Scene Headers
the little bits of info listed at the beginning of each scene or shot (location,time,mood)
processing a sound element to fit the scene
Conscious Sounds
“See a sound, Hear a sound”
Subconscious Sounds
being very subjective, with a tendency to involve cognitive ideas
Small Sound Effects
sounds that occur in the front of the theatre
Large Sound Effects
sounds that will take place in the surrounds and/or the sub
sound effects performed to picture
70-90 dB SPL
the ideal dynamic range for recording speech should fall between?
the most prominent frequencies in the human voice?
the fundamental frequency of a human males voice
the fundamental frequency of a human females voice?
(Automated Dialogue Replacement) the process of having an actor reread any lines that couldnt be used from the production audio
(Edit Decision List) a list of time code addresses and tape names that are generated by a video editing system
the update sound elements to stay in sync with picture after edits have taken place
a file interchange format that will allow you to move material across platforms or software applications
2 type of OMFI file data
Metadata-which is the project edit info, Media Data-which is the audio and video files
(Production Sound Effects) any sound effects that is not dialogue that happened to find its way into the production track (A Mutable)
the parts of the work track that are going to interfere with the rest of the sound track
bad production dialogue (A Mutable)
Master Track
generally used for dialogue during a wide-angle shot
ISO Track
used during a close up shot of a character on screen
Futz Track
where the editor will place all the dialogue that needs to be processed to fit the context on the screen
a music and effect only mix that is sent to be overdubbed with foreign languages
Foley Supervisor
the person in charge of the foley, for a film
Foley Artist
performs the sound effects to picture
Foley Mixer’s
responsibilities include setting and maintaining proper preamp levels,labeling tracks
Foley Recordist
responsible for setting up the microphones and head phones, as well as patching
Cue Sheets
these sheets are used to organize a foley session by listing specific cues, timings, and track layout
Foley categories
Movements/Footsteps/Incidentals/Custom Effects
Wild Tracking
Performing the sound, without doing it to picture
best choice for cloth foley
used for dresses and skirts due to its nice snappy sound
used for formal wear scenes, or a piece with a lot of formal female attire
used for male characters in formal scenes, also loud and harsh sounding great for winter clothes
Chamois Cloth
used for kung-fu clothing
Supervising Sound Editor
the person in charge of the post production sound staff
Designed Effects Editor
the highest level of SFX editing
Hard Effects Editor
editor that has the job of cutting the basic conscious sound effects, that are seen on screen
Backgrounds Editor
the entry level sound editing position after serving an internship
Layering for Perspective
gives the mixer the ability to add or remove elements to create depth in the mix
Layering for Complexity
makes sounds more hyper-realistic and interesting
detailed sounds that establishing the scene directly around the character
establish more subtleties at a greater distance (less detailed then foreground)
the vague ambient sounds that establish a general location
Room Tone
“a location’s “aural fingerprint”- nonspecific sounds on the upper end (2000 and 8000 Hz)
Skeleton Tracks
a template for the background editor’s session
Washing Machine Effect
an obviously looping repetitive sound
Original Sound/using Analogous Visualization/Using Sounds With No Visual Congruence
3 ways to conceptualize a sound effect
Analogous Visualization
a term used to describe using visual association to come up with sounds
Sounds with no Visual Congruence
sounds that do not seem to make any sense when you consider the original onscreen source
elements to enhance the overall designed sound
Flattening the tracks
the process of bouncing the result of an effect down to an actual audio file
bouncing the source tracks down to appropriate channels prior to mixing
allows the designer to bleed the source signal into other channels
Pre Record
commits a predefined amount of time, prior to the point at which the record button was pressed
Front End
a term that is used to describe the pre amps and A/D converters in a field recording rig
Mechanical, Maneuvers, Engines, BY’s
4 types of vehicle recordings
scientific study of the human perception of sound
the process of knowing
Stapedius Reflex
when the stapedius musle is exposed to loud sustained sounds for an extended period of time the muscle tightens up reducing the amount of osscicular movement
Temporary Threshold Shift
where there is an upward shift in the threshold of human hearing
the medical term for the perception of sound in one or both ears or in the head when no external sound is present
3 main cues of localization of sound
the simplest aspect of the human perception of sound
the human perception of the intensity of a sound
an attribute of auditory sensation by which sounds can be ordered on a musical scale
Loudness is a perceptual, Intensity is a physical quantity
Intensity VS. Loudness
Fletcher Munson Equal Loudness Contours
shows the intensity at which a sine wave must be presented , as a function of frequency, in order to sound equally loud as the sine waves of other frequencies on the same curve
Octaves 1&2 (20-80Hz)
Lower Bass octave greta for creating atmospheric sounds or sounds that can help shape the mood of a scene
Octaves 3&4 (80-320Hz)
Upper Bass octave with sounds of a wide open space, 4 being the thumpiness
Octaves 5-7 (320-2560Hz)
Midrange octave where sound gets its itensity, and contains most of the human voice as well as the fundamental lower harmoniscs and overtones
Octave 5
octave known for fullness, roundness, or body
Octave 6
to much of this octave brings out a hornlike quality
Octave 7
too much of this octave will make a tinny sound
Octave 8(2560-3500Hz)
octave that is the upper mids known as the “presence octave”, can improve speech,but to much can cause dialogue to sound lispy
Octaves 9&10 (5120-20480Hz)
octave range tends to give a sound of life by adding crispiness
Static Cues
cues that dont change
Dynamic Cues
cues that involve movement of the subjects body that affect how sound enters and reacts with the ear
Interaural Time Difference (ITD)
a static cue referring to the delay time between sounds arriving at the left and right ear (azimuth)
angular position, measured in degrees, of a sound source
Interaural Intensity Difference (IID)
a static cue referring in the difference in intensity of a sound reaching the left and right ear
Pinna Response
a static cue describing the effect the external ear, or pinna, has on sound (azimuth & zenith)
height or elevation
Shoulder Echo
a static cue the way a sound echoes off of your shoulders and upper torso, into your ears (zenith)
Head Motion
a dynamic cue involved in turning your head to find a sound source
a dynamic cue to identify the source of sound (hand in hand with head motion)
Early Echo Response
a dynamic cue describing the first reflections of a sound
a dynamic cue that is the natural decay of a sound in a given space
Intensity of the sound source/Ratio of direct to reverberated sound/amount of high frequency content
3 principal cues for determining the distance form a sound source (simulating distance)
Intensity of the sound source
Intensity of the sound source
Ratio of direct to reverberated sound
the wet dry mix of what you are hearing
Amount of high frequency content
the farther you are from the source the less high frqeuencies you will hear
Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF’s)
algorithms thta mimic the filtering effects of our pinnae, head, or upper torso
Doppler Shift Effect
a change in pitch that results when the source source of a sound abd the listener are moving relative to each other
Cocktail Party Effect
allows the listener to “tune in” to what one speaker (or sound source) is saying despite the presence of other sounds
Binaural Masking
where the ear shifts the combined response of the unwanted signal in two ears and partially cancels out
the blending of all the edited sound elements into one continuous soundtrack
person responsible for all the routing
pink noise, form a signal generator, is pumped through speakers and measured with an SPL meter, using C Weighting
Supervisor desks
sometihng usually having a DAW, such as Pro Tools or Fairlight, available for the supervisors
a huge bank of patch bays and rack mounted gear including some standard EQ’s and compressors
the part of the process where all of the elements, received from the editorial department, are blended into more manageable sub mixes
Principal Production Dialogue
these source tracks include all the master, iso, and futz, to be mixed
The chain
a series of outboard gear that is designed to help clean up the tracks and optimize the sound
The Ping Pong Effect
what occurs when the mixer pans the dialogue, to match the perspectibe on the screen
Foley Predubs
often done by the sound effects re-recording mixer, while the dialogue rerecording mixer is doing the the dialogue predubs
Pan Steps
(group steps or panned steps) the steps made by non-principle characters that need to be panned
Mono or Split Props
these props go to the center channel just the same as principal dialogue and principal steps
also known as incidentals
4+1 Channel predubs
predubs that are four tracks wide, that feed four channels commonly known as the “corners”, the 1 is a mono track that feeds the center chanel
5 channel background predub
same a 4+1 but instead of being mixed as four corners with filler for the center channel coming from mono tracks, the 5 are mixed specifically to be LCR,Ls
Large Effects Predubs
six tracks,, which are sent to six channels- LCR,Ls,Rs,and LFE
Small Effects Predubs
Three tracks that are sent to three channels- LCR
the productd of mixing the predubs together in the final mix
Dialogue Stem
6 track ( L,C,R,Ls,Rs, and Aux)
Sound Effects Stem
6 track stem (L,C
Music Stem
6 track stem (L,C,R,Ls,Rs,and LFE
Foley Add & Sound Effects Add
two stems that are 3 tracks (L,C,R)
a six channel discreet master of the movie that is supposed to be done in a controlled transfer
Controlled Transfer
bringing the stems back through the console wit the faders set to unity with no processing to create prints for the master
The headrom for Dolby SR is ?
+20 dB
the headroom of Dolby Digital,DTS, and SDDS is
M&E/TV Mix
the music and effects only mix that is done for the foreign market
Circled Takes
the takes that the diretor feels protray the best performance
35 mm Mag Stripe
two magnetic stripe, one is wide and one is thin
35mm Magnetic Three Stripe
has three stripe of oxide printed on film
35 Magnetic Full Coat
is considered by many the most popular dynamically best sounding audio format for motion picture and television
Sync Block
a machine that allows you to place the magnetic stock on wheels with sprockets that are coupled to one another for precision
the process of converting film to video