“Classical” signifies the “_______” or “________” music of the West as distinguished from ________ music, __________ music, jazz, and the traditional music of various ethnic cultures.”
serious, art, folk, popular
“Classical” with a capital C refers to music during these years: ___________. “Classical” derives from Laitn “classicus,” meaning something of ____________.
1750-1820. of first rank or highest quality.
This was the era of the _______ ________.
Common, person.
People of this era wanted to emulate art, architecture, philosophy from ancient _______ and ________.
Greece, Rome.
Art and architecture are considered “neo-classical.” Why not music?
With art you can compare it to Greece and Rome and with music there is nothing to compare it to.
The Enlightenment is also called the Age of _______ which gave way to the Age of _________ . Was this way of thinking in agreement with or in direct opposition to religious faith?
Reason, Revolution, opposition.
What is Deism?
The creator made the world, set in motion, and has left alone ever since.
What are the quakers known for?
Charity for the poor.
Why did the rise of open journalism lead to open revolt?
express publicly what you want without the fear of reprisal or nobility.
Contrast opera seria (baroque) with opera buffa (classical era).
seria- stiff, mythological, expensive. buffa- spoken dialogue, comedy, simple slapstick comedy, poked fun at nobility.
Who could attend public concerts? ________. Why was this so new?
Anyone. because music used to be only for nobility.
Name two Mozart operas which threatened nobility: __________ and __________. Why did they threaten nobility?
Don Giovanni, Marriage of Figaro. Rebellion.
Why did opera comique (buffa) come on the scene?
Boredom with opera seria and they did this so people wouldn’t leave during the intermission.
Piano-forte means ________ / ________. What are three advantages of a piano over a harpsichord? 1. gradual ________ _________ 2. more ________ _________ 3. more __________
soft/loud. dynamic changes, subtle contrasts, power
What did they do with the old harpsichords when the piano took over? They went to _______ for ________ __________.
homes for ordinary people for music lessons.
What composer set the little folk song “Twinkle, Twinkle?”
Classical composers did away with the basso _________ of the Baroque in favor of a pattern called the _______ _______.
Continuo, Alberti Bass.
Composers concentrated less on dense counterpoint and more on creating charming _________. This is music you can _________.
melodies, whistle.
Why did composers call for crescendos or diminuendos?
They gave classical music a new sense of urgency and drama. The listener feels a constant flux and flow, not unlike the swings of mood we experience in life.
Why was “If you want to dance” from the “Marriage of Figaro” so revolutionary? ________. How did Mozart show the barber’s changes in mood? ________.
It criticized the aristrocracy. It begins calm and becomes more anxious. We hear Figaro’s agitation grow.
What is a “trousers role” ?
Women playing a boy part.
Vienna was called “A City of _______ and _______.”
Music, palaces.
Name the three major Classical Era composers who moved to Vienna:
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven.
Haydn’s nickname was “______ _______” Why? For what is his best known piece (Emperor String Quartet) famous?
Papa Haydn. Everyone loved him! He helped a lot of music. His music is happy and cheerful. It was the Nazi national anthem.
The powder room was for _______. Why?
Men. Because their attire was more ornate.
Mozart’s nickname was ______ genius.
What honor did Pope Clemont XIV bestow on Mozart (age 14) ______________. What did Mozart take illegally from the Vatican?
Collar of a knight of order of the golden spur. The Miserere. He listened to it and wrote it from his memory. It was a motet not to be used outside of the Vatican.
Rules, rules, rules become _____.
Forms, forms, forms.
Compare a novel with a symphony: Novel : ____ ____ ____ _____ ______ ______. Symphony: _____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ______.
Novel: chapters, sentences, paragraphs, words, letters, punctuation. Symphony: movements, sections, phrases, measures, notes/rests.
What does ternary mean?
What is Sonata-Allegro form?
optional Intro 1. exposition 2. development 3. recapitulation, optional coda.
Symphony comes from what two words?
With (together) and hear
How many movements in a symphony? What are they? Why are the first and last movements so fast?
4. Fast and serious, slow and lyrical, graceful/moderate, very fast and lively. To get people excited. Start happy, leave happy.
What are three instrumental sections of an orchestra?
Strings, woodwinds, trumpets and sometimes drums.
Define theme and variations.
musical form which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes notes of a melody, the harmony, the rhythm or some other form of the music.
Why should melodies chosen be “spare and uncluttered” ?
Melodies that are spare and uncluttered can easily be dressed in something else.
Define Rondo.
coming again.
Define finale.
The end.
What is the Koeckel number?
It is an identifying number in chronological order.
Where did the sinfonia originate before it was taken out and used on its own?
It was the overture to the operas.
Why was Mozart’s famous symphony premiered in a casino?
That’s where the money and the people were.
Why were concert halls so popular?
It was the center for music and life and entertainment of the masses.
Typical symphony instruments in a large city?
strings, woodwinds, brasses, percussion (on festive pieces)
Goethe compared the string quartet to a “______.”
Conversation among four people.
Haydn is called the _____.
Father of the string quartet.
The string quartet uses how many players to a part? It has how many movements? Which are…?
One. Four. Fast, slow, minuet, fast.
The sonata form is how many movements? What are they?
3. Fast slow fast.
What explains the sudden popularity of the sonata? Who played them and where?
Piano. Amateur musicians – mostly women in the home.
Why did people love to go to a solo concerto?
They wanted to hear a virtuostic player perform.
What did Mozart have to do to make so much money producing public concerts?
Rent the hall, hire the orchestra, lead the rehearsal, attract the audience, sell tickets, compose music, appear as the soloist.
Concertare means to:
Cooperate and fight against.
Why did you need a double exposition form?
One for the orchestra and one for the soloist.
How did you know a cadenza was beginning and how did the orchestra know when to come back in?
The orchestra stopped playing and the soloist took off after the trill.
What did the book mean by “anything you can do, I can do better?”
the soloist and orchestra are constantly competing.
Why did the public like the opera more than the oratorio and the Mass?
It offered glamour and excitement of the theater.
“Opera is drama, yes, but drama _____ ___ ______.”
Propelled by music.
Compare Baroque and Classic era opera story lines.
Baroque: statue-like gods, ruler is always the hero. Classical: more natural, realistic characters.
What were the two purposes of the introduction of the vocal ensemble?
Allows plot to unfold more quickly. 3 or more characters can express their own emotions.
Sometimes Mozart used Singspiel rather than recitative. What is it?
Made up of spoken dialogue or songs.
Briefly, what is the story line of Don Gionvanni?
amoral philander who seduces and murders.
What is a “patter song,” and for what purpose was it used?
Rapid fire pronunciation.. used for comic operas.
Classical Era according to Music Appreciation:
Classical Era according to textbook:
Immanuel Kant defined Enlightenment as “the inability to use one’s understanding without _______ _____ _______.” This meant to attack such established institutions as the ___________ and the ___________.
guidance from another. monarchy and institutions.
John Lock stated, “If the government violates contract with oppressive policies, the governed have a right to ________ and __________ it.
Rebel and replace.
Name the principal war in Europe during this period:
French Rev – 1789.
What was the american conflict in this time?
The American Revolution. 1775-1781.
What famous American document is steeped in the Enlightenment thinking?
The declaration of independence.
Name two most famous American leaders who were exponents of the Enlightenment.
Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson.
The Industrial Revolution was “driven by _____ ______.”
New technology.
John Kay
Flying shuttle.
James Hargreave
spinning jenny.
Eli Whitney
cotton gin.
James Watt
improved steam engine.
Thomas Newcomen
steam engine.
Why did this revolution cause such horrible diseases and living conditions?
Because there were so many people crammed together and the employees had to work long days.
Factories had to be located where they had access to _____, not just water.
Improved manufacturing techniques made what instrument “increasingly affordable to the masses”?
Why did a great number of periodicals spring up?
Because people wanted to learn how to play – especially the women at home. It was also easier, more efficient, and cheaper with the new technologies.
Compare the source of Haydn’s income to Mozart’s.
Haydn was very successful financially whereas Mozart was always looking for more money and he was known to have a gambling problem.
What was Vienna to composers such as Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven?
The musical center.
Why was it important that “Histories of Music” be collated?
It exposed the common people to musical repertoires that they had never heard of.
People living in this era did not consider to have the label of Classical, but rather they thought themselves as ________ composers writing in the ________ style.”
Modern, modern.
It would have been unusual during the Classical period to hear music written more than a _______ before.
“Music, like a painting, has but a single goal: _____.
To present to the mind the truth of nature. By Dubos.
Why did Bach’s sons consider JS Bach’s music old-fashioned?
It was too ornate and elaborate.
Genius, inspiration, unconscious, effortless, divine, not teachable.
Technique, craft, conscious, hard work, human, teachable.
What did Mozart say about his girl pupil?
She was very good at playing her pieces but could not compose well.
One early marker of classical style is the emergence of genuine ___________ – in which a subordinate _______ or ________ support a single prominent _______ _______ — as opposed to _______ ________ of the Baroque Era.
homophony, voice or voices, melodic line, continuo homophony.
The two new syntactic structure to emerge in the Classical era was the ________ form as well as the ______ form.
Rondo, Sonata.
Harmonic rhythm in Baroque changed from beat to beat. In the Classical era, the shifts “occur less frequently – only _____ or ______ in a measure.
Once or twice.
The ________ between tonic and dominant become particularly strong during the Classical era.
In what way were pieces by Haydn unpredictable?
Weird phrasing with periodical pauses.
Sonata form?
Expo, develop, recap, coda.
Coda is Italian for ____.
Define alberti bass and tell how it is different from Basso Continuo.
An arpeggiation of the bass; slower harmonic rhythm.
Name JS Bach’s two most famous composer sons.
JC Bach, CPE Bach.
What did JC Bach do which his father never did?
He travelled outside of Germany.
It provides a non-predictable framework for the audience.
In the classical era, vocal music still retained its supremacy. Without a ____ _________ music could appeal only to the ________ (the so-called language of the ______ ) whereas ______ music- sacred or secular — could appeal to both _____ and _____ at once.
text, instrumental, emotions, heart, vocal, heart, mind.
Why were the most talented singers the focus of gossip and adulation?
They were celebrities!
What was the start of opera buffa? ______ They would perform ______ between acts.
Opera seria. Skits.
It’s subject was ______ (opera buffa) as opposed to ______ (opera seria).
Humerous. Serious.
The libretto of the typical opera buffa centered on:
everyday characters.
Emphasized ensemble singing:
opera buffa.
avoided da capo arias:
opera buffa
included basses:
opera buffa
centered on rules, heroes and gods
opera seria
emphasized solo singing
opera seria
centered on everyday characters
opera buffa
included castrati
opera seria
Basically, what was the “war of the baffons”?
Making fun of royalty. (newspapers- you can write whatever you want.)
Why was the war of the baffoons a foresight of the French Revolution?
Because they were trying to fight/overthrow the aristocracy.
People of this time were fascinated by the turkish themes. What were they and why?
It was something different.. something new. The instruments.
Why were people of this era so upset with Italian opera?
They wanted real people – they were sick of the seriousness, they were sick of seeing the nobility as heroes in the operas.
What are some principal features of reform opera as opposed to opera seria?
no da capo arias, little or no opportunity for vocal improv or virtuostic displays of vocal agility or power, far less repetition or text within an aria, accompanied recitative instead of secco recit (dry recit)
Why more prominence for the chorus?
Because the operas were about real life townspeople. They made comments and such.
Lyrics before ____
Gluck was to be heir-apparent to _____ and ______. Wagner considered Gluck to be his forerunner. Why?
Rameau and Lully. Wagner wanted drama and music at the same time.
How old was Mozart when he died?
Mozart’s 3 most famous operas?
the Marriage of figaro, Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute
In their orchestration, melodic style, and demand for ____ ______, the works of Haydn, Mozart and others are hard to distinguish from their ________________.
Vocal virtuosity, secular theatrical works.
The setting for songs is _______ and largely ________. Both the vocal and piano parts are ______ ______ and ________.
strophic, syllabic, straight forward, undemanding.
Why did people of this time still consider vocal music superior to purely instrumental music?
Instrumental music was pleasing to the ears but it didn’t have anything to say- it didnt “embody concepts of reason.”
Name and describe the parts of Koch’s musical sentence :
every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. Antecedent and consequent.
What is unity in variety? ” A sufficient degree of _____ with an _______ _______.
contrast, integrated whole.
What are some other ways to say “Hauptsatz” other than “theme”?
Topic sentence, head sentence.
What were the four most important genres in the classical era?
String quartet, symphony, concerto, sonata.
Movement 1:
fast . sonata/rondo
movement 2:
slow. sonata/t&v/ ABA
Movement 3:
lively. minuet proper/trio
Movement 4:
fast. sonata/rondo
Define minuet.
in triple meter. two binary forms – minuet proper and trio.
Define rondo:
ABACADA. Alternating recurring theme. Like that castle.
Describe the keyboard sonata at mid century. It is ____ textured and ______ in scale, can be played equally well on _______ or _______, and places only limited _____ ________ on the performer.
light, small, harpsichord or piano, technical demands.
What are the characteristics of Sturm und Drang? _____ mode. large ______ ______, jagged _______ and sudden _______ _______. Heightened _______ intensity and _______.
Minor. melodic leaps, syncopations, dynamic contrasts. emotional, drama.
What instruments are used in the string quartet?
2 violins, a viola, and a violoncello.
In relation to the string quartet: they are in the same ______ and it has no _____ _______.
Family. Basso Continuo.
Contemporaries compared a good quartet to :
An intimate conversation among a close group of friends in which people exchange ideas.
How many movements in a string quartet?
3, 4, or 5.. but usually 4.
In the early decades of the 18th century the terms _____ and ______ were synonymous. Why?
they were the same thing?
A recent scholar catalogued how many symphonies written between 1720-1810?
What are the turkish instruments?
Bass drum, cymbals, tambourines, triangle.
Four major cities?
Berlin, Vienna, Paris, London.
Define sublime as opposed to beautiful:
beautiful was pleasing and sublime was imposing, powerful and frightening.
Haydn taught:
Mozart and Beethoven.
Beethoven claimed he learned _____ from Haydn.
3 Movements. Fast slow fast.
The cadenzas in every ____ were expected to be ____ of intense _______ giving performers free rein to ______ their ______.
movement, moments, improv, exercise, fancy.
To the modern ears, it may seem strange to hear the soloist ____ repeatedly from _____ to ______. this did not change until Beethoven.
shift, foreground, backgroud.