Facts about Opera:
– Originated in Italy in the late 1500’s
– Combines Music and drama
– Music is an inseparable part of the stage presentation, drives the drama and
emotion while commenting on the story and characters
– Notes on early Opera:
– Dafne by Jacopo Peri – Considered to be the first opera , Tells the story of
Apollo falling in love
– Claudio Monteverdi – Perhaps the most famous purveyor of early Opera,
Famous works include L’Arianna, L’Orfeo and Scherzi Musicali.


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Musical Theater:;


– Showboat ; 1927 – The first American ;musical-play,; meaning that the music; and
story; were written to work organically together.



Film to Theater/Opera:


;-Initially, motion pictures featured no included soundtrack .
-Dialogue was given as ;caption; frames between the action .
-Yet, silent films were never truly ;silent .;
-Piano Accompaniment
-Provided a ;background ; to the film
-Used to mask sound of the loud projector .-Less literal to the actions in the film due to the difficulty of improvisation; along
with action and synchronizing pianistʼs playing to the film each time.
Synchronized Music on Film is the same every time the movie plays back.; This means
the soundtrack is the same each time and can be part of the story.
As such it can now be used to:
-Punctuate Dramatic/Emotional Moments
– create tension .
-Make Jokes



Edmund Meisel ; composer of Potemkin;


Each action in the film has; corresponding musical elements .;
The music is an; inseparable; part of the experience of watching the film
The Music ; comments; on the Film;
This is massive because:
Music can now be seen as a description of the emotion of the character
Audience begins to rely on music for clues as to emotions and meaning of
elements of the plot

Film Music Jobs:


Music Executive;


-Works directly for; production company .
-Has no control over the style or; placement; of music (and, really, no clue about
it either)



Music Supervisor;


In charge of negotiating with; record labels; for the music that will
be used in the film. -In charge of selecting tracks for; retail soundtrack; (not style or placement in film)
-Works directly for production company



The Composer;

;Writes; original score; for the Film
-Consists of: ;
; themes ;
; melodies ;
;Needs to understand function of Music in film
;Dramatic/Emotional influence
;Part of telling the story of the Film, etc.
;Must be willing to write music that fits into the; directors vision .
;The Composers music is part of the vision, but must work within it with all
of the other elements.
;Communicates with Director in; dramatic; terms (rather than musical).
;Must speak the language of the; major creative force; behind the film and
translate it into musical ideas (ie ; making a piece of music sound




Part of composer’s  team
-Arranges and composes music for the proper instrumentation  
-This is based on the function  of the music within the scene.
-Ensures that all of the parts of the score are:
-playable .
-Within the range  of the selected instruments
-Not technically  for musicians




Generates  parts  for individual members of the orchestra
•Aware of  musical preperation  conventions.

• bar numbers  below each measure for rehearsal and ease in picking up
recording from a certain place
•Considers  page turns  throughout score
•Prepares  orchestra breakdown 
•Which  cues  are completed
•Title of each piece and assigned cue numbers
•Length in  bars 
• instrument list  for each piece, including any special percussion instruments
•Extracts parts from the  score 
•Uses a program like Finale or Sibelius 
•Makes PDF or Tiff Image of Sheet Music


Sibelius:is a Digidesign owned  notation  Software 

•Notation View for those more comfortable with conventional musical notation
•Uses  kontakt  for sample sounds
•Has a video window right in the software for composing music along with a  
quicktime .
•Export to Sibelius from Pro Tools
•Useful for communication between Composer and  music editor .


The Conductor is frequently either:

•A PROFESSIONAL CONDUCTOR  hired specifically for the job
•Each has benefits and drawbacks
•The Composer might be better utilized in the control room with the director
discussing  PERFORMANCES . •The Orchestrator might be better utilized finishing  ORCHESTRATIONS .
•The Professional Conductor may not be as familiar with the  NUANCES  of the
score in the same way the Conductor or Orchestrator would be.
Musicians for Film Scores work frequently and should exhibit the following qualities:
• VERSATILE  in style and ability to play many different genres of music
(sometimes film soundtracks are bizarre and frightening!)
Music Editor – Acts as  LIAISON  between Director, Composer and Mixer
•Creates  TEMP SCORE  
•Must be familiar with Scores/Soundtracks and with a  BROAD VARIETY  of
•Assigns  CUE NUMBERS  to all musical cues
•Spotting and timing notes
•Each cue with start and end times
•Description of  DRAMATIC FUNCTION  
•Creates  CLICK TRACKS  and Streamers
•Keeps track of cues
Which ones are finished and through the  ORCHESTRATION  phase
Which ones still need to be recorded
•Responsible for Post-Recording  FIXES  
•Re-edits score if edit of movie changes
•Makes smaller  CUES  from larger ones (for use elsewhere in the film)
•Cuts Score and  SOURCE  music to film
•Places all of the music where it will end up in  RELATION TO THE PICTURE  
•Documents and Manages changes to music over the development of the film. •In the final mix, acts as the “ PROTECTOR OF THE SCORE ”
Keeping “Score” elements and preventing producers from using, for
instance, all current/popular source music
• AMATEUR COMPOSERS  want to know Music Editors
Can use their compositions in Temp Score
This is usually unpaid, but creates exposure as Director and Producers will
hear temp score!

The Work of the Music Editor:

Music Spotting


Director, Producers and *Music Editor* decide which scenes will have
music and which wonʼt



•Film is divided into REELS  that are between 16 and 20 minutes long
•Reels will be edited together, end to end, by the  PROJECTIONIST  or manager
at each theater (so it will not be the same everywhere)
•Having music cross boundary between reels could cause  GAPS OR SKIPS  so
we need to know where each reel ends!
•LFOA, or,  LAST FRAME OF ACTION  indicates the end of a reel


Decide what types of music will be used:

• SOURCE  – Pre-existing music licensed for use in the production
• SCORE  – Music written specifically to correspond with scenes in the film
• INCIDENTAL  – Music that is “in” the scene, can be heard by the characters
Can be Source music (ex: radio in background) or Score music (ex:  music
• TEMP SCORE  – Created by *Music Editor* out of pre-existing music  
Cut to the film  TEMPORARILY 
Used to communicate the  STYLE  in which the score will eventually be
Used as the music track in the  TEMP MIX  
Music comes from Amateur Composers, Music Editors Collection or Pre-
made Music Libraries



Mix of the film that is used to show test audiences
•Combines Temp Music, Production Audio and some Temporary Sound Effects



 must follow the specifications laid out by whomever they are going to
•Work Tapes are usually created by  INTERNS OR DIGITAL ASSISTANTS 


Score is Written: 

•Composer creates score based on
 CONCEPTS  discussed with director
 DIRECTION  communicated in the Temp Score
Skill at expressing  INTERPRETED EMOTION of scenes in musical terms



Term for a Melodic Phrase or passage in the music of the film
that accompanies the re-occurrence of a theme, character action or situation.
•Orchestrator Orchestrates
•Copyist Extracts and Copies
•Contractor Hires Orchestra
•Stage is chosen
 where the live Orchestra is lead by the conductor in the
performance of the score
•Large Screen displaying film, conductor watches and conducts orchestra along
with film.




Mix of score recordings which is given to the music editor.
•Acts as a “ MUSIC PREDUB ” •Can be mixed in  SURROUND 
•Given to *Music Editor* to be synced to picture




Process where the *Music Editor* Places or Re-syncs score in the
event that the edit of the film is changed or adjusted prior to release.
•May be referred to as “ CONFORMING ” to picture



Combines final Music Stem, Dialogue Stem and Sound Effects Stem
See Re-Recording section for more details  
 Document that has the final timings of music  
•Done after  PRINTMASTER  is finished
•Used to determine who and how much is paid to the “ MUSIC PEOPLE ”
•Based on how much of their music is used in  FINAL MIX  of the film




Use of a specific performance of a song by a specific artist.




Involves use of JUST the song, not the performance
•Typically used when a song will be re-performed by a cheaper artist.
•Common for  TV COMMERCIALS , etc.
Different Types:
Payment made based on the number of times a piece of
music is utilized in a production.




Fixed price for unlimited number of drops
for one piece (price set based on length of production.



Typically used for a TV show theme, renewed annually.




Unlimited use of entire library of music.  
Licensing Companies:
•Killer Tracks  
•APM/KPM •Freeplay




The blending of edited sound elements into one continuous soundtrack

 Positions on the Dub Stage: 


Dialogue Re-Recording Mixer 

HEAD  of the Re-Recording stage
• Takes direction from the  DIRECTOR  
• May Help  MIX FOLEY  



 Sound Effects Re-Recording Mixer

• Mixes  FOLEY  
The Workplace: Stage Setup
• Film stages are the size of an average  AVERAGE MOVIE THEATER  
•  TELEVISION  stages are usually a bit smaller
The Workplace: Console
•  2/3  away from the screen
• Can be 30 – 40 ft in length
• Anywhere from  150 TO 700  inputs
The Workplace: Credenza
• Outboard  PROCESSING  and patch bays
• The only place you will find  AUDIO  on a Digital stage
Monitor Setup
DTS & Dolby Digital
•L-C-R speakers  BEHIND THE SCREEN  
•LS-RS arrays along the side and  BACK WALLS
•Added  LEFT INNER  and  RIGHT INNER  channel
• SURROUND  arrays are the same as DTS/Dolby Digital
•L-C-R speakers pinked at  85  dB SPL C-weighted
•Ls-Rs are pinked at  82  dB SPL
•The sub is pinked at  95  dB C-weighted
Icon Calibration
•1. Send reference tone to Main Monitors with output set to -20dB
•2. Pan the signal to center in Pro Tools
•3. Set the speaker-to-speaker balance for all speakers in the system
using Individual Output Trim mode
•Activate the control room output  
•Press and hold the Channel Select switch until the switch flashes.  
•Turn the Main Output encoder knob to set the trim value.
•Press the flashing Channel Select switch to exit Trim mode.
Icon Calibration
•5. Solo the Center speaker
•6. Adjust Control Room Output encoder until the sound pressure level
meter displays target reference level
•7. Press and hold the Calibration Mode switch until it flashes.
•8. Adjust the Main Control Room Output level encoder until target
reference level is displayed
•9. Repeat for all speakers
Calibration Mode Switch
•Changes from Gain (dB) to Sound Pressure Level (dB SPL)
•Must calibrate first to display output in SPL
Beyond the Stage: CONTROL ROOM
•DADs, MAG Dubbers, DA-88s
•DSP Core & Converters of digital consoles
•Blending source elements from  EDITORIAL  
•Creating more manageable  SUB MIXES  
•Keys to setting up predubs:
•Each predub will consist of  SIMILAR ELEMENTS  recorded to MTR
• LIKE SOUNDS  – share common genres.  
• LIKE FREQUENCY CONTENT  – common frequencies
Dialogue Predub: Principal Production
Recorded to limited number of tracks on MTR
•Split based on PERSPECTIVE  
•Routed to the  CENTER CHANNEL  for monitoring
•Processed to sound as clean as possible
“The Chain”
•Series of pieces of outboard gear used to fix 
The Cedar Box DNS-1000 
Cedar Box DNS-2000
•Available for Pro Tools HD Systems
•Behringer DeNoiser –  
•X-Hum from Waves
•Alternative to the Behringer DeNoiser
Massenburg EQ
Notches out specific sounds in the same  
FREQUENCY RANGE  as the dialogue
•Adds life to tracks that have been over
Urei 565 Dip Filter
Focusrite 6 Band EQ
Alternative to the Urie 565.
Brooke De-Esser
nuffʼ said
Waves De-Esser
Alternative to Brooke De-Esser
Aphex Expressor 
Keeps level under control and allows the use
of a bit of   A BIT OF COMPRESSION  
Renaissance Vox
•Alternative to the Aphex Expressor
•Can be recorded to up to 8 tracks on  MTR .
•Split based on  CHARACTER.
•Routed to the  CENTER CHANNEL  for monitoring
•Processed to match  PRODUCTION
•“Putting It In The Room”  
•Process with  EQ AND REVERB .
Panned Dialogue
•Recorded to five tracks on MTR
•Consists of   WALLA , panned call outs, 5.0 reverb
•Routed to the  L,C,R,LS,&,RS  channels for monitoring
Often used to get a reference for ADR

Used as a back up, just in case…


When dialogue is panned and bounces around based upon perspective

Sound Effects Predub
•Recorded to  ONE CHANNEL  on MTR
•Routed to the  CENTER CHANNEL  for monitoring
•Processed to match  PRODUCTION   
Principal Footsteps
Recorded to  ONE CHANNEL  on MTR
•Routed to the  CENTER CHANNEL  for monitoring
•Panned Footsteps
•Routed to  L-C-R CHANNELS  for monitoring
•Processed to  MATCH  production  
•Recorded to  ONE CHANNEL  on MTR
•Generally related to  PRINCIPAL CHARACTERS  
•Routed to the  CENTER CHANNEL  for monitoring  
Panned Props
•Recorded to  THEREE CHANNELS  on MTR
•Routed to  L-C-R  for monitoring
•Processed to  MATCH PRODUCTION 
4 + 1 Channel BGʼs  
•Offers most  FLEXIBILITY  
•Quad BGʼs recorded to  4 TRACKS  on MTR
•Quad BGʼs routed to  L-R-LS-RS CHANNELS  for
•“+1” mono fill track recorded to  1 CHANNEL ,
•Routed to the  CENTER CHANNEL  for monitoring 
5 Channel BGʼs
•Recorded as 5.0 mix to  5 CHANNELS  on MTR  
•Routed to  L-C-R-LS-RS  for monitoring
•No mono fill =  LESS FLEXIBILITY  
Small Effects
Sound Effects designed for the  FRONT  of the theater
•Recorded to  THREE CHANNELS  on MTR
•Routed to  L-C-R  channels for monitoring
Large Effects
Effects designed to take advantage of  SUB AND/OR
•Recorded to  SIX CHANNELS  on MTR
•Routed to  L-C-R-LS-RS-LFE  channels for monitoring
Mixing Predubs: Some General Rules
•Stay organized
•Monitor your  RETURNS  
•Only the returns of predub  BEING RECORDED  are monitored
during the recording
Mixing Predubs
•NEVER process more than  HALFWAY  
•What works by itself may not work with other elements.
•If you do overdo it, youʼre stuck with it.
Keys to a Better Mix:
•how we localize sound.
•the limitations of your audienceʼs hearing as well as your own.
Your Audience:
Will not all  PERCEIVE INTENSITY   equally
•Can hear between  20HZ-20KHZ  at birth
•Average person under 40 with no hearing loss can hear roughly  20HZ-16KHZ  
•Will not perceive  ALL FREQUENCIES  equally

Human Sound Localization Cues:
•Static Cues
•Cues that  DO NOT CHANGE
•Dynamic Cues
•Involves movement of the  LISTENER’S BODY ;
;The delay between sounds arriving at the left and right ears
;Most effective between; 270HZ ; 500HZ ;
;Listeners can perceive a 1 degree difference
;Difference in intensity of a sound reaching the left and right ear
;Predominate frequencies above; 1400HZ
Pinna(e); RESPONSE
;Effect of the; EXTERNAL EAR; on a sound
;Azimuth and Zenith
;Front to Rear ;
;The reflections of sound off of the shoulders into the ear
;Static ;
; 1KHZ-3KHZ; are most clearly reflected ;
;Echoes perceived as very small time delays
;zenith (elevation) of a sound
Dynamic Cues: HEAD; Movement
;Turning to; LOCALIZE; the source ;
;Look to confirm what you hear.
EARLY ECHO; Response
Reflections within the first 50 ; 100ms
;Dynamic ;
;The natural decay of; SOUND IN SPACE .
;Dynamic ;
; SIMPLEST; localization cue
;Calculate distance
;Speed of sound is 1128 ft/sec @ 70
Fletcher Munson Equal Loudness Contours
measure of sound pressure (dB SPL) vs. frequency for which a listener
perceives a; CONSTANT LOUDNESS ;
Octaves 1-4
;Considered the; BASS RANGE ;
;Conveys; STRENGTH and; POWER ;
Octaves 1-2
;Power, Boom ;; FULLNESS
;Sounds in this frequency range:
;Thunder, Traffic, ; Explosions
;Piano, Tuba, Organ, Bass
;A little goes a; LONG WAY
Octaves 3-4: FOUNDATION
;Serves aural structure in the same way as the horizon serves
visual structure
;Gives sounds fullness or; BOTTOM
;Too much = boomy ( 80HZ-160HZ )
;Too little = thin
Octave 4

is the; TRANSITION octave


;Overlap Alert ;
;Too Much; 250HZ-500HZ; can be boxy

Octaves 5-7
;Said to give sound; INTENSITY ;
;Most of the frequencies of the; HUMAN VOICE ;
;Fundamental ; lower harmonics of most sounds

Octave 5 ( 320HZ-640HZ );

Known for fullness, roundness, ; body
Octave 6 ( 640HZ-1280HZ )
Hornlike ;
;Central parts of most; INSTRUMENT’S  spectra

Octave 7 ( 1280HZ-2560HZ )

•Said to add  DEFINITION  
•Too much =  TINNY 
•Extended listening:
•can be annoying
•causes ear fatigue
Octave 8 ( 2560HZ-5120HZ):
•Upper mids
•Known as the “ PRESENCE OCTAVE ”
The lower part of the 8th octave
•Improves speech  INTELLIGIBILITY  
•Too much emphasis
•Dialogue can sound  LISPY  
•Consonants hard to understand
Upper 8th
•Adds  DEFINITION , realism and clarity
8th Octave + lower part of the 9th (around  6KHZ )
 •Causes sounds to be perceived as  NEARBY 
•Said to add  EDGE 
Boosting  5KHZ
Gives the impression of an overall  LOUDNESS INCREASE  
throughout the mids
Octaves 9-10 ( 5120HZ-20KHZ)
Treble frequencies
•Reduce sibilance by attenuating in the  9TH OCTAVE  
• 5120HZ-10240HZ 
Too much 6kHz
Too little 6kHz
sounds dull
Emphasis between  15KHZ-20KHZ  
creates an “airy,  SWEET , and open” feel 

Final Mix: All of the components of the soundtrack are mixed together

General Rules:
•All audio is polished
•Levels balanced between  PREDUBS  
•Final Processing (EQ & Reverb)
• MUSIC  is added
•Reels are listened to together to ensure the  CONTINUITY  
Tools for Final Mix: COCKTAIL PARTY  Effect
Allows the listener to “ TUNE IN ” to what one speaker is saying  
despite the chatter of many other speakers that are talking
Tools for Final Mix: BINAURAL  Masking
The ear shifts the combined response of the unwanted signal in
two ears and  PARTIALLY CANCELS IT OUT .  
•Why this is important?
•Make better use of space
•Create more  REALISTIC DEPTH  
•Turn layered sounds into cohesive sound event
Precedence Effect
We hear a sound as coming from the  DIRECTION  from which it
first reaches us
Doppler Effect
Crowding of wave fronts around a  MOVING SOUND SOURCE 
Simulating Distance
• INTENSITY  of the source.  
•Inverse Square Law
•Ratio of Direct to  REVERBERANT SOUND  
•The Amount of  HIGH FREQUENCY  Content
ICON mixing tools: VCA Faders
•Fader used to control  OVERALL LEVEL  of a group
•Allows a single fader to adjust the overall level of a group
•Individual tracks remain  INDEPENDENT  of the group
Making a VCA Master:
•Create a VCA Master track
•Assign  OUTPUT of the VCA Master track to desired group
Custom Faders: Stems
Result of mixing the  PREDUBS  
•6 tracks routed to  5 channels.
•L, C, R, Ls, Rs, and Aux.
•Contains all elements of the  DIALOGUE PREDUBS .
Sound Effects
•Consists of six tracks routed to  SIX  channels
•L, C, R, Ls, Rs, and Sub
•Contains all elements other than Dialogue or Music.
•Consists of six tracks routed to  SIX  channels.
•L, C, R, Ls, Rs, and Sub
•In addition to the stems
•Each is usually three channels –  L-C-R .
•The Foley add is used in the  M&E  
•The Sound effects add is for last minute  EFFECTS .
Six channel  CONTROLLED  transfer mix of the film.
•A controlled transfer is routing the stems through the console with the faders set
to unity.  
Digital Printmasters
Six Channel Discrete except for  SDDS   
•(L, C, R, Ls, Rs, & LFE).
•Found in most  THEATERS  
•Dolby SR-D
•All three formats are on  EVERY FILM .
Dolby SR-D
•Six discrete inputs.
• AC-3  Compression.
•5 full bandwidth channels  
•(L, C, R, Ls, Rs)
•1 limited bandwidth sub.  
•SR-D is printed between the  SPROCKET HOLES  on the left side
of the film.
•Has  +20DB  of headroom.
DTS Printmaster:
Six discrete inputs.
•6 Full Bandwidth Channels  
•(L, C, R, Ls, Rs, and Sub)
DTS Printmaster
Six discrete inputs.
•6 Full Bandwidth Channels  
•(L, C, R, Ls, Rs, and Sub)
DTS Printmaster
Sub is filtered at 80Hz Lowpass, and added to the surround
•This audio is then encoded to  CD-ROM  as 5 Channels.
•Uses sub-band coding with linear prediction and quantization  
•Has  20 DB  of Headroom.
DTS Printmaster
5 channel discrete output
•Any sound from the surrounds that is below 80 Hz is directed to
the sub
•This is done to prevent the surround channels from being
overdriven with low frequencies and also to playback the
audio that was sent there in the initial conversion process. 
Audio is played back from CD-ROM which is following  DTS
TIMECODE  track on film
•CD-Rom follows  30FPS  proprietary DTS Timecode.
•Printed on the film to the right of the audio track
•Uses  ATRAC  compression scheme  
•Can be 4, 6, or 8 discrete inputs
• 8  Channel output that adds a left inner and right inner channel  
•(L, Li, C, Ri, R, Ls, Rs,& Lfe)
•Encoded audio is printed on the outer edges of both sides of the
•Has  20DM  of headroom.
Optical Print Master (Analogue Release)
• 2  channel stereo mix.  
•Back-up should there be a drop-out or a malfunction with the digital tracks
•The Dolby SR optical track is a 4-2-4 matrix
•Takes the L, C, R, and NON Discrete surrounds and reduces them to two
Optical Print Master (Analogue Release)
•The sub is derived with crossovers.
• OPTICAL  heads only read the difference between black & white
•Only  +9DB  of headroom
To work in game audio, do I need to be a programmer?
A: No.
Though it doesn’t hurt to have a basic understanding of programming, it isn’t necessary
to know C++ or anything advanced like that.
Anything you absolutely NEED for your specific work will likely be covered in on-the-job
If I start out working in film and want to do game audio later, will it be possible?
A: Yes!
As a matter of fact, the game industry is increasingly basing its production flow off of
the Hollywood Model.
Will I have to join a union?
A: Not necessarily
Unions not as common as in Hollywood
Depends on the facility and type of work
  Am I likely to find work in game audio?
Though the game industry is HUGE at the moment, it is highly competitive.
You will need to be on the top of your game.
If I do find work how is the money and hours?
Games outsold movies between 2004-2007
The money is typically good, but…
Hours can be strenuous, especially when nearing release date.
Three Dimensional Awareness
You must be aware of all aspects of a games design and where you fit in to
the big picture
Game Psychology
Why we play
Actions and Outcomes: we are in the “drivers seat”
Meaningful interaction is at the root of "playing" games of any variety
Goal: enveloping
Realistic participation and interaction  create the meaningful experience!
Responsibilities of Sound Team in Games
Interpreting the "SOUND NEEDS" based on DESIGN DOCUMENT
Read the design document and conceptualize
List the sounds found there
Note ideas that you have about those sounds
Design Document
Lists all factors involved in the game
Style of game
Specific environment  
Player elements
Npc’s/AIs/ enemies
Design Document:
Creating Sound "PROTOTYPES"
Temporary/Placeholder sounds
Mockups that will probably be improved upon later
Example:  Sports game Protoypes
Asset Gathering
Recording FOLEY  
Much like film
you get the ideas from the design document
May have "MOCKUPS" or "test animations" to use for VISUAL REFERENCE
Asset Gathering
Used as basis for sound designs
Gives an "ORIGINAL" flare to sounds in game
Field Recording lecture for more info!
Sound Design
Done on a level by level basis
May have “TEST ANIMATION" based on actions that can occur in
game to use as the visual reference for your design
Remember – Sound might be played 10 times in 5 minutes!
Sound Design Myth
“All I do is DESIGN SOUNDS ”
50% design, 50% implementation
Asset Management
Organizing Sounds
Sound Miner
Excel Spreadsheet Proficiency
Name files sequentially
Consistency is of the UTMOST importance!