the measurement of music into measures of stressed and unstressed beats; indicated by time signature
the temporal structure of music, speech, movement, and other phenomena (pattern of short/long durations of notes sounding in time)
the same time; evenly spaced; occur at equal intervals of time
break between sets of beats; how we phrase music
Dynamic attending theory
the listener’s attention is most acute at strong metrical positions
Inter-Onset Interval: distance from one event to the next (including rests)
variability of timing (measure) speech or music (patel); pairwise variability index: sum of the difference between two adjacent syllables in an utterance divided by their mean
stress-timed language
evenly spaced, low PVI (French)
syllable-timed language
uneven, higher PVI (English)
software speech analysis program (spectrograph)
basic emotions
those that evolved to cope with fundamental issues of survival

happiness, sadness, anger, fear

secondary emotions
socially constructed and culturally dependent
pre-cognitive emotion theories
preferences do not rely on cognitive processing.

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Familiarity effect: Repeated exposure results in preference, even if
that exposure is not recalled (post?cognitively)

Kivy: contour vs. convention
1) contour: the “natural” connections between music and emotion;
2) convention: the customary association of certain musical features with certain emotive ones
Meyer: designated vs. embodied meaning
Meyer denies that music gives rise to specific emotions; rather, expectation violations create undifferentiated arousal.

1) designated: occurs when the symbol or stimulus and the referent are different in kind; and 2) embodied: occurs when the symbol and the referent are the same in kind

Berlyne’s inverted U-function – (for hedonic value)
X?axis is degree of complexity or novelty;

Y?axis is preference

For musicians, peaks later (preference for higher complexity
than nonmusician)
1970’s Proposed that there is an optimal level of complexity
in a stimulus that leads to preference, gives rise to emotion

(pieces that evoke no or little arousal, or relatively high arousal, have less hedonic value than pieces that evoke an intermediate level of arousal; arousal is directly determined by the degree of complexity and novelty perceived in a stimulus; training and exposure to music should influence the aesthetic value of a piece of music)

emotion’s adaptive value
reduces possibilities, narrows attentions, assists with quick survival decisions
ITPRA theory (two responses)
Huron’s five categories of expectancy responses:
imagination, tension

prediction, reaction, and appraisal

How does ITPRA explain music’s
? An event may be expected by one response system, but not
? E.g., Sense of danger: tension response is high, but appraisal
response is of safety (we know we are safe in concert hall);
generates a positive heightened tension = awe
-Why we enjoy sad music when “sorrow” is not positive

Multiple mechanisms theory (six)
(Juslin and Vastfjall) emotion combines 6 “mechanisms” give rise to emotion

? (1) Brain stem reflex (“primitive” response to acoustic characteristics – loud, dissonant, fast increases arousal)
? (2) Evaluative conditioning
Association by repetition (“Happy Birthday”)
? (3) Emotional contagion
? Perceiving emotion can induce emotion
? Seeing someone cry or laugh (“mirror neurons”)
? (4) Visual imagery
? E.g., slow ascending passage evokes sunrise
? (5) Episodic memory for an event in the listener’s life;
emotion associated with that event is evoked
? (6) Musical expectancy
? Event violation (as in Meyer, Huron)

Brain-stem reflex
primitive responses to acoustic features
Evaluative conditioning
associations by repetition
Emotional contagion
perceiving emotion can induce emotion
*episodic memory
associated with when event is evoked
*musical expectancy
event violation
cognitivist vs. emotivist position
cognitivist: listeners are sensitive to the emotional meaning of music, but they do not actually experience that emotion

emotivist: music can elicit an actual emotional response in listeners

Goldstein (1980) – survey of intense emotion; most were in response to music. Shudder, tingling, chills

– Sloboda (1991) – survey of emotional response: 1 = never, 5 =
very often.
-Highest response for shivers, laughter, lump in throat, tears.
2.6?3.0 rating.

Chromatic mediant
distant relation, 3rd related non-diatonic (modal mixture like III in a major piece)

low probability of occurrence =
? Poor statistical linkage to preceding, following chords, like
isolated chords
? Major /minor qualities more apparent
? Unexpected major more positive than diatonic major
? Unexpected minor more tragic than diatonic minor

Why is it relevant?


also deceptive cadence, common tone relations

chills that arise from an unexpected change (Sloboda, 1991)
Musical humor
PDQ Bach
*prediction effect
fulfillment of expectations…
veridical expectation or surprise
comes from episodic memory derived from rehearing a piece (knowledge specifically gained from prior work on a piece)
schematic expectation or surprise
comes from SEMANTIC memory, knowledge of rules, tonality, proximity; music violates existing schema listeners bring to the listening experience, a schematic event is replaced by one with lower probability
dynamic expectation or surprise
work itself sets up work-specific expectation that is violated, sets up an event that has low probability (thus surprise), given what has happened in the works so far; surprise can be “What” related or “when” related- that is, violations in pitch or time like ode to joy or haydn surprise symphony
mozart effect
listening to music will make you smarter Rauscher: tested college students, has limited duration in visuo-spatial IQ
Blur effect
same [mozart] effect is applied to music you enjoy
PF&C test
17 multiple choice questions

participants are shown a rectangular piece of paper subjected to a series of folding and cutting manipulations

then they are shown five unfolded pieces of paper that represent possible outcomes of the folding and cutting manipulations

THE TASK is to choose the correct outcome from the fice options;

Paper Folding & Cutting subtest

how they tested after mozart listening, blur,

*arousal effect
arousal improves performance, better at spatial reasoning tasks
correlation and causation
relationship between two things; one thing directly causes the other thing
auditory imagery
subjective experience of hearing wthout auditory stimuli; heard, then played (same music and listened to it)
motor imagery
looked at successive pictures of hands with fingers highlighted memorize while fists clenched) played without hearing the piece
covert practice
saw score, no sound, fingers in fists; told to depress foot pedal when imagining music
cascade model of processing
motor planning begins after retrieval has begun, but then operate simultaneously; overlap means motor planning can affect retrieval; memory slips
micro-structural detail
expressive timing: rubato, timing at cadence (articulates structure, hierarchy_, pacing of acelerando and ritardando, choice of tempo

other performance choices: dynamic, pacing of crescendo diminuendo, vibrato, timbre change, articulation change

expressive timing
rubato, timing at cadence (Articulates structure, hierarchy) pacing of accelerando and ritardando, choice of tempo
musical “switches”
don’t provide cues as to which way it will go, conscious effort, where in piece; stops more frequent at the switches
Adjudicator bias
may get tired, or relax criteria as they go, or repitition of music caused higher appreciation
musical savants
talent innate ability Blind Tom Wiggins, yet savants often cognitively impaired in other domains and spend many hours engaged in exploring their gift
Schachner et al. 2009
HYPOTHESIS: entrainment is not unique to humans and entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry

METHOD: subject 1 was AFrican grey parrot, video-recorded while exposed to music stimuli with no visual. rhythmic movement.

Subject 2:cockatoo was recorded while exposed to music and one familiar piece with no human movement.

RESULTS: both displayed periodic movemnt in the form of head bobbing, subject 2 showed foot lifting

CONTROLS: did the same with humans

Used a global database, went to youtube, typed in “animal dancing” and found thousands of videos, however, found that the only type of animal that seemed to truly do it was vocal mimics

CONFOUNDS: there was a higher representation of vocal mimics on the youtube videos, so a higher chance for actual entrainment.


Patel & Daniele 2003
Spoken prosody leaves an imprint on
the music of a culture. (speech rhythm affects composed instrumental music)





Kivy’s connection types: between music
and emotion
? “Natural” connections
? E.g., slow tempo =
sadness because slow and labored gait of sad individuals

? No obvious natural connection
? Learned association musical features with emotive ones (plagal
cadence = religious)
? Enculturation


? Contour and convention seem to overlap
? Minor mode is sad by convention, but could it have natural basis
? Argues falling semitone is natural resemblance to “sigh” but
what about falling third or fourth? Also like a sigh.

Mandler 1984 (Adaptive Value)
Based on Berlyne’s ideas:

Repeated exposure changes response
? Initially pleasing, on repetition becomes lightweight, trivial, low
? Initially complex, becomes more pleasing with familiarity

Arousal alone does not equal emotion
? But leads to increased breathing, heart rate (automatic,
unconscious) AND to cognitive re?evaluation of stimulus.
? Combination of arousal and cognitive activity leads to emotional
? Emotional responses to music, example of more general
adaptive biological response to unexpected events
? Ability to anticipate events crucial for human survival; guided by
responses to auditory events
? Music differs from other auditory stimuli in that composers
manipulate / violate expectations in interesting ways

Huron on adaptive value
Emotion derives from expectation (not just music);
prepares organism for future
? Expectation violated = surprise
? In evolution, emotions associated with expectancies
as “motivational amplifiers”
? Emotions reinforce accurate prediction, eventreadiness,
future positive outcomes
Cooke and emotion in intervals
Particular intervals and motives convey distinct emotions across composers:
M3 = joy or triumph
Ascending M6 = longing for pleasure
mi6 = anguish

Testable theory: has been some support for joyous M3 over
mi3, but little else tested.
– This could be an effect of qualia and statistical learning as
Huron has demonstrated.)

Boltz et al., 2009

Hypothesis: does visual information influence the perception and memory of music?

Ways to create surprise
Types of Memory
Longterm: implicit (how a tune goes) vs. explicit (facts, name of tune)

Explicit Memory:
episodic: autobiographical (easily distorted)
semantic: names, places, rules

Types of Expectation
Veridical expectation
? Comes from episodic memory
? Derived from re?hearing a piece

Schematic expectation
? Comes from semantic memory
? Knowledge of rules, tonality, proximity

Veridical Surprise
Knowledge specifically gained from prior experience with a given work
? Low probability of occurring given knowledge of this work
? Examples: performance errors, misquotation, intentional parody
Chaffin and Imreh
Followed one pianist, recorded her practicing and analyzed it (Bach Italian Concerto, presto)

Places where she slowed down were recall
(cascade effect)

Asked her to write first page of piece 27 months later. She remembered formal boundaries best.

First bars remembered best, then downhill.

how people meaningfully encode material (knowing form and math), retrieval structure (“switches”) which bars are cues for next bar, how rapid retrieval from longterm memory (depends on how well form is known) “cascade effect”

9 techniques for humor in music
(1) Incongruous sounds
? (2) Mixed genres
? (3) Drifting tonality
? (4) Metric disruptions
? (5) Implausible delays
? (6) Excessive repetition
? (7) Incompetence cues
? (8) Incongruous quotation
? (9) Misquotation
proved it to be arousal affect, not actual increase in IQ, used children, and much more participants