Diphthong
Two vowel sounds on the same syllable
Fermata
Cessation of rhythm
Focal plane
imaginary plane where all icti fall, roughly chest-high
GoS
gesture used to control a response afterthe beat instead of on the beat
Ictus
Precise instance of the rhythmic pulse
Mirror Conducting
Having the left hand conduct exactly like the right hand
Music
Organized sound over time, with intent
Prep Beat
Preparatory beat that coincides with the breath of the performers and should include tempo, dynamic, and style, and should include a visible breath
Strata
Workload divisions in the score
Synergy
2+2=5; the total is greater than the sum of the parts; combined action or operation; goal of conductors
Takt
Steady reiteration of beat-points
Transposition
Process of writing music in a key or octave other than that of the actual sound of the instrument
Why do we need a baton?
The baton creates a focus of attention and generates icti.
Why do we need a podium?
the podium makes the conductor the ultimate center of attention and is the workplace of the conductor.
Why do we need to wear dark clothing?
The white baton shows better to the performers.
Why do we need a left hand?
The left hand can give cues, mold lines, shape dynamics, and display intensity as well as mirror.
Why do we need a score?
It is a direct line to the composer in study, and a reference tool in rehearsal and performance.
Why do we need to always be so on time that we are early?
A conductor sets an example in every way to the performers as musician and teacher, and a conductor must have time to deal with any and all situations that may arise and affect the rehearsal and/or performance.
Why do we need to create synergy?
The experience of performing with other people to create a musical performance that goes beyond the level of the plays is a most important lesson, no matter what field your students/performers may pursue in life.
Eb soprano clarinet
sounds m3rd higher than written
Bb clarinet
sounds M2nd lower than written
Eb alto clarinet
sounds M6th lower than written
Bb bass clarinet
sounds octave+M2nd lower
Eb contraalto (or bass) clarinet
sounds octave+M6th lower
Bb contrabass clarinet
sounds 2 octaves+M@nd lower
A clarinet
sounds m3rd lower
Bb soprano saxophone
sounds M2nd lower
Eb alto saxophone
sounds M6th lower
Bb tenor saxophone
sounds octave+M@nd lower
Eb baritone saxophone
sounds octave+M6th lower than written
Bb trumpet
sounds M2nd lower
treble clef baritone
sounds octave+M2nd lower
A trumpet
sounds m3rd lower
Alto flute
sounds P4th lower
English horn
sounds P5th lower
F horn
sounds P5th lower
Db piccolo
sounds octave+m2nd higher
C piccolo
sounds octave higher
Contrabassoon
sounds octave lower
Double bass
sounds octave lower
Tenor(voice)
sounds octave lower
Violins
no transposition
Violas
no transposition
Celli
no transposition
Flutes
no transposition
Oboes
no transposition
Bassoons
no transposition
Trombones
no transposition
Euphoniums (in bass clef)
no transposition
Tubas
always sound as written
Concert pitch
Sounding pitch
Sounding pitch
The pitch as it sounds for any instrument
Written pitch
The note written on the music, transposed or not