Marni Wandner
Sneak Attack Media

International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers 


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non-governmental, non-profit, international organization protecting creators rights


What are they?

American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers 

Broadcast Music Inc.

Society of European Stage Authors & Composers

They are Performing Rights Organizations

An American Performing rights organization. An artist will sign with them, and ASCAP will handle the rights for the songs by the artists to be performed. 

They serve as middlemen between copyright owner (songwriter and publisher) and copyright user. 

Why use blanket licences?
It makes sense for a business to licence directly with the copyright owner and cut out the middle man – not using the PRO. But when asking for more than one artist, going through a PRO is much better. People asking for a blanket licence such as Spotify will rather go through a PRO than ask every copyright holder. 
DMCA of 1998?

Digital Music Copyright Act.


This gave performance rights on internet based performances. In return, compullsory licences were born. 

Non-dramatic Musical Works
Vague line here. A musical is considered dramatic, songs aren’t. PRO’s aren’t concerned with dramatics.
Non-interactive vs Interactive Radio

Non-interactive: Listener is in lean back mode, he just sits back and passively listen.


Interactive: Listener is on demand.


Sound Exchange
American PRO created in 2000 by Congress concerned with digital performance royalties. They are concerned with non-interactive electronic transmission.;

Collecting Data:

Tradtional PRO vs Sound Exchange

Traditional PROs take a three day sample from radio stations and project the rates from there.


Sound Exchange gets a detailed electronic log into which songs were played when are logged


Traditional PROs v.s. Sound Exchange


Statutory Rate?

Sound Exchange’s digtial streaming licenses are compulsorey statutory licences. Copyright users pay a rate per download that is determined by U.S. Copyright Royalty Board.


Traditional PROs negotiate that rate.