Urban Blues

 Different instruments: piano, guitar, bass, drum, harmonica, other horns NO: banjos, kazoos, jug bands, string bands.

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Louder sounds: electric bass and guitar. amplification of voice and harmonica.

New/different rhythms: swing, jump (shuffle), boogie woogie

emerged from Texas, Louisiana, mississippi, but established in CHICAGO
-“8 to the bar”
Piano based but transfered to other instruments
Albert Ammons & Pete Johnson
Boogie music
Piano double
Andrew sisters (1941)
became national sensation
Howlin Wolfe
west point, MS
Idolized jimmie rodgers (tried to yodel, but sounded like howl)
Charlie Patton, Mississippi Shieks, Ma Rainey, Blind Blake
By howlin wolfe
Chicago Blues
Influenced/ created british interest in Chicago blues
born in memphis, logest associated with Detroit
distinctive 1 chord style, metric & tempo irregularities “talking blue”
Detroit (black bottom neighborhood)
“BOOGIE Chillen”
by John Lee Hooker
later on of the RIAA’s song of the century.
detroit (black bottom neighborhood)
(beale st. “king biscuit time” radio show)
-memphis minnie, sleepy jones estes, bb king, howlin wolf, bobby bland, ike turner, sun records(“rockabilly” Elvis)
St. Louis
ragtime, W.C. Handy, petey wheatsraw, bukka white,
kansas city
count basie, charlie parker, luis jordan, Big Joe turner (“Jump Blues”)
Jump Blues?
Los Angeles
Johny otis, Charles Brown, Big Jay Mckneely, T-Bone Walker (“rhythm & blues”, “sentimental Blues”)
Black bottom neighborhood
JOhn lee hooker
Maxwell St.
big bill broonzy, muddy waters, little walter, sonny boy williamson 11, buddy guy, howlin wolf (moved in 54′), Elmore James
Maxwell st.
show business/ recording hub
mob stronghold
redlight district
“house parties”
chicago blues
Muddy Waters
born in mississippi
raised on stovalls plantation
influenced by Son House & Robert Johnson
Recorded by the Lomaxes (lib. congress) 1941 “I be bound to write you”
moved to chicago in 1943
-played house parites on Maxwell st
“hooche coochie man”
by Muddy waters
recorded 1959
chicago blues
Elmore James
“king of slide guitar”
influenced by Robert Johnson
influeced Jimi Hendrix, Alberta King, Stevie Ray Vaughn
Intrigued British Rockers:Mayall, Clapton, Harrison, and brian jones)
Chess Records
columbia & bluebird (victor) were the big players
upset chess, 1950 (originally aristocrat, 1947)
Leonard and Phil, then Son Mashall
Roster: muddy waters, sonny boy williamson II, Elmore James, Little Waltr, Budyy Guy, Howlin Wolf, JOhn Lee Hooker, Chuck Berry
roots of rock n roll
Soc. Demographic: Baby boomer/ disposable income
Technological/circumstantial: Tv, Radio, portable radio
Musical: rhythm blues, jump blues with gospel backbeat, record label adopts name to replace “race records” in 1949 (ic black associated) Showmanship
Western swing and boogie: slap bass, white associated
Rock n Roll
name for “white targeted rhythm blues
incorporates instruments and repertiore from both rhythm and blues and country swing
combines rock n roll with country
signals white artists (so still rock n roll)
“rhythm and Blues”
becomes catch all term for “black and what had become called the “blues”
signals black artists and intended black audience
Alan Freed
plays “black music” on clevland classical radio station, calls it “rock n roll”
popularity soars: black +white
NYC 1954
Weekly half hour “Jubilee” show for radio luxembourg introduces american R&B to Europe and parts of Great Britian
Bill Haley and his Comets
Rock n roll
took Big Joe Turners songs”Around the clock” 1947 and “shake rattle and roll” 1954
Bill Haley: “around the clock” 1955 and “shake rattle and roll” 1954
Carl Perkins
Rock n Roll
“match box blues” 1956
BUT Blind Lemon Jefferson version in 1927
Jerry Lee Lewis
rock n roll
married young cousin
“whole lotta shakin goin on” 1957
Big Maybelle did it 1955
Elvis Presley
rock n roll
“Thats alright” 1954 But Arthur Big Boy Crudup(delta blues) in 1946
“hOuns dog” 1956 BUT BIG MAma Thorton in 1952
Little Richard
Rock n Roll
“tutti Frutti” 1956
Pat Boone

Rock n roll second to Elvis “tutti Frutti” 1956 

covered little richards version and was much more successful

Arthur Crudup
wrote song that gave hits to others esp. Elvis
Delta bluesman
tried in vain to recoup royalties
had a brief tour in 65 as “father of rock n roll”
died a bootlegger
Chuck Berry
12 bar blues
“johnn b goode” 1958
narrative of blues being dropped on rock n roll
“Johnny B. Goode”
BUT guitar opening from “aint that just another woman” Louis Jordan, guitar by Carl Hogan
Rock n Roll
target white teens($)
Folk revivalism
Sparked by “dust Bowl” Lomaxes
sparked interest among left NYC in folk practices
late 1950’s and 60’s blues revival led by Record collectors
white middle class love affair
James Mckune
“the blues mafia” NYC
Folk revivalism
romantacized blues performances style and context
black blues performers “authenticity”
muddy disappointed brits with electric guitar
created a cannon for acceptable blues
no white
no jazz or rhythm and blues or country
Rev. gary davis with Peter Seger : Children of Zion
Auhtentic black man playing blues very intruguing
Meanwhile in Britain
Still recovering from german bombing
econimically depressed
alienation among industrial and shipping centers
working class adults, disaffected youth
american troops at air base, ports
Sat nights at 9:30 Jamoree from radio Luxembourg
dismembered (potentially color-indpendent
musical tourism
both communal and personal
both curaed and immediate
traditional america folk and blues instruments, often homemade (washboards)
Early american blues, folk and country, often also charaterized as having elements of Jazz
european american folk” instrumentation
“pick a bale of Cotton”
origianl work song (slaves)
covered in populist folk style by LeadBelly
DONEGAN: Bounce/ Happy (ME and my buddys gonna)
copyright: Martha ledbetter & Alna Lomax
“mighty Mississipi” (on youtbe as new orleans battle)
Lonnie donegan 1959
no narrative point of view
Blues in Britain
Inspired by American Folk Revival, records, traveling america blues artists (broonzy, muddy waters)
Reactions agianst limits to skiffle
reactons to social circumstance, appeal of music
Blue in Britain
favors delta and chicago style Intrumentation/ ground/ repertiore
progress from acoustic to electric insturments rapidily after waters tour (1958)
becomes guitar centric genre (very lttle bottom)
Brtish blues
repsonsible for the elevation of the guitar to the defining “tool” of rock
ideas of what authentic black practictioners
favors group format
alexis Korner and blues incorperated
“founding father of British blues”
began as Jazz, skiffle player
1961 formed blues inc., an electric rhythm and blues band with open door policy
produced birtains first R&B record
Blues inc.
open door policy
turned band into clearing house for all of Britain’s evetual blues and rock stars
Alexi korner
worked as DJ, muscian, never achieved level of fame his alumni did
John Mayall and the Blues Breakers
clapton joined 1965: established guitar as featured instruments
more than 100 players cycled through over the years
“hoochie coochie man” 1965
Original by Muddy waters
but this version by John mayall and the blues breakers featuring Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
#2 rollingstones 100 greatest guitar players of all time
3 time inducted rock n roll hall of fame
few highly successful figures from Bristian
solo career included reggae
“me and Mr johnson
clapton credited Johnson
Drug recovery center : “crossroads”
Clapton= GOD
Mick jagger Rolling stones
at 19 singing 3 nights a week
keith richards, charlie watts
name from muddy waters song
idolized chess records
“love in Vain” 1969
did not credit Johnson
lost rights on these performances
Jimi Hendrix experience
rock, psychedelic, blues
turns “mistakes” into artifacts: feedback, distortion
Monterey Pop Festival
Jimi opens with “killin floor” by howlin wolf
sexualized performance
closes with “wild thing” smashing his guitar and lighting it on fire
Jimi Hendrix
1968-1970 became countrys highest paid rock star
toured with monkees, stoped because didnt mesh; too sexual
1st on rollingstones list as best guitarist
Band of Gyspy’s
jimi band after experience
headed deeper into psychadelic
elctric church
Janis Joplin
“queen of psychedelic soul”
ugly in high school
influenced by Ma rainey, bessie smith, Billie Holiday, Big mama thorton, leadbelly
San fransico: blues band with; speed, heroin, LSD, Southern comfort
periods of sobriety
greatful dead, velvet uderground, the byrds, Iron buttterfly
“ball and chain”
janis joplin
“hair metal”/ glam
new wave
synth pop (no bass (bottom))
Hip Hop
by Micheal Nesmith
1st video: “video killed the radio star” by the BUggles
rock and pop(on black)
rejected many vids by black artists
own rules
lauched age of telegenic muscians/acts
MTV unplugged
rock artist performing acoustic
backlash agaisnt excessive of 80’s music productional distribtuon
chance for artists to gain muscial credibility
nirvana: leadbelly
Early artist: McCartney, squeeze, stevie ray vaughn
eric clapton
LL cool J “uptown Unplugged”
Irony: resegregated race
“pride and Joy”
by Stevie ray vaughn 1989
Stevie Ray Vaughn
loner, violent, abusive father
Influence: albert king, buddy guy, bb king, muddy waters, Jimi hendrix
discovered by John Hammond 1982, boosted by David Bowe and Rolling stones
drugs and alcohol
“texas flood”
of by larry davis
sung by stevie in 1985
Robert cray
inspired by Muddy waters, albert king, fredd king, Johnny copeland
records in early 1980’s popular in Uk, available for exports to US
covers of R&B, blues, Grammy
origianl songs
“smoking gun”
By robert cray
1980’s blues revival/ mtv?
Hip Hop
grew out of housing projects and parties in the Bronx Ny 1970
Musical foundations: funk, soul, Jazz, R&B
Roots of Hip Hop
african practice of celebrating “warriors”
griots, nommo, integral part of arican american cultural practice
Modern “boasting” of Muhammid Ali
intergal part of Jamiacan “dub” tradtion
verbal battle for respect
sommon in rural soth, black urban centers and jamaica
“dissing” , “Jive”, “Yo Mama”
Birth of Hip Hop
South Bronx, Ny
moderate upperincome, mixed pop intil 1950’s
cross bronx expressive destroyed neighborhoods
1970’s Ny citi’s most economically devistated area
arson, poverty unemployment, gangs
street parties(dj’s instead of bands as services reduced)
Clive campbell (Kool Herc)
kingston, Jamiaca
after school dance parties 1973
used 2 turn tables (how to keep dance)
dj apart of show
developed rhythm style catchphrase adopt from toasting/ dub tradtion
how to keep people dancing
2 turntables ready and once song end(break) new song begins
Coke la rock
“first Mc”
Afrika Bambaataa
kevin donavon
south bronx
west indian decent
street gang (black spaded, warlord)
won trip to africa, changed views and purpose
left black spaded, formed niversal lulu nation
Saw Kool Herc, threw parties of his own
sugar hill records
1st hip hop label 1978
sylvia robsinson
“rappers delight”
ist raps 1st record 1979
“rapper delight”
Sugar hill gang
1979 raps 1st record
party song
Grandmaster flash
“the message”1982
raps 1st socially conscious hit
Sylvia co wrote the song
1st hint of disaffected youth
connections of blues & hip hop
Localized, disadvantaged, and predominately black
evetually multimillion dollar, global phenominon (through blues artists rarely profited)
performances have nearly mythical cultural status
emphasizes venecular language and other wise unhear/ unheaded socco culture concerns