Call and response










An exchange between leader and group

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several notes sung to a single




is a simple song with a lyric that tells a story
it is several stanzas are sung to the same melody.
Stephen Foster and the parlor Song
In the early nineteenth century, the most popular songs in england were the folk-song setting of thomasd morre (1779-1852)
Parlor songs
resemble the art songs of classical music in their setting for voice and paino ,but were more modest in their expressive range and musical requirements.
Stephen Foster
Stephen Foster (1826-1864)was the most important songwriter in nineteenth century america pupolsr music.

What does it mean early minstrel show


The first minstrel show billed as an ethiopian concert took place in boston in february 1843.
Cohan legacy endures as a song writer
His patritic songs have energy of great of great march , a vigorous melody , a hint of syncopation , and clever lyrics without a trace of nineteeth-century  sentimentality.

there were at least three minstrel?










2)tambo and bones


Tambo and Bones’s simple-mindedness and lack of sophistication were highlighted by pairing them with a straight man master of ceremonies(is the host of a staged event or similar performance) called the interlocutor. This character, although usually in blackface,[90] spoke in aristocratic English and used a much larger vocabulary. The humor of these exchanges came from the misunderstandings on the part of the endmen when talking to the interlocutor:

what is called the olio?
(An angicilizatioin of the spanish word olla :”stew”)it was the variety portion of the show and feature a wide range of acts.

what is burlesques?





(Humorous parodies) of cultivated material shakespear’s plays or italian operas.Originally based on idealized plantation life , the skits later became topical comedy sketches.
The was conducted with a walkaround ?
Which featured the entire minstrel troupe in grand finale of of song and dance.
by the nineteeth century the walkaround evolved into the?
cake walk
what is unison?
That is with more than one voice and /or instruments performing the same melody.
Tin pan alley
the collective name  applied to the major new york city sheet music publishers .Tin pan alley flourished from the late 1800s until the midwentieth century.
what are songster?
They are books with just the lyrics to popular songs of the day  on the assumption that those who brouth them already the melody and simple needed to be reminded of the words.

what is a song pluggers.










thay are painists who could play a new song for a professional singer or prospective customer.
Among the still familiar waltz songs from thr turn of the century is?
1908 hit “take me out to ball game”
What is a vauderville show ?
It was a variety show, pure and simple .it featured a series of acts , singers , dancers , comics , jugglers , and the like without any pretense of dramatic unity .Acts came on stage , did their routines , and left, not to return for the rest of the show.
where did operratta came from?
It was imported from england during the gilbert and sullivan to america.
What is interpolation ?
In which the plot of america of a musical comedy was adapted to included a currenty popular song, was the rule of the day ;plots accommodated songs , as the history of “after the ball “exemplifies.
what was the most popular instrumental ensemble in the late nineteeth-century america was the ?
Concert band
what included in a typical sousa band concert included:
Marches (music composed in regularly acccent, usually duple meter , appropriete to acompany marching),  original works for band solos featuring the band’s virtuoso instrumentalist , arrangments of well-know opero overtures , symphonic poems , program music , and the popular music of the day .
What a typical Sousa band concert included?
Marches (music composed in regulary accented , usually duple meter , appropriate to acompany marching ), original works for band , solos featuring the band’s virtuoso instrumentalits, arrangements of well-know opera overtures , symphoric poems , program music , and the popular music of the day.
the trio is in a different key.each strain is reapeated at least once.