root position
The arrangement of a chord so that the root is the lowest voice
First inversion
the third of the chord is in the bass
Second inversion
the 5th of the chord is in the bass
Altering an interval so that the higher note becomes the lower note. Moving the upper note an octave lower, or vice versa usually does this. Placing a chord member other than the root in the bass
the aural effect of a tone or group of tones
Incorrect doubling
the exigencies of part writing sometimes make it necessary to employ an alternate doubling to avoid a more serious weakness
active tone
A tone that has a strong tendency to resolve in a specific direction e.g.. the leading tone
Cadential six-four
A second inversion chord that is part of a cadence formula– most frequently, the tonic chord in second inversion followed by a dominant
passing six-four
A second inversion that usually occurs between a triad in first inversion and the same triad in root position. Typical is the following: Tonic in first inversion– dominant in second inversion– tonic in root position.
pedal six-four
a second inversion chord that occurs over the same (or repeated) bass note
Arpeggio six-four
A second inversion chord formed by arpeggiated movement in the lowest voice
principal 4
When a major or minor triad is in first inversion, the soprano is usually doubled
exception 4
When a diminished triad in first inversion, the bass is doubled
Principal 5
When a triad is in second inversion, the bass is doubled