Gregorian Chant, church had power, Hildegard of Bingen, Organum, Guillaume de Machaut, Music of the court vrs the church, Beatriz Countess of Dia,
Medieval Music
most music is monophonic
polyphonic compositions (between two or four parts, non-imitative counterpoint)

monophonic lacks harmony
polyphonic compositions (dissonant chords within phrases, phrases end with open, hollow-sounding harmonies)

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Gregorian chant and early secular songs (no clearly marked rhythms or meter)
Polyphonic compositions (after 1180, triple rhythms and meters)

vocal music predominates
Instruments (little insrumental music survives, unique sound quality, some are ancestors of modern instruments, others became extinct)

Narrow range, conjunct, syllabic vs. Melismatic

Gregorian Chant
A large body of unaccompanied vocal music, setting sacred Latin texts, written for the Western (Roman Catholic) Church over the course of fifteen centuries

Has neither meter nor regular rhythms, monophony, no instruments, men and women couldn’t sing together
Named in honor of Pope Gregory
Contained final and reciting tones that are predecessors of the tonic and dominant
meant to encourage pious reflection

Syllabic singing
only one or two notes for each syllable of text
Melismatic singing
many notes sung to just one syllable
Guido D’Arezzo
Gregorian Chant time
considered the father of modern staff notation
Somization (ut re mi fa) taken from the chat Ut Queant Lasix- eventually became modern sofedge (do re mi fa sol)
Plainchant (plainsong)
Gregorian Chant
the name given to the early polyphony of the Western Church form the 9th- 13th centuries
2,3,or 4 part counterpoint
added to solo portions of chant (sung in long tones, new lines move more quickly)
Only performed by Soloists
Notre Dame School (Leonin and Perotin)
Clerics at Notre Dame of Paris and composers of organum
Magnus Liber Organi (book of religious music)
Rhythmic notation
used to enhance services for special occasions
“organum is early polyphony associated with the Notre Dame School”
created Tenor part in music
Troubadour, Trobairitz, Trouv’ere, Minnesinger
Music of the court, names used to describe poet-musicians who flourished

troubadours (fem trobairitz)
-active in southern France
-largest and most developed tradition
-songs of love that extolled the courtly ideals of faith and devotion
-in vernacular tongue
-no exact rhythm but sung in notes of more or less equal length
-Northern France
-Musical style led to Renaissance chanson
-German secular musicians

period of “rebirth or reawakening”
renewed interest in the teaching, philosophy or the ancient greeks and romans, period of creativity and innovation
a practice or study that focuses on human values and concerns, this was linked to the renewed interest in Greek and Roman texts, in music this means that more emphasis was placed on human creativity. Thus musicians were more highly respected and more well paid than in medieval times
sacred polyphonic composition for voices with latin text, often from psalms, more vivid than those for the mass, music used to heighten meaning of text, not based on plainchant, composition for a choir, intended to be sung either in a church or at home in private devotion
Imitative Counterpoint (polyphony)
a type of counterpoint in which the voices or lines frequently use imitation

each voice duplicates the melody in succession imitation also between paired voices (paired imitation)

polyphony alternates with homophony

most popular dance, slow, gliding dance in duple meter, performed by couples holding hands
fast, leaping dance in triple meter
Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Council of Trent
Reformation 1517
-martin luther and his ninety-five theses
-complaints against the Catholic Church

-reaction of catholic church to protestant reformation
-corrected corruptions of administration and doctrine
-reexamined art, liturgy, and music

Council of Trent 1545-1563
-music a minor party of deliberations objected to textures that obscured text

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
called “the savior of church music”
-showed that clarity and beauty are not mutually exclusive
-master of counterpoint
-Missa Papae Marcelli (mass for pope marcellus)
–Gloria, hymn in honor of the majestic christ
–text is clearly declaimed, sung in homophony (block chords)
–rhythm emphasizes the accents of the latin text Angnus Dei, text remains clear and audible, but Palestrina uses imitation to overlap lines of text more gently
Madrigal (Word painting)
Composition for several solo voices (one on a part, chamber music)
-normally 4-5 parts
-men and women could sing together
-performed by amateur musicians
-popular: 40,000 pieces printed
-text a secular, non-latin, love poem
-vivid imagery of text enhanced by music- word painting
-love poems
music had one dominant melody with accompanying chords meant to sound Good with the melody
-characterized by grandeur, passionate expression of emotions, and drama
-instrumental music rivals vocal music in popularity
-strong recurring beat and use of meter
-dominant melodies with lots of ornamentation
-melodies supported by chord and a strong bass line called basso continuo
a system in which music is organized around a central not and the scale built on that note
-other notes have a hierarchal relationship to the central note
-not all music is tonal, but all modern popular music and the majority of western music since around 1600 is tonal
-central note called the tonic (do)
-establishes tonality
-melodies gravitate around the tonic
-second most important note is the dominant (sol)
-melodies often move from the tonic to the dominant and back again
-the chords based on these notes also have a hierarchal relationship
Basso Continuo
a small ensemble of at least two instrumentalists who provide a foundation for the melody or melodies above; heard almost exclusively in baroque music
an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (called a libretto) and musical score
-sung dialogue (recitative) alternates with songs called arias
-features soloists and orchestra along with costumes, sets, etc
-originated in italy where it flourished
-eventually spread to all of europe
-although some operas are written in other languages (english/french), most are written in italian
-first opera, orfeo, written by claudio mnteverdi in 1607
-plot is advanced by speech-like singing called recitative alternating with songs
the text of an opera
-musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot
-musically heightened speech through which the plot of the opera is communicated to the audience
-performed without a perceptible meter or beat, you can’t tap your foot to it
-an elaborate lyrical song for solo voice
-more passionate, more expansive, and more tuneful than a recitative
-clear meter, more regular rhythms
-conveys what the character feels about those events
-brings the action to a halt so as to focus a spotlight on the emotional state of the singer
-work through text at a more leisurely pace; words are repeated to heighten their dramatic effect, and more important vowels are extended by means of vocal melismas
Early Opera (Claudio Monteverdi, Orfeo, Dido and Aeneas)
Claudio Monteverdi: wrote the first opera ever
Orfeo: first opera 1607
Dido and Aeneas: opera by Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Opera Aria, Dido says goodbye to Belinda (and all) before dying of a broken heart, descending chromatic bass line ostinato represents deep sadness
a male adult singer who had been castrated as a boy to keep his voice from changing so that it would remain in the soprano or alto register
(italian for “obstinate”) a musical figure, motive, melody, harmony, or rhythm that is repeated again and again
Basso Ostinato
a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again
a large instrumental ensemble that plays symphonies, overtures, concertos, and the like
Concerto (ritornello form)
-An instrumental genre in which one or more soloists play with and against a larger orchestra
-Use in baroque concertos, all or part of a main theme returns over and over again, Tutti plays ritornello themes, soloists also called concertino alternates with ritornello, performs virtuosic passages, free number of alternations (determined by composer)
Melodic sequence
the repetition of a musical motive at successively higher or lower degrees of the scale
a composition for three, four, or five parts played or sung by voices or instruments; begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each part and continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint and further appearance of the subject
the term for the principal theme in a fugue
in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject; in sonata-allegro from, the principal section, in which all thematic material is presented
a passage of free, nonimitative counterpoint found in a fugue
pedal point
a note, usually in the bass, sustained or continually repeated for a period of time while the harmonies change around it
1750-1820, age of enlightenment, Formal Clarity, clear tuneful melodies (less ornamented than baroque), simpler homophonic textures, harmony changes less frequently (used broken chords in bass called “alberti bass”, greater variety of characters within a single piece (and more modulation), piano invented, public concerts held
emphasis on scientific reasoning, rationality (reason) over superstition, Philosophers such as Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau, Issac Newton, Benjamin Franklin, Sought to promote reason and rationality in order to reform society, Monarchy had power then aristocracy then church
Alberti Bass
a pattern of accompaniment whereby, instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
a multi-movement work for a solo instrument (or solo instrument and piano)
Sonata-Allegro Form (exposition, development, recapitulation)
used in symphonies, string quartets, concertos and sonatas, the first movement of the symphony

exposition: 2 themes contrasting in key and characters (1st in tonic key, second usually in the key of the dominant)

development: goes through multiple keys, borrows material from the exposition

recapitulation: restates the two themes from the exposition, but this time they are both in the tonic key

String Quartet
a standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a single first and second violin, a viola, and a cello; also the genre of music, usually in three or four movements, composed for this ensemble
a genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also, the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre
Hildegard of Bingen ‘O rubor sanguinis’
(O redness of blood) Medieval Period, composed circa 1150, chant sets Hildegard’s starkly vivid text, Honors St. ursula, predominately melismatic
Henrey Purcell ‘when i am laid in earth’ from ‘dido and aeneas’
Baroque Opera
Genre: opera aria (preceded by brief recitative)
dido says goodbye to belinda (and all) before dying of a broken heart
-descending chromatic bass line ostinato represents deep sadness
Johann pachelbel ‘canon in D major’
Form: canon
Texture: Polyphonic (because of canon)
-use of a bass ostinato throughout the work
Baroque period
Antonio Vivaldi, Violin concerto in E major, ‘no. 1 the spring’ first movement, allegro
1725, late Baroque
-the first of four concertos entitles “the seasons”
-sonnet accompanies each concerto
-early example of program music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, ‘eine kliene natchmusik’ first movement
Genre: string serenade (not a symphony)
form: sonata allegro
Ludwig van Beethoven, ‘the pathetique’ piano sonata, first movement
1798, suggests passion and pathos, more virtuosic than any earlier sonata, emphasizes extremes of dynamics, tempo, and range, slow introduction suggests beethoven’s style of improvisation, crashing chords return throughout the first movement, sonata form controls the passionate intensity
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, first movement
composed between 1804 and 1808, 4-note motive (short-short-short-long) in each movement, heroic style demonstrated in shift from minor to major, increased size of orchestra

form: sonata
fateful encounter with elemental forces

2 themes contrasting in key and characters (1st in tonic key, second usually in the key of the dominant)
goes through multiple keys, borrows material from the exposition
restates the two themes from the exposition, but this time they are both in the tonic key
Much of the music that has survived form the Medieval period is
Sacred music, monophony, vocal music, compositions in Latin
What is early polyphony associated with the Notre Dame School?
Which composers are associated with the Notre Dame School?
Leonin and Perotin
Proper of the Mass
text changes with church calendar
Ordinary of the mass
same text every day
Medieval musical instruments
Hauts: loud instruments used for dance music, included the sackbut, shawm, cornetto, ancestors of the band

Bas: soft instruments, included the flute, recorder, fiddle, harp, ancestors of the orchestra

Regarded as the father of modern musical notation, Guido D’Arezzo developed a system called solmization, which is known today as…
Which language was used for the music of the church?
Sacred Medieval music
church music
Chant: hildegard of Bingen
Organum: leonin and Perotin
Late Medieval Polyphony (mass): Machaut
Secular Medieval music
popular music
court music: troubadors
Biatriz, Countess of Dia, Guillame Dufay
Sacred Renaissance music
church music
motet: josquin DePrez
Mass: Palestrina
Secular Renaissance music
popular music
dance music: Pavane and Galliard
Ionian Mode
major scale
Aeolian mode
Minor scale
What musical developments are from the baroque era?
tonality, Chords, Strong Bass Lines
A music idea that is repeated over and over again is called
an ostinato
In an opera, what is the sung dialogue called that alternates with songs called arias?
Opera developed in which style period?
The Pavane and Galliard are types of Renaissance…?
Which composer, Haydn or Mozart, spent the majority of his career under the patronage of an aristocratic family?
Gregorian chant is primarily in what meter?
no meter
When music actively reflects the vividness of the text, it is called?
word painting
Polyphony during the Renaissance can best be described as
Correct chronological order of the time periods
Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical
Which composer is associated with the Counter-Reformation?
Which music invention is not associated with the baroque era? Alberti Bass, Tonality, Basso Continuo, or Claudio Monteverdi
Alberti Bass
A melodic idea that is repeated as successively higher or lower levels is called a/an
in a fugue, the primary idea or ______ alternates with free sections called ______
subject, episodes
the opening section of the fugue, in which all four voices state the subject, is called the
True or False Mozart wrote the libretto for the Marriage of Figaro
in the marraige of figaro, figaro and susanna are
the aria “se voul ballare” is
expressing figaros anger at the count and a subtle message encouraging revolution against the aristocracy
Beethoven tragically suffered from ___ later in his life
The first movements of Beethoven’s Pathetique Sonata and his 5th Symphoy are in what form?
Sonata Allegro