Common Sense
Adh. to Norms

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These were dominant. What fields were assigned to the opp?

Indv. Express
Ind. Excpetions
Some schemes to contain the anarchic side of music?
Sonata form, rondo, minuet and trio, etc.
Bach V. Beethoven, Transition?
Bach – rationality, balance, struct.
Beethoven – Romant, emotion
Trans – Classical period
Examples of restrained expressivity
Rococo sensibility in Mozart: sense of longing for the cadence, emotional “sighs” inclosed in standardized form, the Sturm and Drang sound.
Sturm and Drang: characteristics, when used, example piece
Expression of powerful emotions in simple, unsentimental way

fast, loud, direct statements. highly affective use of minor mode.

Primary/ trans. material.

JC Bach, Symphony Op. 3 No. 1

Sons of Bach
Wilhelm Friedemann – eld
CPE – most famous
JC – youngest
JC Bach – why important? Name pieces
Important in rise of galant symphony, keyboard sonata, keyboard concerto. Helped forge syntax of classical style. Influence on Mozart’s style. Met him

Symphony Op. 3 No. 2

JC Bach + Mozart in London
Mozart attended Bach – Abel concerts when 8 yrs old, met JC Bach, might have been tutored
JC Bach Bio
– 1756 Italy. Converts to Catholicism, church organist, wrote operas.
– 1762 to London, becomes Royal Music Master.
-1765 founds Bach Abel concerts
Bach – Abel Concerts: why important:
shaped rise of public concert culture
JC Bach Style
Adheres strongly to standard sonata form with specialized action zones. Focus on functionality, clarity, 3 movement works are FSF. More in the BALANCE column.
CPE Bach: why important?
Known as “the great Bach” in 2nd half of 1700s. One of the foremost Empfindsamkeit style, developed in north germany mid-cent. Proto romantic style influenced Haydn, Beethoven
CPE Bach Bio
Court Harpsichordist 1740 for King Frederick the Great of Prussia, a patron. Here, got swept up in the performance-treatise craze encouraged by Fred. Quantz: essay on playing the transverse flute, 1752.
– Moves to Hamburg 1768, position of music director and Cantor at many churches, suceeding Telemann. Until death in 1788. There, more freelance, more bizarre, tries to be as unconventional as possible. This period called “period of genious”
Empfindsamer Stil?
Favored emotion above all.
connected to galant but expands to allow max emot. expression. frequent exxageration.
– employs long melodies, hemiola, leaps, minor mode in affective way. Leans towards GROWTH column. Example, Sonata in B Minor CPE W. 49/6
Six Collections of Sonatas for Connoisseurs and Amateurs
first of which pub. 1779. cpe’s most imp. contribution to keyboard rep, written for full range of exp. power
Symphony for Strings C Maj CPE.

What is strange? also how does it fit w/ Sturm/Drang

Sequences which go on for unexpected lengths of time
no clear P or S themes
music is incoherent, unpredictable, capricious

SD – is direct, impulsive. but lots of sentimentality in the 2nd mvt.

Metastasio. Why important
d. 1782, librettist, who crystallized the standarization of plot conventions in Opera Seria. 35 libretti set thousands of times. Lived in Vienna.
Italian Opera Buffa. define, where originated, from what. How is it diff. from Opera Seria.
Comic opera, Naples, 1709. began as the intermezzo. Intermezzi were developed in 1720s and 30s as short, comic interludes between acts of opera. Unrelated in style and content to the opera itself. parody, satire, like opera seria, used recit and arias, but had smalled cast, less virtuosic singing. came to stand alone. Becomes popular in France after La Serva Padrona is played in Paris in 1746, causes debate. Lullyists defend the old form (French Opera Comique) and criticize the infiltration of Italian buffa.
Most famous intermezzo, prececessor of Buffa?
La Serva Padrona, Pergolesi. Premiered in paris in 1746 and freaked people out
Famous complaints against Italian opera seria?
Algarotti, 1755. Saggio sopra l’opera in musica. Said that music is handmaid of poetry. Selection of poetry important: most favorable subjects are classical, mythologcial because more opportunity for spectacle. Composers should use more varied forms: dances/choruses. Thinks star singers are not too important, that da capo arias are not essential

Anon: lettre sut le mechanisme de lopera italien 1756, Paris and Naples. Calls for fusion of French and It. opera

French Opera: Important succesor of Lully, his name, examples of his operas
Jean Philippe Rameau, d. 1764

Hippolyte et Aricie, 1733
Dardanus (1739)

Highly popular, but criticized by lullians for being unnaturally complex

What did Rameau write?
Traite de l’harmonie 1722

Rameau was then looked upon as a corrupting scientist of music who fucked the pure natural lully style

Querelle des Bouffons, explain and when
1750s, pamphlet war French v. Italian opera. brought on by importation of buffa into france. elite, including king and lullyians, reject it, but populace embraces. partly political.

manifest larger convlect between conventionalized serious opera and lighter opera buffa. former; reason, latter, nature.

Italian Opera Seria Reformers and location, and what did they do
Jommelli, Naples, Traetta, Parma.

Amalgamated French / Ital opera. Successful. Incorporated music other than dacapo aria, more varied forms, more chorus and ballet. modifications to da capo aria form. introduction of dal segno aria, less of chance for singers to show off

Gluck. why important
d. 1787. Most well-known opera reformer. international composer.
Gluck, basic bio
to vienna, 1736. studied in Milan with Sammartini, visit england in 1745. Was hired by Durazzo to court of Vienna, 1754. to compose theatre and concert music. works with Calzabigi. prod. Orfeo ed Eurydice, Alceste (1767)
Gluck, basic bio
to vienna, 1736. studied in Milan with Sammartini, visit england in 1745. Was hired by Durazzo to court of Vienna, 1754. to compose theatre and concert music. works with Calzabigi. prod. Orfeo ed Eurydice, Alceste (1767)
Gluck’s claim in intro to Alceste:
Music should fit the true purpose of the poetry.
Gluck’s features. Also, which reformist elements?
modification of da capo – more focus on 2nd part of aria. continuity between aria and recit. simplicity should not be compromised for novelty, virtuosity. Musically, similar to Sammartini, not much counterpoint. focus on simplicity, clarity over surprise and emot. revelation. Reformist features: shorter, non da capo arias. use of straight syballic phrasing, every element functions as a part of a unified scene structure. Famous scene in Orf. Act II, scene 1. describe