Is there generation loss between digital files?
What are the 3 characteristics of a DAW? Three components?
Pointer based, Non-Linear, Non-Destructive.

Hardware, Software, Storage

How many tracks are available on Pro Tools LE? Track Types?
32 Audio Tracks (128 total, 96 inactive)
128 Instrument Tracks
64 Master Faders
256 MIDI Tracks
128 Aux Inputs
What file types and sample rates are supported?
BWF (Wav)

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

44.1Khz, 48Khz, 88.2Khz, 96Khz

Name 3 things stored in a session file
MIDI Data, audio regions, Mix Parameters, Tracks, I/O Assignments
There can only be one active ruler at a time. True or False
How many primary windows are there in Pro Tools.
2 Primary. Mix and Edit.
The third would be Transport
What are the 4 edit modes in ProTools?
Shuffle, Slip, Spot, and Grid. Grid (Absolute and Relative)
Name all of the edit tools available.
Zoom, Trimmer, Selector, Grabber, Scrubber, Pencil
ProTools files are always Stereo Interleaved. True or False
What is an offline region?
A region that points back to an audio file that can no longer be found.
What is the difference between Add/Copy/and Convert when importing?
Add references the files from their original position on the disk.

Copy makes a copy into the new audio files folder.

Convert converts audio to the supported settings of the PT session.

How can files be imported?
File Import (Apple – Shift – I), from the workspace browser, or from the desktop/finder/explorer
Minimum selection length for loop playback?
For loop record?
Minimum selection length for loop playback? Half a second
For loop record? One second
What Trim options are available in the Edit menu?
Start to insertion, End to insertion, to selection
How do you reverse the Trim Tool’s direction?
How to you nudge?
+ or –
Can a Locked Region be moved? Edited? Recorded over?
No, No, Yes
What are the quick keys for the transport window?
Transport window on numeric keys
1. FF
2. Rew
3. Record enable
4. Loop Playback
5. Loop Record
6. Quick punch
7. Click
8. wait for note/ countoff
9. MIDI Merge
How do you select across multiple tracks or regions with the selector tool?
Shift-click, or shift-drag
How do you change selection with the Scrubber Tool?
How to you shuttle with the scrub tool?
Option – Scrub
How do you make a selection during playback?
Down arrow for start point, up arrow for end point.
In slip mode, how do you trim exactly to the next region?
Control Key
How do you create new whole files from selections?
Edit -> Consolidate
What advances the cursor to the next region boundary?
Previous region boundary?
What are the 4 ways to save in PT?
Save, Save AS, Save Copy In, Auto Backup
Which save option allows you to convert the session settings?
Save Copy In
What is Quantization Error?
QE is created by rounding to the nearest interval
What filter balances QE to the output and smoothes out the digital signal?
Which filter is applied to the input and moves all frequencies above the Nyquist therom?
Where is QE most significant?
At low amplitudes.
How are Intervals determined?
Intervals are 2, to the x power. X being the bit depth.
What is dither?
Dither is low level noise added to counteract QE
What does dither effect?
The LSB – Least Significant Byte
How do you determine storage calculation per second?
Sample Rate x Bit Depth
What is the formula for GB per hour?
Sample rate x bit depth x 60 x 60 / 8 / 1024 / 1024 / 1024
What is a voice?
An audio event or a pathway to and from storage
How many voices are there in PT?
Which monitoring mode allows you to overdub?
Auto Monitoring Mode
Which monitoring mode will not playback the record enabled track?
Input Monitoring Mode
Which record mode is selection based?
Which record mode can extend whole-file regions?
How many voices does destructive mode use on a mono track? Quickpunch mode?
1 voice for destructive
2 voices for quickpunch
Can offline regions be edited? Processed?
Yes. NO.
How long is the minimum length of a fade?
4 Samples
Are Fade Files Audio Files?
Which edit mode allows the nudge function?
All of them
What are the 3 fade options?
Equal Power, Equal Gain, and NONE
Which linking fade option adds a 3db bump between regions?
Equal Power.
Which linking fade option is linear?
Equal Gain
What 2 options are available in Clear Selected?
Remove and Delete
Which clear option will remove an audio file from the audio file folder?
What does compact selected do?
It removes unused portions from the memory.
What is padding?
A cushion left for trimming compact selected regions
How many levels of undo are there for ProTools?
What is a plug-in?
An application within an application.
What does the target button do?
Allows you to view multiple plugins at the same time
Can a track’s format be changed after it’s created? How about it’s output format?
No. yes.
Do aux tracks and master faders handle audio?
Yes, but not DATA
How much of the signal does a pre-fader insert affect?
What is the difference between Dynamic and time based?
Dynamic effects are placed on the insert and effect 100% of the signal. Time based are placed on an aux track so a wet and dry signal can be made.
What is different about cue mix routing?
Cue mixes use an output, not a bus.
What are all the functions of bounce to disk?
Sample rate, bit depth, file type, stereo or mono, bounce output source, convert during or after bounce, import after bounce.
What is a DSP chip? What does an audio interface do?
Digital Signal Processor. Converts A/D and D/A
What is secondary storage used for?
What is the difference between Hardware and Host-based?
Hardware works off of card, Host based off the CPU of the host computer.
What is a hybrid system?
Host based with added hardware
Can memory markers be made on the fly?
Can memory markers be edited, deleted, and recalled?
Name some digital I/O Formats
Madi – 56 or 64 channel
AES/EDU is prosumer 2 channels

Spdif is consumer 2 channels

Spdif is most common

What 3 options are available when setting time properties in a memory location. Name some general properties.
Markers, Selection, or NONE

track height, zoom settings, pre or post roll, group enables

What clears the undo queue? Does saving clear it?
deleting tracks, quitting pro tools, destructive recording.
saving does not clear it
Define the following:


Digidesign audio engine
digital signal processor
time division multiplexing
Bus – an internal audio pathway
Insert – effects 100% of a signal
Send – Copy
How are plugins moved or copied?
Option – Drag
Does the Mix window represent actual signal flow?
What modifier key allows you to view all loop recorded takes?
Apple Click with selector tool
What is the Optimized Audi Protocol for Mac OS X? Pro Tools?
Core Audio. DAE
You can run Pro Tools on NON-Digi hardware? T or F
Name 4 Plug-in formats? What does Pro Tools LE support?
Rtas, AU, VST, Direct X. RTAS
What can be monitored in the PT System Usage Window?
PCI, CPU, Disk space
For tracking should you raise the H/W Buffer size to maximum?
No. Use low buffer size for recording, for less latency.
Monitoring latency is the delay between what? How?
Input and Output. Caused by buffering at the CPU
AudioSuite is file based? T or F. Destructive or NON
True. Can be either destructive or non. It is an offline process.
What 2 graphical places can an AudioSuite process be found?
On the plug in itself, and audiosuite menu
Can you consolidate files with AudioSuite processing?
How many MIDI tracks does Pro Tools LE support?
What MIDI Track views are available?
Regions, notes, velocity, controllers, volume, blocks, pan, mute, pitchbend, modulation
Are MIDI regions stored in the Session File?
MIDI notes can be edited in regions view?
The grabber tool can do what with MIDI?
Move, Copy, select, and Transport
Which edit tool is destructive?
The Pencil
Which pencil will draw in a series of notes?
What does flatten performance do in PT?
It gives you a new “restore to” state.
How do you export MIDI?
File -> Export MIDI
Should the MIDI Master’s Local be ON/OFF when using PT as a sequencer. If local can not be turned off, what can you do?
OFF. If local cannot be turned off, what can you do? Disable Local Thru
How do you set up a MIDI Click?
mono aux, go to the insert, under instruments
How do you zoom out?
Option click with the zoom tool
How do you zoom both horizontal and vertical?
Command Click
How do you zoom to fit the session length to screen?
Double click with zoom
Which type of system uses DSP chips?
What tools make up the smart tool?
Trim, Selector, and Grabber
How many markers can be used?
How much dynamic range is in each bit?
6 DB of dynamic range
What is 0dBFS also known as? Can you record above 0dBFS?
Full Scale. No.
What is the human hearing frequency range?
20Hz to 20KHz
Which monitoring mode monitors playback until you are recording?
Auto Monitoring
How many punches are available in quickpunch?
Which record mode creates a new region on each pass?
Loop Record
What do audio protocols control?
How Hardware, software, and operating systems interact
What is an iLok?
A Hardware dongle that carries authorizations
What determines hard drive speed?
Rotation speed – minimum 7200 rpm
Access time – maximum 9ms
Bus Type
When should you set the H/W buffer larger?
For mixing
Is audiosuite file based?
Is MIDI audio?
Does auto punch style recording create new regions each pass?
NO…only one pass in auto punch
Is a parent region created with midi?
MIDI is based on bars and beats,
audio is sample based.
Can a tempo change be performed with the conductor off?
What does identify beat do?
Realigns grid to the values you set
Identifies beats per minute.
What does ReWire do?
allows you to stream audio from other programs, streams midi,
64 channels can be sent over rewire
How can MIDI info be bounced in Pro tools?
create an audio track and record it, and then bounce.
In what order should your hardware related to your Pro Tools system by started up?
1. Made sure all equipment is off
2. HD systems with an Expansion Chassis
3. Turn on Chassis
4. HD systems with Pro Control or Control 24, Icont D Control or DD-Command worksurfaces — turn on all control surfaces
5. Turn on MIDI interfaces and devices
6. Turn on PT audio interfaces – wait 15 seconds
7. Start computer
8. Turn on monitor system
Which rulers are not time based?
Tempo, Markers, and Meters
What is the difference between Absolute and Relative Grid modes?
• Absolute – snaps to nearest boundaries
• Relative – Regions can be moved. Grid will be relative to the nearest “beat”
Identify all of the track types Pro Tools has to offer, and how they differ
• Audio – import/record and edit audio signal as a waveform
• MIDI – store MIDI note and controller data
• Instrument – combines the functions of MIDI tracks and aux inputs
• Aux Input – can be used as an effects send, destination for a sub mix, a bounce destination, or an input to monitor and process live audio.
• Master Fader – single fader used to control hardware output levels and bus paths
Is default MIDI record mode destructive?
Which Midi Recording is NON-destructive?
MIDI Merge
What options do you have for bouncing midi?
Record to audio track, Bounce then Import, Bounce with Audio
What is a Logical format?
specifies valid data types and player behaviors
What is a physical Format?
specifies how disc is constructed and playback mechanism
What are the standard specs for CD-DA?
16bit – 44.1Khz
Up to 99 Tracks
Up to 74 minutes, 33 seconds
What is the minimum track length for CD-DA?
4 Seconds
What is CD-R?
Orange Book Burned in the computer
What is CD-RW?
CD that is rewriteable
What is error correction?
Errors created in a cd being burned.
What is interleaving?
Rearranging data to minimize errors
What is Parity?
Finding and fixing errors
What is interpolation?
Making educated guesses of errors.
Is there more error correction on data Cd’s or audio?
How much memory can be stored on a 74 minute audio disk?
How much data on the same cd?
740 MB. 640 MB
What are gapless techniques?
Audio file lengths matching a multiple of 588 Samples