Afro Brazilian Religion


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Food is a major part of the ritual


Most widespread afro-brazilian religion



Most popular Afro-Brazilian dance tradition


Ancient martial art


Blends dance, music, acrobatics and martial arts


Most important musical influence in Carnival


Abolition of slavery in 1888 was responsible mainly for its creation.


2/4 meter, fast tempo, heavily syncopated

Escolas de samba

Samba schoools


Prepare year round for the carnival season


Include singers, dancers and musicians


Country music style embraced in rural areas


STandard instrument is the sanfona accordian


upbeat cheerful and suggestiive


Couples dance joined at the hips


Wind and string ensembles combined European dance forms with African rhythms and Portuguese fados into a new improvisational style


Means “cry” or “weeping”


relies heavily on improvisation


Fast tempos, unconventional melodies and harmonies


Very reliant on virtuosity

Choros (Villa-Lobos)

Heitor Villa-Lobos’ virtuosic works


capture the style and spirit of street performers as well as the heart of Brazillian music

Bossa Nova

Created from musicians adopting American Jazz into samba styles


softer, romantic, personal


one singer accompanying himself


Drawn from social and political concerns of the Brazilian middle and upper classes


born from rock-and-roll movement and young, philosophical musicians


espoused youth-oriented modernity

Bachianas Brasileiras
Compositions by Villa Lobos inspired by Bach
bloco afro
social organizations devoted to Afro-Brazilian culture
brotherhoods based on ethnic origin

Conical drums with calfskin heads


African origin


capoeira, candomble, umbanda


wooden bow with a metal string


from Angola


String is attached to a gourd to resonate


candomble, capoeira


friction drum, with a stick inside the drumhead


sound is produced by rubbing the stick back and forth




single headed hand drums with jingles


capoeira and samba


similar to a tambourine

hollow tube with grooves on which a scraper is grated

high pitched drums popular in carnival baterias


lead instruments


stick in right hand, bare left hand


rapid syncopation playing


cylindrical 2 headed drums with deep low sounds like a heartbeat


right hand strikes with a stick while the left dampens the other head


used in samba baterias

Mario de Andrade

Brazilian writer and cultural critic


Important Brazilian writer and modernist

Gilberto Gil

One of the leaders of tropicalia


served as minister of culture for Brazil


Singer, songwriter, guitarist

Joao Gilberto

First major composer of bossa nova


songwriter, singer, guitarist


most associated with bossa nova


Luis Gonzaga

Developed Baiao




father of forro and baiao

Antonio Carlos Jobim

primary composer of bossa nova


complex harmonies

Caetano Veloso

A leader of the tropicalia movement in Brazil


was exiled to London during military rule era because he was considered a threat


included international influences in his music such as the Beatles

Heitor Villa-Lobos

Brazil’s most celebrated art composer of the 20th century


Musical voice of Brazil


Bachianas Brasileiras and Choros