Trumpet is pitched/ transposed
in B-flat and transposed a M2 down.
Differences between cornet and trumpet:

Bore Construction (Cornet-conical, Trumpet-cylindrical)

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Cornet has a darker, more mellow tone

Advantages of starting a student on Cornet
Maybe easier to hold
students who should not play trumpet

-Students who have a large overbite

-students with braces

-students with a teardrop lips

pinky ring
Little finger should be placed atop it
should be touching the valve stem covers
right hand placement
Right hand thumb should be under the lead pipe between the first and second valve casing.
correct trumpet embouchure

Oral cavity should be relaxed

-Jaw muscles should be firm and flat

-MP should be centered over the apeture 

Bottom Lip rolled
Rolling the borrom lip in too far will cause endurance problems and problems in the upper range.  It can be easily diagnosed by looking at the student’s lower lip while playing
signs of too much MP pressure

-Excessive redness

-Circular indentions

-small abrasions inside the lip

Intonation tendencies of Valve combinations

1-slightly sharp

12-moderately sharp

13-very sharp

123-very sharp

23-slightly flat

3-moderately flat

Trumpet vibrato

-Hand:Hand vibrato is created by a slight movement of the right hand against the valves, usually in a slow, rhythmic motion

-Jaw or Lip Vibrato: is a combined movement of lip and jaw.; Jaw is moving as if saying “yah-yah” while keeping the throat and tongue relexed.

Trumpet Lip trills
Used in the upper register where overtones are close together; the chake is a variation.; The right hand rocks back and forth to widen the lip trill.
trumpet Glissandos
Drop and Doit are all performed with the valves partially depressed
Beginning and Advanced Trumpets

B: Getzen 390 no thumb

A: Stradavarius 180 series

Trumpet MPs
Bach 3C, 5C,7C; Schilke 11, 12, 14a4; Yamaha 11C4, 15, 16C4
trumpet Mutes

Vincent Bach-straight

Harmon-wah wah

Himes and Berg-cup

Cleaning a trumpet

-Remove all slides and valve caps and soak

-remove vavles, set aside, soak body

-Dip valves enough to cover valve but not wet the fet pads; rinse carefully and dry

-Run snake down the tubes of the bell and spend time on the lead pipe.; Clean the valve casings with a piece of cheesecloth around a cleaning rod very carefully

-Reassemble-valves first- handle by stems on cap, coat each valce with oil.; Grease slides with small amount.; Spread with fingers

Trumpet performers
Maurice Andre; David Hickman, Ni Klaseklund
Tenor Trombone
the basic trombone and choice for beginners.; It is a cylindrical brass instrument, pitch in B-flat
Alto Trombone
Highest pitch of all trombones.; It is usually pitched in E-flat.; The bore, bell and mouthpiece are smaller than a tenor and it produces a lighter sound.; IT is best left to advanced players
Valve Trombone
Shaped like a slide trombone, but the slight does not change the pitch.; It has three valves that are used instead of the slide.; Used more often by Euphonium, baritone or tuba players when their own instrument would be unsuitable.; It cannot adjust intonation problems that happen with valves.
Should a beginner start on Bass Bone?
No.; The nature of the instruments and its range, timbre and specific literature demand a specialist
selection of Tbone students
Should be able to match pitches or sing melodies in tune
Basic trombone articulation
Tongue is slightly more forward, with the tip touching the back of the upper teeth.; Tongue should be as relaxed as possible.; Motion should be decribed as up and down and not back and forth.; Syllables best used are “toe” and “taw” because they allow the jaw to be lower and thus the oral cavity is larger.
Double Tonguing-Bone
Produced with a “tuh-kuh” syllable, with the “kuh” being articulated further back in the mouth
Legato Tonguing-Bone
Continuous airflow, slide must move quickly and exactly in rhythm, slide movement must be smooth; articulate with “doe,” “daw” “noe” or “nah”
Lip or Jaw Vibrato-Bone
Most often used.; Pulsations in intensity are added to the tone by slight fluxuations in the lips or jaw as if saying “woe-woe-woe”
Back and Forth Vibrato
Motion of slide will create pitch change vibrato.; Used cautiously in “classical” settings, it is the vibrato used most often in commercial and jazz settings.
Third type of Bone Vibs
Involves pulsations of the airstream as if pronouncing “ho-ho-ho”.; it is difficult to learn and is best left to advanced player.
Bone lip-trills
created by rapid back-and-forth lip slurs betweem adjacent notes in the overtones series
Beginning Bones
always small bore instruments.; Built for sturdiness rather than craftsmanship
Pro-quality smallbore trombones
used by advanced players in commercial or jazz settings.; It produces a brighter, lighter sound
used by advanced high school students as a stepping stone onto the large bore trombone
large bore trombones
choice for advanced students and professionals.; Used in orchestral band, solo and chamber ensemble playing.; It is often equipped with an F attachment
Bass Bones
LArge tenor trombone; can access lower notes and have a deeper and darker tone.; Bass trombones are always equipped with an f attachment and often have a 2nd valve tuned to e,e-flat or d.; Most who choose to play bass trombone end up becoming specialists because of its particular playing characteristics and sound
reccommended bones

Beg: Getzen 351

ProSB:Bach 12, 16 or 16M

ProMB: Bach 36

ProLB: Bach 42

Bass:Bach 50B

Attachment purposes

extension of range-when engaged the trombonist has the F overtone in first position; E in lowered 2nd; E-flat in Lowered 3rd.; It continues through C

Technique-Awkward slide positioning is easier with the F attachment

Special Effects-Some trills and other effects can be executed with the F attachment

Cleaning trombone

Fill tub with warm water


-remove all slides

-soak all parts

-use flexible snake to clean unner parts

-flush all other parts, bell, tuning slide, etc. using faucet

-dry everything, relubricate and assemble

oiling/greasing slide

Remove hand slide

-wipe of outter part of the inner slide

-apply a small amount of oik or silicone cream to the outer part of the inner slide

-if using oil, replace the hand slide

-if using cream, spread evenly over the stockings

spray the inner slides with water

replace hand slide and work it back and forth

reapply water and remove excess cream

reccommended Bone artists
Carl Linthe, Charles Vernon and Ian McDougall
Euphoniums are pitched
General characteristics of a Euph

Euphoniums are large bore instruments with large, upright bells

-are european or japanese made professional quality instruments

-will have 4 valves

-do not have reversible main tuning slide

Euphonium Embouchure problems
Common tendency is for the bottom lip to protrude too far into the mouthpiece, causing the air to be blown upward.; IT can be very limiting and should be monitered carefully
Bell front vs bell up
Bell fronts are better suited for marching band while bell up horns are better suited for solor and concert ensemble settings.;
reccommended baritones/euphs

Bari:bach 1566

Euphs-BEsson 967

reccommended mouthpieces

Beg: Bach 11

Int: Bach 6 1/2 AL

compensating system

an attempt to alleviate the intonation problems of valves used in combination when the fourth valve is pressed, air is sent through a shorter set of tubing that adds the lengths needed to lower the sharp combinations.; It also allows the complete chromatic range below E to B-flat below the staff.;;

Notes: Low B,C,C# and D

reccommended performers
Lyndon baglin, fred dart, leonard falcone
Pitch and transposition of Tuba
B-flat (BB-flat)
Professional Choice Tuba
The CC tuba is choic for professional tubas because it’s built for responsiveness, not durability and because the fingering patterns are easier in the sharp keys when played on this type of tuba
Cylindrical or Conical (Tuba)
what is a sousaphone?
A Sousaphone is a form of Tuba built for ease of carrying in MArching situations
Best to transfer to tuba

Sax, Percussion, or horn transfers will work well because the characteristics of the sax embouchure bear enough similarities to tuba that the student will be able to adjust fairly quickly; because percussionists have no previous embouchure to change but can already read music; because a horn covers a large range and the concepts for low horn are similar to tuba

Transfers from trombone and euph work well also because they have similar embouchures

Who not to transfer to tuba

the transfer from trumpet to tuba do not work well beacuse the trumpet embouchure is considerably tighter abd nire rigid; the oral cavity is smaller, the tongue placement is higher and the airstream is more focused.

The transfer from dbl reedsor clarinets is not reccommended either because the lips are rolled back over teeth and the airflow is highly compressed

Height or Size problems (tuba students)
if the student cannot reach the tuba, they can sit on a book.  If the student is too tall it may be necessary to rest the tuba on their lap.  THere are devices made to help with holding the tuba, such as a stewart stand and they can work well if they do not rigidly hold the tuba
what is pivoting
pivoting helps heep equal pressure on the embouchure as the lower jave moves forward and backward to allow the lower jaw to move forward so the lower lip is accentuated for the lower register.  They head needs to slightly tilt downward.  For the upper register, leaning forward slightly will allow the jaw to move backward.  This techniqu can be used as an aid if the student is having difficulties with the low register.
Problem with tuba embouchures

-smile embouchure-ends up restricting airstream and creates a harsh, nasal sound

-Roll the lower lip over teeth-causes problems in the lower range and gives upper rang a harsh, unfocused sound.

-Puffed out cheeks

-tucked lower lips

“Puffing the air,” articulating with the throat, articulating with the lip

-excessive expulsion of air occurs at the beginning of each new note.  This habit will restrict smoothness and facility

-Has a softer attack than the basic attack, so its easy to hide from the instructor

-similar to throat articulation, students will make the “poe” syllable

fourth valve(tuba)
IT is built so that the tuba can play chromatically down, below a low E.  It is used as an alternate fingering to 1,3 valve combination.  It also helps keep notes below low E to be better in tune
Diaphram and jaw vibrato (tuba)
the latter is successful as long as the student doesn’t raise their tongue or close their throat.
transposition of Tuba
Transposition of treble clef E-flat…read it in bass clef and add three flats
tubas and MPs

Besson 797, Conn 5j, BEsson 997

MPs-Bach 32, Bach 18, Yamaha 18, Helleberg 1205

Tuba performers
Roger Bobo, Velvet Brown, Floyd Coley