Emotion and instinct now were seen as sources of truth.

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Objectivity, equilibrium and restraint of the Classical period gradually yielded to explosive philosophies and emotions.

General characteristics ” personalization, impulsive emotional display, baring the soul, attraction for the exotic, mysterious, enchanting, fantastic and the natural. Composed works were larger-scale in forms, ensembles and durations.

Music now allowed lavish, unrestrained harmonic and instrumental color, hot emotions and intense poetic tenderness.

This period also bred interesting performers and personalities, perhaps like today’s rock stars.

Franz Liszt, pianist and composer whose technical prowess and dynamic stage presence are legendary – it was said women swooned and even picked up his cigar butts and put them in their bosoms!

Nicolai Paganini ” violinist who strode onstage in a black cloak and played with such wizardry that it was said he was in league with the devil and that he played the violin with strings from the intestines of his late wife!

Noted composers: Brahms, Schumann, Schubert, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Tschaikowsky, Grieg, Wagner, Rachmaninoff


First 25 years of the classical era (1750-1775) called the Rococo. This was a period of “cooling off” from the heated complexity of the Baroque period.

music of considerable elegance, restraint, poise, and gentility. Gradually, the surface charm yielded to the greater power and vision of classical composers.

Vienna, Austria became the center of the mature classical style

As court life diminished, music was heard in a variety of new settings, in public concerts and in social and political events.

Classical characteristics – clearer, simpler forms, thinner texture, more use of a single melody supported by accompaniment (called homophonic) rather than numerous, independent parts or voices (called polyphonic) as in the Baroque period.

Noted composers: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Josef Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven. They expanded the repertoire of chamber music, string quartets and symphonies.

Outgrowth of Renaissance musical style (depersonalization, control and serenity)


The Baroque, by contrast, loved colossal artistic statements

Music – exuberance, passion, sudden dynamic contrasts and harmonic and instrumental color. Music has complex, dense textures, constant rhythmic propulsion, changes of pace and more chromaticism (using notes outside the key of the piece)

Noted composers: Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Scarlatti, Purcell and Gabrielli

“classical” the term
a term used to reference a specific period of about 60 years. Also used to refer to whole body of Western art music, regardless of when written.
Out of the excesses of the previous period came the cool, refreshing alternative of impressionism. Inspiration came from without, not from within oneself.

Music – intended to create atmosphere and project a beautiful moment or sensory effect. New and exotic sounds employed, more flexible rhythms, melodies more serene, less goal-oriented, and harmonies were used to create sonority rather than ground us in a particular key. Often gives feeling of drifting.

Noted composers: Debussy, Ravel, Resphigi, Griffes

Most fragmented of all the periods. Complicated, turbulent and exhilarating

One side – music offered highly controlled statements
Other side – music was totally free in expression
Experimentation in rhythm, form, melody, tuning of instruments

Traditional instruments were used but sometimes played with completely new techniques (e.g. “prepared piano”
where nails, paper clips, metal, bolts, plastic and paper were placed inside the piano on the strings to create different effects)

Electronic and computer-generated music came into prominence

Noted composers: Bartok, Barber, Bernstein, Copland, Crumb, Gershwin, Ives, Prokofieff, Schoenberg, Stravinsky

wind ensemble     
smallest and most elite of all bands, symphonic concert

non verbal communication

conductors used to be composers; would either conduct in front of group or play the piano, would play louder when ensemble was was off 

Mongolian Musician
Horsehead Fiddle
Morin Khuur
Morin Khuur small and large instruments (string numbers)

staple instrument of Mongolian 1,000 years old small-120 strings large- 160 strings

used to be made out of horse hair 

“Lonely Baby Camel”-
story of weeping camel-song meaning
Mongolian style of music.
not metered and has no pulse
felix mendellson

made batons famous

more precise because of tiny point 

long song
first violinist of an orchestra and concert master

shake hands or acknowledge each other 

sign of respect and leadership

oldest form of Indian classical music
post WWI
public school band program began
oldest form of Indian music
La Finta Giardineralo
"The Fake Gardener"

WA Mozart

1174–year it was written at age 19

1775–premiered in Munich 

instrument Uday Bahawakar uses to sing with-4strings
discipline system
opera buffa
funny opera with serious moments
opera seria
serious opera
major of town, one of main characters
a "work," comes from Italy
ensemble of 7 people
highest singer









dry, without the orchestra

accompanied by orchestra

air song–solo

who wrote the words of an opera song 

slightly richer sound than soprano
higher male voice
lower male voice
speed of music
fake gardener names girls stage name, real name = violante