Pure Vowel
A vowel’s sound that can be sustained wihout movement of articulators or a change in the quality of sound until air flow ceases.
Two vowel sounds that are perceived as a single language unit.
International Phonetic Alphabet. Phonetic Symbols that are assigned exact sounds.
Vowel Diagram
A chart  that shows how sounds are made. Shows the placement of vowels with the positioning of the tongue when articulating various vowels.
Forward Vowel
Arch of tongue is forward and back.
Back Vowel
Dark vowels with the tongue arched back.
Closed Vowel
When tongue is close to the roof of the mouth.
Open Vowel
The more open the space is between the roof of the mouth and the tongue and the farther the jaw is dropped.
Rounding of Lips
Position of lips most back vowels use.
Unrounding of Lips
Position of lips most forward vowels use.
Most important for getting the meaning and expression of a word across. A speech sound formed when articulators interrupt flow of air through the vocal tract.
Place of Articulation
Place in the vocal tract where the interruption of air flow occurs. This includes the lips, teeth,  tongue, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate and glottis.
Manner of Articulation
Method of interruption of the airflow. Interaction of the articulators.
Stop- plosive Consonant
Occurs when air flow is completely prevented from passing through the mouth or nose and then is released suddenly.
Fricative Consonant
Has the air flow partially interrupted, producing a noisy sound.
Nasal Consonant

Produced with air travelling through the nasal passageway. 


Lateral Consonant
Only one in English. l sound in “lit”.
To blend one tone into the next. A slur. R sound in red, y sound in yet, w in wear.
If a sound has a pitch or not.
A sound that has pitch. [g]
A sound that does not have pitch. [k]
Fricative Examples
[f] [v] [s] [z]
Stop- plosive examples
[p] [b] [t] [d]
Nasal Examples
[m] [n]
Glide Examples
[r] [j] [w] [hw]
Cognate Consonate
Consonate made in same manner. Voiced or unvoiced. i.e [b] [p]
Cognate of [b]
Cognate of [t]
Cognate of [g]
Cognate of [s]
Combination of two consonants represented by two symbols or by single symbols.
Sound of [i]
ee sound “beet”
Sound of [I]
Sound of [eI]
Sound of [eI]
Sound of [?]
Sound of [?]
Sound of [u]
Sound of [ t? ]
Elongated S. “Chuh”
Sound of [d?]
Melodic flow in sentence that creates meaningful words in English when spoken aloud.
Duration and rhythm.
General American Speech
Most accepted prestige dialect in United States. Stage dictation used with art songs and opera.