-musical text by some ‘logical’ relationship, usually between note names and letters; Schumann begins nearly every section of Carnaval with a musical cryptogram
Darmstadt School
a loose group of compositional styles created by composers who attended the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music from the early 1950s to the early 1960s; Stockhausen
Monothematic Expostition
Haydn; Sonata form; The use of one theme to establish the opposition between tonic and dominant; String Quartet op. 50
Neapolitan School
a group, associated with opera, of 18th-century composers who studied or worked in Naples, Italy,[1] the best known of whom is Alessandro Scarlatti, with whom “modern opera begins”.
Guido Adler
Austrian Musicologist and Writer; “Father of Musicology”; the first person to study the sociocultural factors to music; Extensive study with the First Viennese School
stylus fantasticus
found in Baroque toccatas and fantasies; short contrasting episodes; free form; Buxtehude and Bach;
Willi Apel
German-American musicologist; Edited teh 2nd edition of the Harvard Dictionary of Music; History of the Keyboard to 1700;
Venus and Adonis
English opera by John Blow; Pastoral Opera; Features styles from France, Italy and England; Uses French Overture; airs and recitatives adopt the Bel Canto style; Other songs have English rhythms and melodies;
Neapolitan School
Alessandro Scarlatti: Opera; Centered around the city of Naples; Comedy was phased out and Opera Seria took over; Established the Da Capo from over the Binary Airs;
Pietro Metastasio
Librettist of the Baroque Opera; Most important Librettist of Opera Seria; Chief dramatic moments are highlighted w/ 2 or 3 voices; Known as emotional, lyrical and romantic poet.
Five Piano Pieces, op. 23
Collection of short piano pieces by Schoenberg; First works that deliberately use the 12 tone method; Short; Motivic;
German term from ca. 1915; specific process of the development of a musical motive; Motive is developed into an entire musical structure; Bach D minor invention;
Charles Burney
was an English music historian; Wrote teh General History of Music; Composition student of John Blow;
Kind of Blue
Studio album by Miles Davis; Modal Jazz; Greatest Jazz album of all time; Series of Modal sketches; Each performer was given a set of scales that defined their parameters
Gamelan Anklung
A tradition Balinese musical ensemble; 5 tone slendro scale; Older than Gong Kebyar; Heard in Temples, supplies music to temple anniversaries;
The use of two different keys at the same time; A more specific version of Polytonality; Elektra Chord
Elektra Chord
Richard Strauss; Dissonant chord and motive to represent the character of Elektra; Bitonality; E major and C# major.
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
Late Renaissance/early Baroque; Primary source of keyboard music from Elizabethan England; Morely Byrd;
Bebop Scale
Scales frequently used in jazz improvisation; Frequently used by Gillespie and Parker; 4 types: Bebop Dominant/Dorian/Major/Minor; There’s an added chromatic passing tone between 5 and 6
ad organum faschiendum
Anonymous; instructions on how to write organum;
Musica reservata
Applies to Josquin; represents a new style of composer; Motivated by a strong desire to give strong and detailed reflection of the words; Introduced chromaticism, harmonic freedom , ornaments and contrasts of rhythm and texture
Pierre Attaingnant
French Publisher in the early 1500’s; more than 50 collections; Parisian/French Chansons/ Similar to the frottole; Sermisy/Jannequin
Christoph Koch
Introductory essay on composition; began analysing things in binary form;
Heinrich Schenker
20th century music Theorist; Developed his own style of musical analysis of tonal music; Goal was to analyise the underlying structure of a piece of music; Shows hierarchical relationship of pitches
goldberg Variations
Bach; Works for harpsichod; Consists of an aria and 30 variations; Finest examples of Baroque variations; part of the Klavierbung; Every third variation is a canon built on the first 8 notes of the aria;
Richard Taruskin
American historian and musicologist; Triple graduate from Colombia ; Oxford history of Western Music;
Mensural Notation
Developed by Franco of Cologne; Medival rhythmic notational system; expansion of the Long and short; Ars cantus mensurablis; Freed music from the rhythmic modes; Paved the way for the ars nova;
Gilbert and Sullivan
Collaborators of Comic opera; Gilbert-Librettist and Sullivan- composer; Pirates of Penzance; Memorable melodies convey humor and pathos;
Carl Loewe
German Baritone and Composer; Called the “Schubert of North Germany”; Known for his lieder; Exploited the piano’s tonal potential;
Double Fugue
Fugue that has two subjects; Often developed at the same time; F# fugue in the well tempered Clavier; 2nd subject can also be introduced later;
American Society for COmposers, Authors and Publishers; Non profit organistation; Monitors performances to protects copyrights; Founded in NYC in 1914;
dies irae
13th century Latin hymn; Used as a sequens in the Requiem Mass; text describes judgement day; Found in Mozart’s and Verdi’s Requiem;
Louis Vierne
French organist and Composer; organist at Notre Dame; Taught Nadia Boulanger; Known for Organ symphonies
carnatic music
traditional music of Southern India; Divine art form; Main emphasis on vocal music; Made up of raga and tala;
David Lewin
American Theorist and Composer; Developed Transformational Theory; Wrote on the relationship between text and music;
Horatio Parker
American composer and organist; Ives’ teacher;
Medieval; addition of words to a preexisting melisma; A way for composers to add their voice to music;
Robert Morris
ESM Composition professor; Influenced by non western Music;
diminished seventh chord
chord made up of minor thirds; cadential; secondary dominat;
Well-tempered Clavier
Bach; Collection of keyboard works; Equal Temprament; all 24 keys; Educational; Preludes and Fugues;
Instrumental recitative
Used by Beethoven in Symphony 9; Refers to a style of instrumental music that resembles recitative; Usually marked “Recitative” in the score;
Bulgarian rhythm
Additive Rhythms: Richenitsa; Bartok;
Virtuoso Violinist/ COmposer of teh early 19th century; Most celebrated during his time; Created a modern violin technique; Used harmonics and left hand pizzicato;
Schumann; Work for solo piano; coliection of short pieces that represent carnaval; Used musical cryptograms; 21 pieces are connected by motive;
Louis Armstrong
Trumpeter; Dixieland style; Hot Fives; Shifted jazz from collective improvistation to solo; Called sachmo;
metric modulation
double tonic complex
a melodic or progression that consists of a back and forth motion; Sumer is icumin in; Usually whole steps;
Andrew Lloyd Webber
COmposer of Musicals; Jesus Christ Superstar;
Ruth Crawford Seeger
American composer and folk music specialist; influence by Skryabin; One of the first to extend serial techniques to elements other than pitch
Gustav Leonhardt
renowned Dutch keyboard player; Leading figure in the movement to play on period instruments;
Music education tool to teach singing; Based on syllables; Do can be fixed or movable; used in Kodaly method; Enables a student to audiate;
William Rothstein
Musicologist; Articles on Schenkerian Analysis;
New Wave
late 70’s early 80’s style of popular music; became a fixture on MTV; Synthesizers; Talking Heads;
Interval vector
An array expresses the intervalic content of a pitch class set; Used in set theory; To describe atonal music; Named by Howard Hanson;
Clara Schumann
Wife of Robert Schumann; Concert pianist and composer;
Don Randel
20th century American musicologist; editor of Harvard dictionary of Music; Memeber of Academy of Art and Sciences;
Austrian composer and theorist; Gradus ad Parnassus; Lessons in counterpoint; species; 1-5;
Most comprehensive German music encyclopedia; comparable to New Grove; 17 volumes; Published by Barenreiter;
Carl Dahlhaus
20th century Musicoligist; Very interested in Wagner’s total artwork’ Berlin Institute of Technology;
Prix de Rome
A scholarship for arts students; Started in 1663; Notable winners: Beriloz and Bizet
Israel in Egypt
Oratorio by Handel; Ballad Opera; Exodus from Egypt; Used previous music; monody- 6 voice fugues; dissonance for drama; Tells the story entirely in scripture;
Cecilian Movement
a reaction to the roughly hundred years (c.1800 to c.1900) when Gregorian Chant all but vanished from Catholic Masses; Wanted to revive chant and the Renaissance style;
Alfred Mann
20th century Music Theorist; ESM; First translation of Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassus; Left Germany before WWII
Two chords at the same time; Bichord; Split third chord; Stravinsky’s Petruschka; Bitonality;
Die Reihe
Music Journal edited by Stockhausen; important source of information about European serial and electronic music;
pitch notation is a system for naming musical notes of the Western chromatic scale; sub- and super-prime symbols (?? ???) to describe each individual note of the scale
all-interval set
a twelve-tone tone row arranged so that it contains one instance of each interval within the octave; Berg’s Lyric Suite;
Wind Ensemble
Military Bands; Modern wind ensemble founded by Fred Fennel at ESM in 1952; FIrst notable work is Holst E-Flat;
an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists; Allows for virtuosic display; Often before the coda; 6/4 chord; Trill; originally in the da capo repeat;
International Repertory of Music Literature;international bibliography of writings on music covering scholarly publications on all kinds of music and published in any language; Founded by barry s. Brook; Contains over 500,000 entries.
poetic musical period
Amy Beach
American Composer and pianist; First successful female composer of art music; Child prodigy; Sang 40 tunes by age one; Second New England School; The Year’s At the Spring”
Hugo Reimann
German Theorist and Composer: KNown for his complete dictionary for musicians; Taught in Leipzig;
Societe National de Musique
Founded in 1871 to promote French composers and music; Motto was “ars gallica”; Caesar Franch and Faure; Presented concerts of French Music;
20th century American Composer and Conductor; Known for movie scores in the 20’s
French organ builder; pioneered innovations that permeated in the 20th century; Influenced the works of Franck;
German musicologist; Published the BWV
double counterpoint
Form of invertible counterpoint; Two voice are involved; Found in “The Art of the Fugue”
The procces of assigning a syllable or word to a note; Began w/ Guido of Arezzo; Kodaly’s solfege;
Mario Giuliani
Italian Guitar player/COmposer of the early 19th century; Grand Overture; Leading virtuosi of the 19th cent; Fond of Theme and Variations
Kurt Weill
German Composer active in teh 20’s; Leading composer for the stage; Threepenny Opera; Mack the Knife;
Rape of Lucretia
Opera in 2 acts by Britten; Based on the Shakespere poem;; First work called a “Chamber Opera”;
A German Requiem
Brahms: Large Scale work for orchestra, chorus and soloists; 7 movements total; Sacred but not liturgical; Unified by the motif of a major third followed by another half step; NO violins in the first movement;
Scott Joplin
Composer/Pianis of the late 19th/ Early 20th century; Know for his Ragtime compositions; Maple Leaf Rag; Symcopated rhythms;
an Italian composer of the early Baroque period: Composer of Early opera; used a small orchestra due to the limitations of his opera house.
Schoenberg/Webern; 12 tone; Derived Set; When a derived set remains the same under transformation
Maria Callas
Renowned opera singer of teh 20th century; Known for Bel Canto; Wide vocal range of 3 octaves;
Bologna school
group of composers active in Bologna in the mid-late 17th century; Corelli and Torelli;
Tin Pan Alley
A collection of NYC publishers during the early 20th century; W 28th street; helped found ASCAP; Irving Berlin and George Gershwin
hexachordal mutation
Guido of Arezzo; Transposing from one hexachord to another; Similar to a pivot chord;
medireview gamut
Venetian Games
Witold Lutaslowski; Began to introduce randomness into teh exact synchronization of musical parts; became one of his most important compositional techniques.
Lamento d’Arianna
Monteverdi; Originally a 5 voice madrigal; Made into monody w/ acc.; Sixth book of madrigals;
Johann Christian Bach
One of Bach’s last children; Spent most of his time in England; The “English Bach”; Studied w/ CPE; primarily known for his influence on Mozart’s double exposition;
Italian librettist; Collaborated with Gluck; Wanted to reform opera to make it more like Tragedie Lyrique; Alceste;
Organ Mass
Low mass in the Baroque; A Low mass in which the Organ plays throughout; Example of Alternatim; developed out of the antiphonal psalmody practice; Couperin;
Soviet Compoer; Influenced heavily by Shostakovich; Combined music of various styles; Polystylistic; First symphony;
Spanish composer and organist; Renaissance; First Iberian keyboard composer; Organ Masses; Intabulations by Josquin and Lassus
American Mezzo soprano; known for contemporary music; Juilliard; Accomplished in lieder; Pierrot Lunair; Premiered Ancient Voices of Children;
Classical era Composer and Teacher; Schubert, Beethoven and Liszt’s teacher; Pivotal figure in late 18th century opera;
Susan McCleary
American Musicologist in the 20th century; Developed “New Musicology”; Combined musicology and feminist music criticism; Best known work is Feminine Endings;
Chorale Cantata
Sacred composition for voices and instruments; found in the German baroque; Organizing principle is the music and words to a chorale; 1650-1750; Most famous were by Bach; Developed out of the chorale concerto by Sheidt and the Venetian School.
L’art de toucher le clavecin
Art of playing Harpsichord; Treatise by Couperin; Primary sources of keyboard fingerings; Most prominent treatise of the time; 8 preludes and an original allemande;
In nomine
Number of English polyphonic pieces; Originated in the 16th century in a 6 voice mass; John Taverner; Typical Consort pieces; It was the basis for many pieces; Written by Strauss, Davies and Ferneyhough.
19th/20th century German conductor; Known for conducting Wagner at the Met;
Der Freie Satz
Free Composition; Treatise by Schenker; Presents an outline of his analytical techniques; Melodic outlines; Ursatz, Urline;
Tonal Music;
An die ferne Geliebte
Composition by Beethoven; First song cycle; precurser to Schubert and Schumann; Man’s voice and piano; Through composed; no song can stand alone;
Jenny Lind
Swedish Opera singer 19th century; Swedish Nightengale; Famous for Der Freischutz; Professor at the Royal College of Music;
time points
Geometrical point in space; Milton Babbitt; point of initial of a single pitch; Do duration; cannot be heard; distance from one to another is a time point interval; Serialism;
shape note
Notation designed to facilitate congregational singing; Note heads are different shapes; helps to find notes in major and minor scales; match up with solfege symbols; used in church music;
French organist and composer; Baroque; introduced trio sonata to France; Wrote the Art of playing harpsichord; Suggestions for fingerings and ornamentation; Influenced Bach;
Dorothy [i.e. Anna Harriet] Heyer
Missa Brevis
Short Mass; Mass ordinary is set in an efficient manner; only part is the text setting; Bach, Bernstein and Bruckner
French Compoer, conducter and teacher; Went to Paris conservatory; most famous student is Copland; FIrst woman to conduct orcehstras; BSO and NY Phil; doesn’t matter what style you use, just do it consistently;
French harpsichordist/composer; Greatest harpsichordist of his time; Sole surviving french harpsichord music; majority are suite dances; Strong sense of melodic line
American theorist and instrument creator; worked with microtonal scales; custom made instruments allowed him to play these works; 43 unequal tones in an octave; Book was Genesis of A Music;
Pelleas et Melisande
Play adopted by Debussey; Only completed opera; The french operatic reaction to Wagner; Almost completely absent of arias and set pieces;
tin tinnabula
“bell like ” sonorities over a triad
Strophic Variation
Term for a structure used in early 17th-century Italian vocal music in which the melody of the first strophe is varied in subsequent strophes while the bass remains essentially the same. Strophic variations are found in opera (e.g. ‘Possente spirto’ in Act 3 of Monteverdi’s Orfeo), in solo songs and duets and in the early Cantata.
Heiligenstadt Testament
A Letter written by Beethoven to his brothers Carl and Johann; Reflects his growing despair over his hearing loss; He kept it hidden;
Second New England School/Boston Six
G. Chadwicke/ John Paine/ Arthur Foote/ Ed MacDowell/Amy Beach/ Horatio Parker; Created a unique American style that was set apart from European styles; Helped establish music schools; Yale, Harvard, NEC.
Allen Forte
20th century music theorist; Taught at Yale; Book- The Structure of Atonal Music; proposed a musical “Set Theory” of pitch class set analysis; Studied Babbitt and Webern; Perle and Taruskin are his vocal critics.
Nikolaus Harnencourt
20th century Austrian Conductor; Known for performances of Classical era and earlier music; Pioneer in Early music; founded his own period instrument ensemble
Musique Mesuree
Here againn comes spring; Style of vocal music in France; Longer syllables were given longer notes and shorter notes to short syllables. Jean Antoine Baif
Character piece
Encompasses a broad range of 19th century piano works; Works by Schubert, Schumann, Beethoven, Chopin and Debussey; Short movements that evoke a certain mood or character; Nocturnes/ Carnival/ Preludes; Often have a title that is expressive of the character.