Haydn. Why important
Crucial in rise of Instrumental music.
What forms of insturmental
symphonies, string quartets, piano trios, piano sonatas
generic expression
goal to produce as many examples of a genre as possible
aesthetic expression
goal to produce individual ‘art works’. post 1780, Haydn edges towards this stuff
classical style. why bad term
anachronistic term coined in mid 19th cent
Haydn’s career, overview
1758 worked under ct. morzin in vienna
1761 moves to work for esterhazys in eisenstadt. his isolation there forced him to become ‘original’

1790 cut loose by new esterhazy prince, becomes a free marketplace artist
two trips to london

2 important Haydn symphonies
Symphony 6 Matin slow intro evokes sunrise. in the recap, MC and first S theme omitted = haydn often recomposed his recaps rather than directly quote

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Sturm and Drang: the experimentation with minor mode works

symphony no. 45 in F# minor. farewell. in last movement, orchestral players leave 1×1 to protest extended stay in Eisenstadt. rare key of F# minor, doesnot lead to the relative major. melody moves by leap, string tremolos

baryton, define. used in what?
string instrument w/ two sets of strings, one set bowed, one set plucked

used in Baryton Trios, written for patron Prince Nikolaus

String quartets. invented?
possibly invented by haydn in 1750s, even if not, he made genre his own
Middle period quartets why importatn
Op 20 has fugal finales, mixture of old and new
Op 33 onset of high classical. equal interplay between all four instruments
shows off haydn’s mastery of wit, surprise, evocatism.
Important example of mid period quartet and why
The Bird shows off Haydn’s fondness for experimentation of form (false expo) musical imagery (imitation of birdcall) monothematic expositions (P launches development) economy of material (haydn develops short motifs) recomposed recaps
late period string quartets: example
Emperor 1797
Symphony traits, by phase.
slow introductions common in london symphonies, also s themes similar to P themes. “Surprise”

Sonata-rondo finales common by 1780s

Paris symphonies: fondness for rustic, folksy finales

Haydn Oratorio
The Creation. Libretto by Baron van Swieten.

in representation of Chaos, extreme harmonic ambig. non harmonic tones, cadential delay