Pre-Classicism Dates
Classicism Dates
Pre-Classical Styles
Emphasis on embellishment and not substance
Jean-PHilipee Rameau
Stressed the pleasing, entertaining and unproblematic. Opera Buffa. Pergolesi.
CPE Bach
Sensitivity, sentimentality.
subtle nuances and shadings in rapid succession. Rapid changes in dynamics and rhythmic patterns
Sturm und Drang
Storm and Stress. CPE Bach
Final phase of Empfindsamer Stil
Literary: Goethe and Schiller
CPE Bach Keyboard Treatise
“Versuch ueber die wahre art das clavier zu spielen” keyboard method book with much information on musician and musical practices of the time period.
JJ Quantz
Flute Treatise
1st Berlin School
CPE Bach
Strophic syllabic, simple accomp, light mood songs, printed on 2 staves.
War of the Buffoons
French vs. Italian Comic Operas started by Pergolisi’s La Serva Padrona
La Serva Padrona. Little stir in Paris, travelled and performed along side Italian operas which caused War of Buffoons
Early Classical Symphony
1st Mvmt. Sonata form (Sonata Allegro)
Grew out of Italian Opera. 3 mvmt’s; fast-slow-fast.
Sonata Form (Sonata Allegro)Diagram
(Intro) A B A
(Grave) Expo. Develop Recap
Themes I&II I&II I&II Close
Key Area I-V allover I I I
French Overture
||: A B :||
Italian Overture
“Sinfonia” led to 3 mvm’t symphony
Fast Slow Fast (single movement) Melodic material had nothing to do with the opera.
Size of Classical Orchestra
Use of many instruments that are now obsolete. Violino Piccolo, viola d’amore, and cornetto or zink, viola da gamba, lute, recorder.
Mannheim School
Composers in courts of Elector Palatine in Mannheim Germany – Johann Stamitz; Anton Filtz, Richter
Revolutionized Symphony
added 4th Mvm’t to symphony (3rd mvm’t Minuette (Scherzo) and Trio)
Mannheim Crescendo
Gradual increase in volume over long passage to prep for change in key, Involves string tremelo.
Mannheim Rocket
Mvm’t opening gesture of ascending triadic figures
Mannheim Walze (Steamroller)
Ostinato repetition of a phrase with gradual addition of instruments
Age of Enlightenment
Voiced by philosopher Rousseau (Social Contract 1762)
Age of Humanism
Value of human life and its outcomes on this world as opposed to to banking good behavior to get into heaven
pervasive sentiment of the time was “Liberty, justice, and brotherhood” (class change was unthinkable)
Manifests in Freemasons society
Musical Patronage
Haydn Mozart Beethoven
Old style Some patronage No Patrons
Church Teaching Teacher
Esterhazy Performing Composer
patronage not succesful Publishing
-would sell to multiple publishers at same time
Amateur V. Connoisseur
w/ increasing leisure time and growing middle class, music was available to population.
Amateur-does not play for a living but does play (often times quite well)
Connoisseur – enjoys music
parlor music, music consumed within house, lighter, not concert hall music
Classical Music Publishing
no “Copyright.” composers sold music to publisher and would not receive income from additional sales
Haydn Dates
1759 took job under Esterhazy
1762-1790 Nicholas I; played Baryton
Kapellmeister in 1766
1790 Nicholas dies, Anton suceeds. little interest in music. Haydn travels to England
1795. Nicholas dies, Nicholas II asks Haydn to return to Esterhaza
Cataloged his own works in 1808
Haydn 4 mvm’t symphony
Early Period (1759-1768) symphonies in 3 mvm’ts; use harpsichord; light “prelude”; easily developed themes
Mid Period (1768-74) Deeply emotional; Sturm und Drang, minor keys
Late Period (1774-1809) Interest in Color, smooth unfolding of thematic material, ambitious, stirring, yet intelligible
include London Symphonies 92-104
I.S/A II.T/V III.M/T IV. SA (S-Rondo)
Mozart Dates
Leopold Mozart
Father, wrote Violin Treatise
Talented sister keyboard
friend of Mozart via Freemasons, helped to support him financially
Mozart Symphony
early to 1782, not forward looking majority of symphony output.
1782-1791 mature: only 6 symphonies, all masterpieces
Mozart String 4tet
treats instruments equally, even gives melodic material to cello
Mozart opera
DaPonte – Librettist for Don Giovanni and others
catalogued Mozart’s music
Sinfonia Concertante (Mozart)
chamber works
Classical Sonata
Important following disappearance of Baroque sonata. 1750 Published w/ option violin parts, leads to classic violin sonata and piano trio
lyrical piano style, respected by Haydn and Beethoven (not by Mozart)
Classical Concerto
Written for public performance, virtuosity not yet praised like it would be with Paganini and Liszt
1st- sonata form – Cadenzas
2nd – 2 or 3 part song forms; T/V
3rd – Rondo
Double exposition
Expo Devel Recap
I~~~V~~~ I~~~V~~~~~ I~~~~~I
T1, T2 T1 & T2

Also A section: T1& T2(Orch) T1& T2 (Solo)

1 per part
Multiple per part
Instrumenal Music compositions
Classical Art Song
Strophic, Modified Strophic, Through composed. Considered parlor music, not taken seriously by the composers
2nd Berlin School
Zelter, Reichardts, Zumstag
Classical Opera
DaCapo Aria (ABA1) A-prime is indicated due to ornamentation added the 2nd time
Recitative v. Aria
Recitative: Secco, Accompagnato, obbligato
Dry, sparse accomp
Orchestral accompaniment during recit, more than secco, less than obligato
much fuller use of orchestra during recit
Reform Opera, german seriousness, Italian Melodies
overshadowed by Mozart, composed similar style opera and music
Oratorio V. Cantata
Oratorio only sacred, use of narrator
Canata may be sacred or secular, NO narrator
Beethoven Dates and Periods
1st (1770-1802)Assimilation Symphony 1&2
Heligenstadt testament
2nd (1802-1815) Independence from Haydn and Mozart Symphony 3-8
3rd (1815-1827) Reflection Symphony 9
letter to brother saying he was going to kill himself due to hearing loss then changes mind and realizes he’s on earth for a greater purpose of composition.