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the distrubution of sound energy throughout the audio frequency range





Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds






the perception of the energy at each frequency



Frequency Making


when two sounds occur simultaneously and one sound is masked by the other



Harmonic Content


amount of energy in the fundamental and overtones




amount of time that a tone is generated






reflected sound arriving later than the direct sound



Temporal Masking

louder sound will cancel softer sound when they are close in time





The maximum displacement of a periodic wave






distinct and subtle sounds created by its environment





the perceived fluxuation caused by phase cancellation between 2 tones leass than 20 Hz apart



What are the Fletcher Munson Curves and what do they tell us?

equal loudness contours are the average response of the human ear to sound energy across the audible range


Overdriving an Amplifier can cause what three things?

Non-Linear Distortion




Creates Extra Harmonics


What is the difference of a 10db change in a level as opposed to a 10db change in loudness

10dB change in level is a measurable quantity


10 dB chnage in loudness is how we percieve it


How does the presence of harmonics as opposed to a pure tone, affect the perception of the pitch?



presence of harmonics make the pitch sound low


Are changes in level easier to hear in softer or louder sounds? Higher or Lower frequencies?


Changes in level are easier to hear in louder sounds and in higher frequencies.


below 200Hz;

below 500Hz;

below 1000Hz

;less body,emphasis on midrange,cuts on parts of bass


;less of midrange content, sound like radio


;nasally, brittle

Cuttin above:




;crispness and air is lost,doesn’t feel as lively and syballance lost




;muffled consanance; low end emphasized


Describe some effects of cutting on male and female voices.

200Hz removes resonance

500Hz small speaker sound

1000Hz nasal quality

8khz sibillance

5kHz Clarity

2kHz muffles


What change would you make, to what frequencies, to give music a “telephone” quality?


place a bandpassed filter that ranges from 300Hz to 3kHz


Why are noise bands used for masking?


random distribution of energy across a range of frequencies more effective than pure tones


How is frequency of beating determined?


The numerical difference between the two frequencies

2 Tones that are more than a critical bandwidth apart
2 Tones that are less than a critical bandwidth apart
anytime there is 2 signals interfering w/ eachother
The sound that we want ; Program Material
All the sound we don’t want that interferes w anything in the program material