When a performer temporarily moderates tempo
Orchestra size during Romantic Era
Close to 100 people
Art song
Accompaniment song with high artistic aspirations
Composer with greates sucess in writing leidr
German Song
When a song features ever-changing melodic and harmonic material
Example of a program symphony
Symphony Fantastique
English Horn
Low-sounding oboe
Dies Irae
BUrial hymn in the medieval church
Voltaire and Rousseau
Important philosopher of the Enlightenment
Sonata Allegro
Form that came into being during Classical Era
True or False: The minuet is not a genre but a musical form
False – The minuet is a genre of musical dance
Sonata Allegra form is…
All of the above
Mozart’s variations of Twinkle Twinkle Little Star
A French Folk song
First composer to include Theme and Variations form as a movement in a symphony
Kochel catalogue numbers represent
Mozart’s compositions
Who produced 104 symphonies?
String quartet
Genre meant for small audience or performers
Instrument of Sonata
True or False – Beethoven’s symphonies, movements, etc are played most in popular culture
Symphony #3 by Beethoven
Dedicated to Napolean Bonaparte
The Nutcracker
Composition that features a celeste
Traditional Polish dance genre
Bel Canto
Italian term for beautiful singing
Everyday Life
Subject matter of Realistic Opera
Absolute Music
Instrumental music free of text or pre-existing program
Principal Classical Composers
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
Style of Classical era
Proportion, Balance, formal correctness
The Enlightenment
Age of reason and deism, invention of electricity, encyclopedia Britannica, Steam Engine
Classical Era
Comic opera or opera buffa
Advent of the piano
Age of Revolution
The City of Music -Where Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, + Schubert creates The First Viennese School
Freelanced in Vienna
104 operas
Honorary degree from Oxford, presented to King and Queen
Received as a Celebrity
Earned in 2 years in London what wold have taken 20 at Esterhazy (where he used to be a director of music)
Mozart card 1
Salzburg Austria
Prodigy (playing violin, piano, organ, and composing by age 6)
First opera – Bastien and Bastinne
Mozart card 2
Travelled to major European cities with father, exposed to French Baroque, English choral, German polyphony, and Italian vocal
Spent 1770s in Salzburg serving the Archbishop as organist, violinist, and composer
Broke free at 25 and free lanced
Studied Bach and Handel
Mozart’s most lucrative period with students, concerts, commissions, and Don Giovanni
Mozart and Haydn
Best friends who played chamber works together
Mozart dedicated quartets to Haydn
Ternary Form
ABA – rarely used in 4th movement of symphonies
Classical Forms
Ternary and Sonata-Allegro, Minuet and Trio and Serenade
Minuet and Trio
Genre of Dance, movement within a classical symphony or string quartet, usually the third movement.
A light, multi-movement work for string alone or small orchestra, often outside
Developed during the Classical Era
Usually the first of a multi-movement work
A composition for solo piano or melodic instrument with piano accompaniment (3 or 4 movement piece)
Devices of Composition
Thematic, Developmental, Cadential
Rondo form
Must return three times with two contrasting sections
Years of the Classical Period
Genres of Secular Art Music
Symphony, String Quartet, Sonata, Concerto, Opera
preeminent genre of music – instrumental
Developed from Italian opera overture, the sinfonia
a one-movement work with three sections (fast slow fast) – Italian opera overture
The Father of the String Quartet
Symphony No. 40 – Mozart
Descending minor second represents pain and suffering
String Quartet No. 3 (Opus 76)
Haydn’s favorite piece, played daily
German National Anthem
No longer a suite of dance movements, bu tnow piano for women and amateurs
Father of the modern Piano Concerto
Mozart – brings it maturity
To strive together, to struggle against
Vocal music
Catholic mass, Classical opera
Master of Classical Opera
Heroic Period (1803-1813)
Beethoven writes 6 of 9 symphonies, adds new instruments to the symphony including trombone, contrabassoon, piccolo, and choir
Choral Fantasia
Love and faith alone, when united lead to the creation of great things
Begins 1790s, fully gone 1814
Beethoven’s increases to the Classical forms
Volume and Length
A revolt against Classical adherence to reason rules, forms and traditions
No unity, balance of form, order, or content
Self-expression, striving to communicate with passion no matter the imbalance
Human imagination and nature drives inspiration
Tristan and Isolde, Romeo and Juliet
Despair, frenzy, selfishness, heavenly exultation, and lunacy
New Genres of Romanticism
1. Art Song 2. Symphonic Poem
Romanticism changes to melody, phrasing, rhythm, themes, and chromatic harmony
Melody – Broad and powerful
Phrasing – asymmetrical and longer
Rhythm – More flexible
Themes – vocal and lyrics
Chromatic Harmony – Bold Shifts
Stealing time here to give it back there
Romantic Forms
Character Piece
Character Piece
A 1-2 minute piece intended to capture one mood, sentiment, or emotion
Industrial Revolution
During Romantic Era
Creation of flutes of silver, horns with valves
Change during Romantic Era and become interpretor of ensemble
Age of Virtuoso
Frank Liszt, Niccolo Paganini
Art Song
SOng for solo voice and accompaniment with high artist aspirations
Franz Schubert
Successful with Art Song, Father taught him violin, brother taught him piano, admitted into emperors choir at age 11, Studied with Antonio in 1810
Private gatherings in which only Schubert’s compositions were played
Song Cycle
A tightly structured group of individual songs that tell a story or treat a single theme
Clara Josephine Wieck
Piano virtuoso of 19th century, child prodigy, First woman to win award
Robert Schumann’s wife
Robert Schumann
Composed in streaks with piano, art songs, symphonies, chamber music, piano concerto in A minor
Program Music
Seeks to recreate in sound the events and emotions portrayed in some extra musical source
Genres of Program Music
Program Symphony
Dramatic Overture
Concert Overture
Symphonic Poem / Tone Poem
Hector Verlioz
Writer of Symphonie Fantastique (Based off a strong affection to a woman)
Idee Fixe
A single melody which appears in all five movements of the piece – Symphonie Fantastique
Col Legno
To use the wood of the bow on strings of instrument
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Made lots of money annually, travels extensively through Europe and America
Originally tied to opera, and used as a diversion from opera seria
Poet of the Piano
(from Warsaw Conservatory)
Frank Liszt
Inspired by Niccolo Paganini’s violin
Piano player
Practiced 4-5 hours a day
Elops with Countess Marie d’Agoult
Regarded as greatest pianist of his time
Creator of the piano recital or soliloquies
Short pieces intended to improve 1 or more aspect of a performer’s technique
Golden Age of Opera
During Romantic Era
Antonio Rossini, Vincenzo, Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner, George Bizet, Giacomo Puccini
Gioachino Rossini
Culminated the opera buffa of the 18th century (best known for Barber of Seville
Giuseppe Verdi
Unparalleled in fame
Recitative accompagnato
A recitative composition by the entire orchestra rather than just the basso continuo – dramatized tense situations, pushed singers to the limits of their ranges
Alexander Dumas
Who Verdi based his play off of
His father wrote the COunt of Monte Cristo and the Three Musketeers
a section of the opera that moves quickly between a slow ario, to a recitative, to a fast concluding aria.
an area that increases in tempo to the end allowing for a fast, dramatic exit
Singing play, musical comedy, or light musical drama
Richard Wagner
Produced theological writings, born in Leipzig, largely self-taught, wrote both music and librettos for his operas
Wrote Tristan and Isolde, based off Arthur Schopenhaur and funded by Friedrich Siegfried
Purpose was to show themes of power, greed, honor, bravery, and rage in 19th century Germany
Friedrich Siegfried
Paid off Wagner’s debt and helped him build a theater
Hans Richter
First to conduct complete Ring Cycle
(German word that ends in twerk) – total art work
Arthur Schopenhaur
Inspired Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde
(love-death) a vision of love beyond the grave
A brief distinctive unit of music designed to represent a character, object, idea or place which returns frequently
Common in pop culture
Chromatic harmony that prevents any one note from establishing the tonic
Realistic Opera
Treats everyday life issues in realistic way
George Bizet
Wrote the famous Carmen
Guacomo Puccini
Wrote Verismo
Realistic opera in Italy
Music and Nationalism
National Anthems, Native dances, protest songs, victory symphonies, compositions with strong nationalistic titles
Russian Nationalistm
Mikhal Glinka – “A Life for the Czar”
The Mighty Handful
The Russian 5
Alexander Boradin, Cesar Cui, Mily Balakirev, Nikobi Rimsky, Modest Mussorgsky
Most Russian, rejected the influence of western music
Late Romantic Symphony
Only one to write full orchestra in late Romantic Era
Richard Wagner
Johannes Brahms
Studied Bach, Haydn, Beethoven
Played in showrooms by day, Saloons by night
Awarded honorary degrees from Cambridge and Breslau
Formal education never went beyond primary school
Mostly wrote absolute music
Camille Saint-Seans Symphony No. 3
First symphony with an organ, written by Brahms
Ottorino Respighi
Wrote 2 Symphonic Poems
Brought orchestral lied to maturity
Samuel Barber
Symphony of 1000
Symphony No. 5
Epitomizes Beethoven’s struggles and rise to victory