Gregorian chant
a large body of unaccompanied vocal music in Latin, written for the Roman Catholic Church over a 1500 year period. Named after Pope Gregory. It was mainly written by churchmen and churchwomen.
Syllabic/melismatic singing
One or two notes per syllable/Many notes per syllable
Leon wrote “Magnus liber organi,” a great book of church music. Perot revised the book. Both were associated with the Notre Dame church of Paris. They essentially invented polyphony.
Hildegard of Bingen
Born in Germany, she was given to the church as a tithe and she wrote 77 chants including “O Greenest Branch”
to take an existing chant and add another line
the most important part of the Roman Catholic Church
parts of the mass
PROPER & ORDINARY: Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Sequentia, Offertory, Communion, Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
church of Notre Dame Reims, wrote “Mass of Our Lady” which was composed for the ordinary rather than the proper, meaning it could be sung any day.
court music description
court music was usually public entertainment that would describe news and gossip.
poet-musicians from southern France who sang songs of love and triumph
French love song, usually 2, 3, or 4 voices
Countess of Dia
trobairitz from Southern France who wrote the chanson “I Must Sing”
ordained priest who excelled at writing chansons with the Court of Burgundy. Wrote “This Month of May.”
literally means rebirth
composers during the renaissance started to think of themselves as…
artists and would regularly place their names in or on their work.
Where did the Renaissance start? Why?
Originated in Italy, influenced by ancient Greece and Rome, aimed to be more secular and scientific.
difference between medieval and renaissance composers
medieval: anonymously composed music for church, preserved in manuscript.
renaissance: considered artists, sought credit for their artistic works.
Josquin Desprez
from Northern France, excelled at writing motets. Known for “Hail, Mary.”
a cappella
voices only
where one or more voices duplicate the melody
What happened on October 31, 1517?
Martin Luther’s 95 theses, Protestant Reformation began.
Protestant Reformation & Counter-Reformation
reformation sought to get rid of all the corruption in the Catholic change. the Church of Rome countered by “cleansing” their administration and arts including music and literature.
Council of Trent
internal reformational meeting of the church. sought to get rid of polyphonic music. “mass for Pope Marcellus” changed their minds.
composed “Mass for Pope Marcellus” which convinced the Council of Trent that polyphony could be used in church and still get the meaning across.
Mass for Pope Marcellus
composed by Palestrina, convinced Council of Trent that polyphony could still coherently be used in church.
motet vs. madrigals
motet: written for choir/church, in Latin.
madrigals: several voices, secular, not in latin.
word painting
when the music describes the text
Thomas Weelkes
English madirgalist, composed “As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending” for “The Triumphs of Oriana”
comes from the Portuguese word barroco meaning a pearl of irregular shape.
Doctrine of Affections
held that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions of the listeners.
difference between Renaissance and Baroque
Renaissance was dominated by polyphony and imitative counterpoint, where each line was equal. Baroque, however, the voices are no longer equal. Baroque was mainly soloist accompanied.
monody, what it leads to
a new kind of solo singing, lead to the emergence of theatre and opera.
basso continuo
bass-driven, chordal support.
Baroque vs Renaissance texture
Baroque is grand, passionate and dramatic. Renaissance was melodic and simple.
figured bass
numerical shorthand placed beneath the bass line.
terraced dynamics
sudden jumps in volume, NOT creschendo/decreshendo