mozarts maturity coincides with what
the time of opera seria reforms.. gluck etc.
Mozarts Great Seven, chronological
Idomeneo (1781)
Entfuhrung (1781)
Le Nozze di Figaro (1786)
Don Giovanni (1787)
Cosi Fan Tutte (1790)
La Clemenza di Tito (1791)
Die Zauberflote (1791)
mozart’s great seven, by genre
Seria: Idomeneo, la clemenza di Tito

Buffa: Le nozze di figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte

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Singspiel: ent, zauber

Characteristics of Mozart Buff
– social commentary. mid class outwits upper, esp. figaro, which is all about outwitting upperclass and moving beyond feudalism
– similar musical elements to italian buffa: tuneful arias (not da capo), secco recits, Ensembles (act II finale of figaro), comic bass roles (Leporello, Osmin).
– Clear musical characterization. Example: queen of the night is untrustworthy, lots of coloratura
– important musical element: the ensemble finale, like giovanni act 1 finale
ensemble finale
large block of music that concludes an act an is made up of continuous smaller numbers differentiated by key, tempo, meter. Mozart creates layering or additive effect with number of singers on stage increase climax
where origins of buff
early composers primarily Napels, some venice
buffa and principles of modernity, social change
seria dealt only with noble, mythical subjects, no comedy. buffa does comic scenes, characters of lower classes. dialogue that dumb people can understand, in local dialect
dramma giocoso
a mixing of serious and comic action: giovanni
how does dramma giocoso apply to the “mixed” character of plot and music of giovanni
plot (comic elements and character with serious stuff, hell murder). Music of characters: Donna Anna (seria) cf Zerlina (buffa)
Three contrasting bits in Giovanni to show mixed
Leporello’s Catalog aria (buffa). Listing is typical buffa. mozart makes it tuneful.. wants everything to be “music”. leporello is comic bass

Donna Anna’s “l’onore” (seria): mozart thing: serious music reflects a serious character. seria traits: da capo arias, elevated nobility

Donna alvira’s (Ah! chi mi) (Seria / mixed character): seria da capo interruped by buffa interjections.

recitativo secco. define. where found
recit accomp only by continuo. found in giovanni and figaro but not entfuhrung
singspiel thing?
humorous germany play w/ musical interpolations. opera w/ spoke dialogue instead of recit. promoted by joseph II as way to establish germ. opera
Unusual Dinner Scene within buffa giovanni
– not a lieto fine. diminished chords break the rule of “it must be music”. minor chords from overture are made diminished. ending was controversial b/c/ is Don Giovanni a heroic character worthy of tragic status? some dramatists yes, some say no unworthy. In most performances followed my questo e il fin, moralizing thing that many say wasn’t supposed to be a part
Singspiel democratization
lots of people could come see it, own langueage, close to their lives (miners, etc)
singspiel and french
an analogue of opera comique, both w/ characters in natural situations and spoken dialogue
singspiel origins
develops from elements of English ballad opera and french opera comique. bolstered by joseph II established national singspiel theatre
entfuhrung references to exotic
Turkish janissary bands – mechanical rhythm, lots percussion, maj min flux.
turkish janissary style music
european trend: repeated thirds, fifths, driving rhytms etc. austrians had fought turks for half cent. a way of mocking enemy. mozart uses to cariacaturize osmin. also uses it to depict the noble savage (pasha)
Zauberflote librettist
Masonic aspence of Zauber deepens into an enlightenment parable how?
light conquers darkness, ignorance over evil. opera shows believe in reason, ritual.
number symbolism in zauber
number 3. e flat is reigning key… truth is being told. three spirits guide main characters, three ladies serve queen of night. overture has trip. sounded eflat chord.
New simplicity in zauberflote. examples
reduce complexity to focus on purity of sound. march of priests. queen aria is opposite.
enlightenment message of Bei Mannern
man and wife (pamina, papageno) reach divinity together because their union is noble, eb key (truth) anticedent/ consequent structure in duetting. strings and winds separate, then together at end. princess and commoner sing together simply
Der Holle Rache is anti enlightenment. how
vocal line is coloratura, very different from simple papageno music. instead of taste, balance, restraint, queen sings at extremes of her range. sonata form structure (type 2) distords and disintegrates in its tonal resolution portion. deformation of the model of rational balance. queen= embodiement of anti enlightenment old magic etc.