First movemenet concerto form
sometimes described as a sonata-allegro form with a double exposition. Usually opens with an aorchestral exposition, or ritornello, in the tonic key, often presenting several themes. Mozart’s piano concerto in G major is a notable example of this genre
improvised solo passages
Maria Anna Mozart
Known as nannerl, was an accomplished pianist who as a child toured extesively with her brother wolfgang, performing concertos and four-hand piano works.
Maria Theresa Von Paradis
Blind musician. Excellent pianist and organist, she was renowned for her remarkable musical memory. SHe was a composer.
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven all wrote music influenced by the Turkish Janissary, or military
Moonlight Sonata
Beethoven’s best known piano work, evokes the new Romantic style
a musical setting of the most solemn service of the Roman Catholic Church
a musical setting of the mass for the dead
opera seria
serious or tragic italian opera
Ballad, Dialogue, opera
Opera known in England
Opera known in Germany
Opera Comique
Opera known in France
Opera Buffa
Opera known in Italy
the traditional character derived from the theater of buffoons, who spoke to the audience in a bass voice, with a wink and a nod
The marriage of figaro
one of Mozarts most popular comic operas
Romantic Era
French Revolution
resulted in the rise of a middle class, or bourgeois society
One of the prime traits of all romantic artists was their emphasis on intensely emotional expression
Romantic song structures
include strophic and through-composed forms; some songs fall between the two, into a modified strophic form
A german art song
song cycles
Composers wrote these in order to unify a group of songs by poem or theme
Franz Shubert
learned the violin from his father, and piano from an older brother. His music marked the confluence of the classical and romantic eras. In his lieder and piano pieces, he was wholly the Romantic.
based on a legend that whoever is touched by the king of the elves must die.
Robert Schumann
known for his symphonies, piano music, chamber music, and Lieder. Married to clara, wrote four symphonies. He wrote his great song cycle A POet’s Love in 1840
In the romantic era, the piano was both a popular instrument for home use and for virtuoso such as Liszt, Chopin and the AMerican pianist Louis Gottschalk
called the “poet of the piano.” one of the most original artists of the nineteenth century. One of his most heroic works is the Military Polonaise in A major. He music also depends on tempo rubato- the “robbed time,” or “borrowed time.”
Clara Schumann
virtuoso pianist, composer and leading interpreter of the music of Brahms, Chopin and Robert Schumann. Known for her songs, piano music, and chamber music. Her works are technically difficult and also deeply introspective
Louis Gottschalk
first internationally acclaimed American composer of classical music. His music draws inspiration from African-American, creole, and latin american folk songs and rhythms, and often quotes familiar tunes, particularly from stephen foster songs
program music
instrumental music with a literary or pictorial association supplied by the composer
absolute music
pure music which consists of musical patterns that have no literary or pictorial meanings
concert overture
single movement concert piece for orchestra, typically from the Romantic period and often based on a literary program
incidental music
music written to accompany dramatic works
program symphony
multimovement programmatic orchestral work, typically from the nineteenth century
symphonic poem
one movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era
symphonic poem
one movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era
Hector Berlioz
wrote Symphonic fantastique ( a five movement program symphony), while living in Italy.
Idee fixe
recurrent theme; fixed idea
Symphonic fantastique; Part 1
I. Reveries, passions- Allegro section introduces a soaring melody- the fixed idea.
Part 2
A ball; dance movement is in ternary, or three part form. In the middle section, the fixed idea reappears in waltz time
Part 3
Scene in the fields; composer said his aim in this pastoral movement was to establish a mood of sorrowful lonliness
Part 4
March to the scaffold; at the very end the fixed idea reappears for an instant, like a last thought of love interrupted by the fall of the blade
Part 5
Dream of a withces sabbath
Bedrich Smetana
wrote nationalistic music about his homeland, including a set of six symphonic poems entitled My Country. Most famous is the moldau
Antonin Dvorak
studied the traditional music of African Americans and incorporated elements of spirituals into his music. The New World Symphony is his most popular work today. It is classical in its structure but Romantic in its orchestral and harmonic color
Johannes Brahm
known for his four symphonies, his solo piano and chamber music, and his lieder
part songs
unaccompanied secular songs in three or four parts
brahms requiem mass
written for his mother and robert schumann
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
sister of Felix mendelssohn, was a talented composer and pianist, mother wsa her paino teacher, produced few large scale works, lieder, piano music, choral works, 2 dozen part songs
France opera
Grand opera- based on serious historical themes, influences by propaganda of the leaders of the country
german opera
musical drama- richard wagner
opera buffa
marked the peak of the bel canto- beautiful singing, style
went east to eastern asia; madame butterfy, samspon and delilah
Jenny Lind
swedish nightingdale, toured in America, tour master was PT Barnum
Guiseppe Verdi
best known for his 28 operas; Rigoletto- based on a play by Victor Hugo is one of the most performed works in the repertory today
Richard Wagner
german composer; gesamtkunstwerk- a total work of art unifying all elements. Wagner’s operas called music dramas are not sectional but are continuous. They are unified by Leitmotifs-recurring themes that represent a person, place or idea. Chromatic dissonance heightens the emotion. Most famous work is his four-opera cycle. The King of the Nibelung
Giacome Puccini
wrote some of the best loved operas of all time. La Bohemea and madama butterfly. In madame butterfly he combines verismo- realism, and exocitism (japanese music and culture)
most closely equivalent to a courtesan in western culture
gagaka orhcestra
harp, flute and piccolo and bells
established as an independent art form in the 18th century, particulary in france and russia
ballet; Marius Petipa; Ilyic Tchaikovsky
established as an independent art form in the 18th century, particulary in france and russia; created the pas da deux (dance for two); Swan lake, sleeping beauty and the nutcracker