The representation of sounds and silence through symbols
The element of time in music. Rythym is measured in beats or their fractional parts
A steady and regular pulse that underlies the rhythmic structure of most traditional compositions
The speed of the beat
Gradually slowing down the tempo
Gradually incresaing the tempo
The basic symbol for sound
Musical line
1) The movement of several measures of music toward a goal.
2.) One of the lines of the staff.
A complete musical thought; the achievenment of a musical goal
Whole Note
The largest single value in common use today, all other notes are a fractional value of this note
The oval part of a note that locates a pitch on the staff. A notehead can be open or solid
A vertical line attached to a notehead to indicate durational value
A curved line added to the stem of a note to indicate lesser value. Flags are equivalent to beams
A thick horizontal or slanted line that connects two or more stemmed notes and indicates lesser rhythmic value. Beams are equivalent (and replace) flags
Symbol used to notate a period of silence
A symbol attached to the stem of a rest to indicate lesser value. Each hook has the same effect as a flag
One complete metric pattern (also called a bar). Measures are divided by bar lines.
A vertical line used to separate measures
Double Barline
Two vertical lines that indicate the end of a composition or section
Time Signature
A pair of numbers that identifies the value set as one beat and the number of those beats in a measure. The top number indicates the number of beats in a measure. The bottom number stands for a note value representing one beat
A symbol added to anote or rest to increase its duration by one half
A symbole that combines the rhythmic values of two or more notes of the same pitch
A grid of five lines with four spaces used for the precise notation of music
Plural of staff
Basic Pitch
A pitch without an accidental, such as A B C D E F or G
A symbol that designates the location of one pitch on the staff
The general low, middle, or high range of a set of pitches
Treble Clef
The symbol that identifies the second line on the staff as the position of the pitch G. Also known as the “G” clef.
Bass Clef
A symbol that identifies the fourth line on the staff as the position of the pitch F. Also known as the “F” clef.
Ledger Line
A temporary extension of the staff above or below the customary five lines and four spaces
The distance between two pitches
The interval measuring eight diatonic degrees. The octave is the purest and most stable interval that forms the basis of practically all world musical systems. Pitches that appear in diefferent places on the staff but hav exactly the same letter name are one of more octaves apart.
(an Italian word meaning “eighth”) Indicates a passage that employs the ovtave sign, instructing a performer to play a passage an octave above or below a written pitch
Octave Sign (8va)
A symbol that indicates that the pitches sound an octave higher than notated
Octave Sign (8vb)
A symbol that indicates that the pitches sound an octave lower than notated
is used when music returns to the normal octave
A set of two or more staves
A symbol that connects two or more staves
Grand Staff
A combination of one treble and on bass staff used for the notation of keyboard instruments
Instruments like the piano and organ on which the performer has no direct contact with the vibrating string
Half Step
The smallest interval in Western music. On the keyboard, a half step is found between any two adjacent keys
Another name for a half step
Natural Half Step
Points on the keyboard where two white keys are adjacent; that is, between E and F and between B and C.
Whole Step
An interval comprised of two half steps
Basic Pitch
A pitch without an accidents such as A B C D E F or G.
A symbol, such as the sharp, flat, or natural sign that raises or lowers a basic pitch one or more half step
Flat (b)
an accidental symbol that lowers basic pitch one half step
Double Flat (bb)
An accidental symbol used to indicate a lowering by two half steps of a basic pitch
Sharp (#)
An accidental symbol that raises the basic pitch a half step
Double Sharp (X)
An accidental symbol that raises a basic pitch by two half steps
Natural Sign
An accidental symbol that cancels the effect of a flat or sharp
A pitch or interval that sounds the same as one given, but is notated differently
Octave Designation
A system of identifying pitches within a specific octave range