an even pulse that divides the passing of time into equal units
the speed at which the beats progress (bpm)
the gathering of beats into regular groups
every other beat is stressed ONE two, ONE two, ONE two, two beats per measure
emphasize every third beat ONE two three, ONE two three
Suppressed meter
sometimes the meter is obscured by an unclear beat or complexity
Time Signature
two numbers, one on top of the other, placed at the beginning of the music to tell the performer how the beats of the music are to be grouped. top number indicates how many beats there are per measure; the bottom number tells what note value receives the beat
also called bar, a group of beats
the first beat, indicated by a downward movement of the hand, strongest beat in any given measure
the organization of time in music, divides time into long and short spans
places the accent either on a weak beat or between the beats
the tune of a piece, the part we sing to
Conjunct Melody
stepwise motion, up and down the scale
Disjunct Melody
Movement by leaps
the relative position, high or low, of a musical sound
the number of times a sound wave completes a cycle in a given period of time. measured in Hertz. as the frequency increases, we perceive the pitch to be higher and vise versa. audible range is from 20-20,000 Hz
when one frequency is exactly twice another frequency they form an octave
Whole Step
comprised of two half steps up a scale
Half Step
also called semitones, divide up an octave in the west into 12 equal half steps in a scale
Treble Clef
designates the upper range and is appropriate for high instruments
Bass Clef
covers the lower range and is used for lower instruments
a fixed pattern of tones within the octave that ascends and descends
Major Scale
follows a seven-note pattern moving upward
usually associated with joy and happiness
Minor Scale
usually associated with fear and sorrow
Chromatic Scale
makes use of all twelve pitches, equally divided, within the octave. all twelve pitches are just a half step apart
Whole Tone
a musical interval of two semitones
something like a “gravitational field” that embodies both the scale of the melody and the strong pull of its tonic pitch
changing the key within a composition
a distinct section of a melody
may be marked by commas in lyrics, breaths, rests, or the shape of the melody
analogous to phrases in speech
ends with a cadence
results when multiple pitches sound simultaneously, provides support and foundation for the melody, adds depth and richness
an organized set of major or minor notes sounded simultaneously
basic western chord, consists of three pitches built off any note of the scale, using every other note (1,3,5)
Chord Progression
a movement of chords in a purposeful fashion, easiest to hear in bass first, chords can only harmonize a small number of melody notes, so in order to keep the harmony consonant with the melody, chords must continually change
broken or staggered chord, notes played sequentially to give a sense of activity, can be played in the melody or harmony
when the frequencies of the two notes do not have a simple ratio

pitches sounding momentarily disagreeable and unstable, chords that contain pitches that are very close to one another, just a half or whole step apart sound dissonant, feeling of tension and anxiety in music

when the frequencies of the two notes have a simple ratio 2:1, 3:2, 5:4, sound is pleasing
ex: the octave, the perfect 5th, the perfect 4th
chords that involve a third, produce sense of calmness and stability
a short, distinctive melodic figure that stands by itself, serves as the basis for creating melodies
Tonic (I)
the first of the seven notes of the scale, and the eighth, and last one as well
built on the first degree of the scale, provides rest and sense of arrival
the central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate
Dominant (V)
built on the fifth degree of the scale, tends to move to the tonic
the various levels of volume, loud and soft, at which sounds are produced
Dynamic Terms
Fortissimo=very loud ff
forte=loud f
mezzo forte= moderately loud mf
mezzo piano= moderately soft mp
piano= soft p
pianissimo= very soft pp
Growing louder <
Growing softer >
range that determines dynamics in music
the tone quality of musical sound. Terms of sensation in which a listener can judge that two sounds having the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar. determined largely by the spectrum and temporal pattern
Tone Color
the tone quality of any sound produced by a voice or instrument
ex: difference between flute and trombone playing the same note
more than one sound is produced when an instrument is sounded.

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Fundamental: the note being played
Harmonics: faintly-heard pitches, created by fractional vibrations when a note is played on an instrument

each instrument produces a unique pattern of loud and soft harmonics

the onset of a sound (aka the beginning of the note)
density and arrangement of artistic elements
disposition of musical lines
ex: dense, heavy, light, thin
one sounding, single line of music, no accompaniment, multiple people sing or play the same line
many sounding, Counterpoint: harmonious opposition of independent musical lines, tow or more independent lines sounding simultaneously
melody and accompaniment, melody is most important, other voices create supporting harmony
most common texture used in chorales, hymns, christmas, carols, folk songs
Free Counterpoint (polyphony)
each line a different, independent melody, common in jazz improvisation, particularly New Orleans early jazz
Imitative counterpoint (polyphony)
voices duplicate some portion of the previous voice, but all voices move independently
canon: voices exactly duplicate the preceding voice
fugue: less strict than a canon, but still imitative
Romantic Era (Characteristics, composers, pieces)
Aestetics: Emotion, Passionate self-expression, wonders of nature, fantasy, longing, despair, original, individual, express higher truth, supernatural

composers: Franz Liszt, Frederic Chopin, Franz Schubert
Melody: broad sweeping themes, very lyrical, meant to sweep the listener away, phases are longer and irregular
Rhythm: More flexible, rubato
Harmony: more colorful harmonies, chromatic notes and harmonies, more use of dissonance, bold harmonic shifts
Form: extended existing forms, new genres: art song and symphonic poem, character piece, brief binary or ternary form, essence of a single mood

Rubato (romantic era)
“stolen time” or slightly speeding up and slowing down for expressive purposes

Italian for robbed, in musical notation, a tempo mark indicating the performer may take, or steal, great liberties with the tempo

Art Song (romantic era)
Composition for solo voice and piano accompaniment
Lied- german term for art song
Strong bond between music and poetry, music intensifies the poetry, expresses emotions without words, “fills in” what words can’t express
Frederic Chopin
(1810-1849 romantic era) Polish, studied at Warsaw Conservatory, found his lyrical style early, left warsaw for vienna then paris

Aurore Dudevant: Baroness and novelist, patron of the arts, became lover and protector

Tour of England and Scotland weakened health and ultimately led to death by turberculosis

Introverted, preferred intimate performance settings and gave few lessons, made his career in Paris, among the elite, made money teaching, publishing, performed for small gatherings

compositions: primarily composed for the piano, many based on polish folk dances

Franz Liszt
(1811-1886 romantic era)
Born in hungary to german-speaking parents, flamboyant, artistic, rock-star persona, compositions demand great virtuosity, played more than 1000 concerts, audience response was sensational, often hysterical, established the modern piano recital, played from memory, pianist in profile view, created the symphonic poem, spent his last years in the vatican
‘Study’, short, one-movement composition designed to improve playing technique of students
Absolute Music
No story or program- the meaning lies in the music itself. Void of any extraneous references
Program Music
music that depicts in sound the events and emotions of something external to the music: a story, play, legend, poem, place, etc
Mazurka in B-flat major, op. 7, No.1
Composer: Frederic Chopin
Fast, triple-meter polish dance, accents the second beat melody=draws upon native folk tunes
harmony=drones imitate traditional bagpipes, interesting and unexpected harmonic inflections, contains rubato
Der Erlkong
Composer: Franz Schubert
Text: by Goethe

a dramatic tale of horror, romantic fascination with the supernatural displayed
-piano accompaniment suggests the galloping horse
-elf king sings a seductive line
-terrified boy sings in upper range
-father sings in lower, reassuring range
-minor key
-the child’s cry increases in pitch and with dissonant harmonies as the song progresses

Story of father on horseback racing to save his sons life and the son drifting away towards death and hallucinating the elf king

Johannes Brahms
(1833-1897 romantic era)
One of the ‘3 Bs’: Bach, Beethoven, Brahms
Output is modest because he always felt himself to be in the shadow of Beethoven
Champion of Absolute music. Used traditional musical forms inherited from Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven
Preferred contrapuntal development of themes
Hector Berlioz
(1803-1869 romantic era)
Studied to become a doctor, but quit to study composition in Paris. father cut off financial support, first composer to earn a livelihood as a music critic and journalist

Skilled in orchestration (the choice of instruments). Made use of the new instruments and colors, influenced by literature, especially shakespeare

Symphony Fantastique
(1827-1830) Includes new instruments and novel playing effects: Col legno
the first program symphony, program by Berlioz
Harriet smithson inspired the theme, Berlioz’s unrequited love, rejection, and despair provided the imaginative stimulus for the symphony
Five movements: form based on the program, Unifying theme: Idee fixe (fixed idea) represents the beloved
-a single melody that reappears as a unifying force, movement after movement, a total of 8 times holds the piece together
-written program to be read as the music was performed. it tells the story of unrequited love, attempted suicide, imaginary murder, and hellish revenge

1st movement: represents the author/hero going about his business before seeing his love for the first time
2nd movement:”the ball” the author tries to go about his normal life, but he is haunted with visions of his beloved
3rd movement: the author is in the countryside and hears two shepherds calling to each other and is comforted that he will no longer be alone. After a few moments of peace, however, he is tormented by the idea that she will betray him. At the end, only one shepherd is left. Thunder rolls in the distance
4th movement: “march to the scaffold” in his despair, the hero, poisons himself with opium. as the drug takes effect, he imagines that he has killed his beloved and that he is executed
5th movement: “dreams of witches sabbath” the hero is in the midst of a hideous gathering of witches and ghosts that dance over him (supposedly he is in hell)

Dies Irae
Day of Wrath- used in mass for the dead. used frequently by composers and in movies

A gregorian chant composed in the 13th century and used as the central portion of the requiem mass of the catholic church

dramatic dance in which characters and steps tell a story. First performed as diversion in the middle of operas

an art form that uses dance and music, along with costume and scenery, to tell a story and display emotions through expressive gestures and movement

Tchaikovsky: Swan lake (1876), Sleeping beauty (1889) The Nutcracker (1892)

Peter Tchaikovsky
(1840-1893 romantic era)
Most prolific writer of late-nineteenth-century program music. wrote in every genre, but known today for program music (1812 Overture, Romeo and Juliet tone poem) and Ballets. Known as an incredible melodist (melody writer). Troubled personal life (homosexual in an intolerant culture, died suddenly, probably of cholera)

Talents uniquely suited to ballet: short-segment style: could create one striking melody/mood after another. regular pulse also critical to dance music

Bel Canto Opera
Italian, literally means “beautiful singing”. emphasized beautiful vocal melodies rather than dramatic force and orchestral color. little or no counterpoint. orchestra provides simple harmonic support, like strumming a guitar, exalted the leading operatic singers. soprano normally the heroine. called the prima donna or diva (goddess)

features the beautiful tone and brilliant technique of the human voice

Style exemplified in the operas of Giachino Rossini.

Symphony Fantastique Mvt. 5 “Dreams of a Witches Sabbath”
Composer: Hector Berlioz
Genre: Program Symphony

The hero is in the midst of a hideous gathering of witches and ghosts that dance over him (supposedly he is in hell). Parado of the idee fixe (beloved). Dies irae chant melody after church bells

the burial hymn of the medieval church, the Dies Irae, played by ophicleides (tubas) and bassoons
-the witches enter one by one creating a fugato
-contains double counterpoint

The Nutcracker, “Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy”
Composer: Peter Tchaikovsky
Celesta melody over pizzicato strings
Ternary form (aba)
Duple meter
rippling glissandos and static harmony build expectation of return to opening music
La Traviata Cabaletta “Sempre Libera”
Composer: Giuseppi Verdi
Genre: Aria

“The woman gone astray”
based on the story by alexandre dumas
-based on the authors real-life experience
-story pits passionate love against middle-class morality
-Violetta based on Marie Duplessis
-Alfredo and Violetta are the characters
+”Kept woman”, lover of both Dumas and LIszt
+Died from tuberculosis at 23
+loosely inspired the plot to Moulin Rouge

Act 1, scene 6:
slow aria (“ah forse lui, maybe he’s the one”)
recitativo accompagnato (Follie!, Folly!)
Cabaletta (Sempre LIbera, always free)
+fast paced concluding aria
+allows character to rush off stage
+Virtuosity serves a dramatic purpose

Prelude to the afternoon of a faun
Composer: Claude Debussy
Genre: Tone Poem (symphonic poem)
Form: Ternary (ABA with coda)
Ensemble: Orchestra
Considered a turning point in music history because it barely clings to tonality
-based on a poem by stephane Mallarme about the midafternoon exploits of Pan, and mythical faun
-very erotic subject matter veiled in symbolic language
-muscial “climaxes” are consistently evaded at the last minute
-the faun is not a young deer but a satyr (a mythological beast that is half man, half goat) who spends his days in lustful pursuit of the nymphs of the forest
Giuseppi Verdi
most popular opera composer throughout europe. his operas performed more than any others
Early operas: dramas support political revolution and freedom: Viva Verdi (vittorio emanuele re ditalia) promoted a united italy

Middle period (La Traviata, 1853): dramas turned to domestic themes and personal conflict
Last two operas based on shakespearean dramas (Otello, Flastaff)

Style: Dramaturgy (dramatic style)
-conflict-personal or national- the root of every emotion
-clear expression of emotion
-emotional states not subtle, but direct and exaggerated
-“there is only one thing the public will not tolerate in the theater: boredom”
Musical style:
-intense passion and nonstop action
-Recitativo accompagnato
+orchestra accompanies the recitative
+smooth transitions between recitative and aria
-arias push singers to the upper limits of their range

Giacomo Puccini
(1858-1924 romantic era)
Heir to the tradition of Verdi, concluded the golden century of italian opera. Graduated form the Milan Conservatory, lived in poverty, achieved success at the age of 35, grew famous, wealthy, and complacent, last opera: Turnadot, unfinished at his death

most famous opera: La Boheme, plot based on the musical RENT, explores the bohemian lifestyle, love , hope and despair, music transcends the limitations of the drama

Richard Wagner
(1813-1883 romantic era)
German opera composer, inspired extreme reactions, exerted enormous influence, a determined, ruthless visionary.

Composer, philosopher, politician, propagandist, and innovator. Cult-like following, but also disgust from some audiences, known especially for music-dramas (operas). Unsuccessful in Paris, returned to Germany (Dresden) with limited success, struggles with debt, saved form financial ruin by King Ludwig II of Bavaria, ludwig also financed building a theater at Bayreuth exclusively for wagner

Works: Ring cycle (Opera based on German mythology)
Style: Gesamtkunstwerk
+”Total art work”
+combines poetry, music, acting, dance, and visual arts
+creates a more cohesive drama (no sudden stops to spotlight soloist)
+Seamless flow of music (endless melody)
+Eliminates tuneful arias
+heightens importance of orchestra
+a brief, distinctive unit of music
+represents a character, object or idea
+Usually played by the orchestra
+Suggests the character’s subconscious thought
+Multiple leitmotifs can appear simultaneously

George Bizet
(1838-1875) spent most of his life in Paris as primarily an opera composer
+a brief, distinctive unit of music
+represents a character, object or idea
+Usually played by the orchestra
+Suggests the character’s subconscious thought
+Multiple leitmotifs can appear simultaneously

A brief, distinctive unit of music designed to represent a character, object, or idea; a term applied to the motives in the music dramas of richard wagner lento:

Realistic Opera. Part of a late-Romantic movement (the ugle and vulgar have aesthetic value)
Social Realism
+characters from the poorer social stratum
+depicts a gritty, violent view of life
Movements in France and Italy

“realism” opera; the italian term for a type of late-nineteenth century opera in which the subject matter concerns the unpleasant realities of everyday life

What makes a work tonal?
1- use major and minor scales (its in a key)
2- use of chords build from thirds (derived form the major or minor scale)
3- Bass line that grounds the composition
4- Most importantly; central note to which other notes must return
Georges Bizet (1875) Verismo
-based on Merimee’s 1845 novel: realistic, like a travel memoir set in spain
-title character is femme fatale
-worlds most popular opera
+”Thing from Havana”
+Dance song
+Two characteristic rhythms
an afro-cuban dance song that came to prominence in the 19th century, marked by a repeating bass and a repeating syncopated rhythm
Stretching tonality
Other Scales
-whole tone (all whole steps): have no “pull” because there are no half steps
-Pentatonic: only 5 notes, half steps often removed
-Built on other intervals such as the 4th or 5th
-some composers abandoned chords altogether
-tone clusters: chords using consecutive notes of the scale
Dispensed with the triad (chord build on thirds) as a structural principle

music without tonality; music without a key center; most often associated with the 20th century avant-garde style of Arnold Schoenberg

Impressionist painters: give the suggestion or impression of something- not literal detail

composers: Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel

late 19th century movement that arose in France, the impressionists were the first to reject photographic realism in painting, instead trying to re-create the impression that an object produces upon the senses in a single, fleeting moment

an antique record player, the sound of the vibrating needle is amplified acoustically
Claude Monet
(1840-1903) impressionist painter from Paris
rebelled against the traditional academic style of their native France. mounted his own exhibition when the French academy of fine arts rejected his work

rejected photographic realism in painting
tried to re-create the impression that an object produced upon the senses in a single, fleeting moment

Maurice Ravel
1875-1937 French Impressionist often linked to Debussy. Known for brilliant orchestration
Best known works:
-Rhapsodie Espanole
-Daphnis and Chloe
Borrowing “exotic” music features from other cultures

use of sounds drawn from outside the traditional western european musical experience, popular among composers in late-nineteenth-century europe

at the beginning of the 20th century, composers increasingly turned against classical and romantic norms and turned to harsh, percussive, impersonal sound. Melodies became more angular and harmonies more dissonant
Igor Stravinsky
Modernist (1882-1971) created opera, ballet, symphony, concerto, church mass, and cantata
-born in russia>paris>venice>lausanne>new york>hollywood= international fame as a composer of ballet music
-developed neo-classicism: which emphasized classical forms and smaller ensembles of the sort that had existed in the Baroque and Classical periods
-developed the twelve-tone technique of schoenberg
-music is lean, clean, and cool
-instrumental colors are not “homogenized” sounds, as when the winds and strings together join on a single line, but rather distinctly separate colors
-Rhythm is the vital element in his style
-strong beat but often metrically irregular
-builds complexity by requiring independent meters and rhythms to sound simultaneously
Arnold Shoenberg
(1874-1951) Profoundly important composer and theorist, created atonal music, second viennese school: Schoenberg, alban berg, and anton webern. Father of 12-tone composition
Rite of Spring
Stravinsky’s masterpiece
built on a russian folktale
modern dance with angular poses and abrupt, jerky motions
rhythms and chords that explode with a primordial force
-Percussive orchestra: percussion section enlarged. bright, brittle, brutal sounds by percussion, heavy woodwinds, and brasses
-irregular accents: places sounds on uaccented beats, creates explosive syncopations
-polymeter: superimposes two or more different meters simultaneously, polymeter
-polyrhythm: six distinct rhythms can be heard. the simultaneous sounding of two or more rhythms
-ostinato figures: instruments play the same motive over and over at the same pitch level
-dissonant polychords: the simultaneous sounding of one triad or seventh chord with another
Genre: Ballet music
12-tone Method
-Free atonality only works for smaller compositions because it lacks form
-12 tone method provides structure without tonality
-based on a tone row:
+consists of all twelve notes in a unique order for each composition
+no note repetition until the entire row is played
+row order consistent through entire composition

Transforming the row:
-Prime (or original)
+row played as it was conceived
+direction of interval (up or down) changed
-retrograde inversion
-may be transposed in any of these forms

a method of composing music, devised by arnold schoenberg, that has each of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale sound in a fixed, regularly recurring order

Aaron Copland
studied in paris (1921-1924): learned 12-tone compositional technique, noticed that dissonance and atonality alienated ordinary citizens and abandoned this style
-adopted a distinctly american style designed to appeal to the average concert goes: incorporated Jazz and american folk elements, turned to western and rural themes
-influence on many, particularly in film music
-melodies based on folk and popular tunes
-harmony: tonal and slow harmonic movement, widely spaced texture softens dissonance and creates an open, expansive sound
-Timbre: keeps instruments in family groups, solid bass, thin middle, and a clear, high treble
-anti-englightenment values: difference, plurality, and skepticism
-technology: internet, globalization
-Blurring of “high” and “low” culture: eclecticism and irony, iconoclasm
-Neo-teleological (objectiveless) forms, and “neo-s”: aleatory (chance) music/minimalism, Neo-romanticism, Neo-Baroque, etc.
-The period with schoenberg and stravinsky isoften called “modernist”
Edgard Varese
Came to the US for more modern environment: burned all his previous compositions
-innovator in electronic music: musique concrete
-influence extended from John Cage to Frank Zappa, the Beatles, and Pink Floyd
-Poeme electronique (1958): a landmark in electronic music, played on 425 speakers at multimedia exhibit at 1958 Worlds Fair in Brussels
John Cage
-the leading proponent of chance music: unpredictable sequence of musical events, questions the principles of western music: form, unity, meaning, expression, goal-orientation, expert in mycology (mushrooms)
-created the prepared piano: objects inserted on and around the strings, radically alters the timbre, piano becomes a percussion instrument
-4’33”: consists of three movements of silence, designed to heighten awareness of environmental sounds (noise)
Began in the early 1960s
-aesthetic: rejected modernism and neo-romanticism, reduction to the most essential elements
-Musical style: influenced by jazz, rock, and non-western music, influential to many groups such as Velvet Underground and Radiohead, simplified rhythm, melody, and harmony: incessant repetition of small motives, tonal, consonant harmony
-Philip Glass: metamorphosis five

a style of modern music that takes a very small amount of musical material and repeats it over and over to form a composition

Musique Concrete
Working directly with recorded sounds, not with musical notation and performers

sampling: sounds/music recorded on tape and incorporated into new pieces

music in which the composer works directly with sounds recorded on magnetic tape, not with musical notation and performers

Prepared Piano
objects inserted on and around the strings
radically alters the timbre
piano becomes a percussion instrument

a piano outfitted with screws, bolts, washers, erasers, and bits of felt and plastic to transform the instrument from a melodic one to a percussive one

African Diaspora (definition and musical traits)
Slaves were not allowed to bring material culture with them (physical objects including musical instruments)
-they still brought many aspects of culture
-the movement of africans and their descendants to other parts of the world (not limited to slavery)
-with any diaspora, there is cultural transfer

The Jalolu of West Africa: a jali is a musical historian of the Madinka people (mali)
Kora: a 21 stringed, plucked instrument
The talking drum (dondon): many ethnic groups in west africa have rich drumming traditions. here is a demonstration of the talking drum (called various things)

African music in america: Slaves were not permitted to bring instruments with them, drumming was forbidden because it could be used to communicate secrets, no one african tradition can be directly linked to black music in the united states, slaves developed field calls, work songs, and spirituals (often with hidden meanings)

important musical concepts:
-call and response-the leader sings a short phrase followed by a response from the chorus
-pitch bending- raising or lowering of the pitches to reach the “in between” notes
-importance of rhythm

The Blues (12 bar Blues)
Style of music and a musical form that originated in the american south (mississippi delta) in the late 19th and early 20th century
-“blues” comes from the blue devils (or blue spirits) of sadness, melancholy, etc.
-lyrics about everyday life: sex (mostly good), love (gone bad), money (not having it), etc.

12 bar blues:
-chord progression that repeats for each stanza of text: A: i was with you baby when you did not have a dime, A: i was with your baby when you did not have a dime, B: now since you got plenty money you have throw’d your good gal down

instrumental response: a short instrumental response to the voice: as in spirituals or work songs that include call-and-response

Blues scale: used in place of major/minor
Stanzas: A response A response B response
Chord: I IV I V I
measure: A (1-4) A (5-6) response (7,8) B (9,10) response (11,12)

Blues: an expressive, soulful style of singing that emerged from the african-american spiritual and work song at the end of the nineteenth century; its texts are strophic, its harmonies simple and repetitive

Twelve-bar blues: a standard formal plan for the blues involving a repeating twelve-measure harmonic support in which the chords can progress I-IV-IV-I

Scott Joplin (1868-1917) “the entertainer” “maple leaf rag”
Jelly Roll Morton (1885-1941)

an early type of jazz emerging in the 1890s and characterized by a steady bass and a syncopated, jazzy treble

New Orleans
Early Jazz (also called dixieland, trad= traditional jazz)
-frontline-clairnet, trumpet, trombone
-rhythm- piano, banjo, tuba (later bass), drums or washboard
-louis armstrong

a style of jazz that originated in that city shortly after 1900, involving a syncopated, improvisatory style of playing built on the tunes and harmonies of blues, parlor songs, rags, and marches

dance big bands
Palomer Ballroom-August 21, 1935
Benny Goodman Band
Played “hot” arrangements rather than conservative and commercial arrangements
slow/medium tempos
focus on arrangement

a mellow, bouncy, flowing style of jazz that originated in the 1930s

Early 1940’s in New York
musician’s music
focus on soloists rather than arrangements
Charlie “bird” parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonius Monk, Bud Powell, Kenny Clarke

Fast, focus on soloists, no vibrato

a complex, hard-driving style of jazz that emerged shortly after WWII; played without musical notation by a small ensemble

Cool Jazz
Began in the 1950s
reaction against Bebop
focused more on melody and arrangements with complex harmonies
also termed “west coast jazz”
more even sounding

Miles Davis, John Coltrane

a style of jazz that emerged in the 1950s that is softer, more relaxed, and less frenzied than bebop cornet

Fusion Jazz
the blending of jazz and rock/funk rhythms
drums play straight, non-swinging rhythm
electronic instruments
electronic effects on instruments
heavy weather, miles davis, chick corea

new jazz style of the late 1960s that incorporated elements of rock

Bessie Smith
“empress of the blues”
sold 2 million records her first year
highest-paid black artist of the day
died in a car accident
Louis Armstrong
nicknamed “satchmo” and “pops”
recorded with Hot Five and Hot Seven
scat singing
Broadway/Musicals (early influences) *****
Minstrel Shows:

Tin-Pan Alley: largest cluster of music stores in the united states was in NYC, in an area near broadway and west 28th st. so numerous and noisy were the song pluggers in this locale that they sounded like a crowd banging on tin cans

musicals: a popular genre of musical theatre designed to appeal to a general audience by means of spoken dialogue, songs, and energetic dances, emerged shortly after 1900

“La Vie Boheme”
1996 by Jonathan Larson
-plot is based on the opera “La Boheme” by Puccini
-updated to reflect modern issues: AIDS/HIV instead of tuberculosis, GLBT issues reflected in the character Angel
-noted for its handling of current controversial issues
Generally considered the first american musical
-about racial issues and life on the mississippi
-premiered in 1927, written by Jerome Kerne
-lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein
-Hammerstein is most well known for working with Rogers on such famous musicals as My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, Oklahoma, and many more
-includes strains of uniquely american music- specifically blues, jazz, and the negro spiritual
West Side story
Leonard Bernstein
-based on romeo and juliet
-incorporated elements of jazz and latin music
-feuding between the Italian “Jets” and the Puerto Rican “Sharks” in New York City
Film Music (early history)
-technically refers to the sound tracks
-includes original film scores, classical or pop music used in the music, sound effects, and dialogue
-terminology is confusing because we purchase “soundtracks” to films that only include film scoring and songs used in the movie

-earliest film had no sound
-accompaniment was improvised by a live pianist
-the Jazz Singer (1927)- first feature length “talkie”: music was a grab bag of popular music, traditional songs, classical music, many thought films would abandon music once sound was used, it become clear that the audience wanted music
-The Broadway Melody (1929)- first movie to fully integrate music, dance, and plot

the composer and director meet and go through the process of “spotting”= where initial decisions are made about where to put music
each musical insertion into a film

A thing said or done that serves as a signal to an actor or other performer to enter or to begin their speech or performance.

Game Music (development)
-music was originally played by a separate source outside of the gaming system
-tones could be produced by the computer chips inside of the gaming system
-initially only a few tones could be produced at one time
-early gaming systems did not have the capacity to play recorded instrumental music while running the game
-modern gaming systems can handle pre recorded music much like a film or TV show
-for some games you can import your own music
Early Rock and Roll
origins to rhythm and blues, blues, boogie woogie, gospel, and country, duple meter, featured expressive solo singing. lively upbeat aesthetic
-drums, electric guitars and basses create a more aggressive sonic textures, saxophones added expressive “wailing” sound, and often the lyrics were as much shouted as sung
-songs became anthems of defiance for the radio-listening baby boomers
-Elvis Presley, Alan Freed
-the mature style of rock’n’roll was an amalgam of black rhythm and blues and a broad array of urban and rural influences, some african-american, some white
-lyrics tend to focus on political or social issues and romantic love
-rock music is the broader international genre that emerged from the 1960’s onward
-rock’n’roll to be early rock from the 1950’s
-others consider rock’n’roll and rock to be the same thing
Chuck Berry
(1926-present) American guitarist, singer, and songwriter, and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music.
-redefined and developed rhythm and blues into the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive with lyrics focusing on teen life and consumerism and utilizing guitar solos and showmanship that would be a major influence on subsequent rock music
-Born in Missouri to a middle class family always liked music, went to prison for transporting an underage girl across state lines
-known as one of the greatest rock musicians of all time
-exposed to black and white music
-learned jimmie rodgers songs play for the white audiences, but also tried them out on black audiences
“johnny B. Goode”
Elvis Presley
(1935-1977) began playing “hillbilly music”, combined authentic genres of both black and white american musical traditions
-had 149 hits on billboards “hot 100”
-reached iconic status around the globe not only because of his unmistakable sound of his rich, baritone voice but also through his gyrating style of dancing, seen in numerous television broadcasts and in over 30 feature films
-known as the “king” of rock and roll
-born in mississippi and moved to TN
-influenced by country, blues, r
-would go to beale street to hear blues groups, highly influenced by black culture
-signed by sam phillips of sun records who was looking to bring black music to a white audience
-self-titled debut album helped to define rock and roll- yielded the hit “blue suede shoes”
The Beatles
band had an unparalleled effect on the music and culture of the world. they started out playing and recording covers but soon developed their own sound
-greatly expanded the boundaries of popular music, their recorded output included astonishingly original music in a great variety of genres: rhythm and blues, gospel, country blues, broadway show tunes, novelty tunes, psychedelic rock, and even indian raga
-from liverpool, england
-john lennon (rhythm guitar, vocals)
-Paul McCartney (bass guitar, vocals)
-George Harrison (lead guitar, vocals)
-Ringo Starr (drums, vocals)
-had initial success in the UK
-first U.S. single “i want to hold your hand” was released december 1963
-the beatles arrival in NY in feb 1963 was a huge success
-use of looped tape back grounds and musique concrete
-unconventional instrumentations (eleanor rigby)
-lucy in the sky with diamonds
+mixed meter
+use of tamboura (drone from classical indian music)
-Sgt. Pepper’s lonely hearts club band 1967 sometimes credited with ushering the psychedelic rock movement
(in popular music and jazz) A short repeated phrase, frequently played over changing chords or used as a background to a solo improvisation.
-a short ostinato that becomes the basis of an entire composition
-can be the hook, but often is in the background
a musical idea, often a short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to “catch the ear of the listener”.[1] The term generally applies to popular music, especially rock music, hip hop, dance music, and pop. In these genres, the hook is often found in, or consists of, the chorus. A hook can, in general, be either melodic or rhythmic, and often incorporates the main motif for a piece of music.
-a repeated rhythm, lyric, or melody that “hooks” the listener- the part you remember
-often the chorus, but could be a riff, a phrase, or something else
reusing (and often repeating) portions of a previous sound recording in a new song
sound processing that involves the rhythmical manipulation of a vinyl record
Electric Guitar
first electrically amplified guitar 1931 by george beauchamp
-traditionally rock and roll has two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), bass (first string then electric) and drums
The Rite of Spring (The augurs of Spring)
Composer: Igor Stravinsky
-Ballet premiered by the Ballet Russe in 1913
-Choreographed by Nijinsky
-Produced by Diaghilev
-Caused a riot at its premiere in Paris
-scenes from pagan russia
-plot: a girl is chosen to dance herself to death in sacrifice to ensure the coming of spring
Symphony No. 5 Mvt. 4
Composer: Dimitri Shostakovich
-composed after his first denunciation
-a huge success
-more conservative in style
-toned down his modernist tendencies
-in order to keep himself out of trouble, the symphony needed to end triumphantly
-this meant ending in a major key
-opening is fast and triumphant, but still minor
-comes to a screeching halt
-finally reaches major and the end but painfully
Appalachian Spring, VII, “Calm and Flowing. Scenes of daily activity for the bride and her farmer husband”
Composer: Aaron Copeland (1944)
-composed for choreographer Martha Graham
-a “pioneer celebration” set in the early 1800s
-19th-centruy shaker tune
-theme and variations form
“Lost your Head Blues”
By: Bessie Smith
-twelve-bar blues
-five choruses
-recorded in 1926 in NY
-melody: varies above the repeating bass by means of vocal inflections and off-key shadings
-form: Strophic
-Genre: 12 bar blues
“West End Blues”
By: Louis Armstrong
12 bar blues composition
considered one of the masterpieces of early jazz
louis plays trumpet and does some relaxed scat singing backed by his Hot Five band. Armstrong’s eight-bar trumpet solo near the end of the record considered among the finest recordings in jazz history
“Tonight” from West Side Story
By: Leonard Bernstein
the past, present, and future all seem to converge in a world made suddenly beautiful by the presence of the beloved
tempo: continuously fluctuates, as slower, lyrical phrases rapidly quicken with intense emotion and then slow down again
-the melodies are underscored by punchy, syncopated accompaniment in the brass and strings, evoking latin musical styles in reference to marias background
-characters: tony and maria, love duet
Mario Brothers Theme Song
By: Koji Kondo
-highest selling game for many years
-most recognized video game music
-theme song is considered iconic
Hound Dog
By: Elvis Presley
12-bar blues
listed as one of the greatest songs of all time
most famous version is an upbeat tempo that presley slowed down to half tempo on the final verse
pop, country, rhythm and blues
used in many soundtracks
-on the milton berle show 1956
Hey Jude
By: The Beatles
-evolved from “hey jules” a song written by Lennon to help his son julian through his divorce
-verse bridge structure
-after the fourth verse, the song shifts to a fade-out coda that lasts for more than four minutes
-when it was written it was the longest single ever to top billboard charts
-sold 8 million copies
-changed the name to Jude because it was easier to sing
-Paul McCartney sings and plays piano
-based on F, C, and B-flat (I, V, IV)
-four verse, two-bridge song
Breaking Tonality
Obscuring or obliterating the central note
-obscured by the chromatic scale
-weakened by the whole tone scale
-polytonality: more than one central note
-no central note at all
Musical innovations:
-rhythmic conplexity
-creative dissonance (poly chords)
-used instruments in new ways
Scat Singing
singing with nodescript syllables
louis armstrong, ella fitzgerald
big band
instrumentation: 5 saxophones, 4 trumpets, 4 trombones, rhythm section= piano, bass, drums

dance bands (swing bands)
-charts tended to be simpler
-role was music to dance to
-Glenn Miller, Count Basie, benny Goodman
concert jazz bands
-more complex arrangements
-role was to be listened to
-Duke Ellington

Rock music
-during and after the 1960’s
-sub genres: folk rock, country rock, blues rock, jazz fusion rock, psychedelic rock, punk rock, progressive rock, glam rock, heavy metal,new wave, post punk, alternative rock, grunge, britpop, indie rock, pop punk, rap rock, rap metal
-has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
Country Music
-originating from the rural south of the USA during the 1920’s
-includes influences from various european styles: irish fiddle, italian mandolin, spanish guitar, and west african banjo
-originally called hillbilly music
-famous country artist: hank williams, sr, pasty cline, johnny cash, leann rimes, faith hill, tim mcgraw
-internationally recognized style in the 1990s starting with billy ray cyrus and garth brooks
-strong tradition of song writing
-early influential country artists:
jimmie rodgers
+among the first country music stars
+known for his rhythmic yodeling
Carter Family
+american folk music group (1927-1956)
+comprised of A.P carter, his wife sara, and his sister in law-maybelle
+maybelle guitar playing became the hallmark for the group
Alan Freed
“moon dog”
-american disc-jockey (DJ) known for playing a mix of blues, country, and rhythm and blues he called rock and roll
-rock and roll was a slang term for sex
-music became increasingly popular with white audiences
heavy metal
-emerged in the late 60s and early 70s out of the psychedelic rock movement
-early groups” led zepplin, black sabbath, deep purple
-70’s: Judas priest, iron maiden
-80s: metallica, anthrax, still continues today
-uses lots of distortion
-hard, driving rhythm
-riff based
-influenced by classical composers: back, vivaldi, wagner
-modal harmony and pedal points
-use of the power chord
punk rock
-developed in the mid 1970s
-reaction against the excess of the other genres
-shorter, simpler songs
-bare bones arrangements-DIY attitude
-nasal or sometimes shouted vocals
-sex pistols, ramones, patti smith, blondie, green day, blink 182
-joan jett “godmother” of punk
which of these is not true about music in the romantic era?
a. the harmonies were more dissonant than the classical era
b. emphasis was placed on reason over emotion
c. rubato was used frequently
d. melodies were lush and lyrical
which of these composers did not die young?
A. Chopin
B. Schubert
What nationality was chopin?
A. Polish
B. French
C. German
D. English
“Der Erlkonig” by Franz Schubert is an example of what genre?
A. Madrigal
B. Tone Poem
C. Symphony
D. Art Song
Which composer was a 19th century rock star, causing women to go hysterical whenever he performed?
A. Chopin
B. Liszt
C. Schubert
D. Schumann
While the classical era focused on _____, the romantic era was more concerned with _______
a. reason; emotion
b. opera; symphonies
c. mozart; bach
d. emotion; reason
the idee fixe in berlioz’s syphonie fantastique represents:
a. death
b. opium
c. his love interest
d. two shepherds
Which of these is NOT a ballett by Tchaikovsky?
A. Sleeping beauty
B. The Nutcracker
C. Don Juan
D. Swan Lake
This polish pianist was known to be introverted. he drew inspiration from polish national dances
a. liszt
b. brahms
c. chopin
d. tchaikovsky
Tchaikovsky is known for writing____
a. symphonies
b. program music
c. ballets
d. all of the above
In Italy, who is the most famous and successful composer of opera during the romantic period?
a. wagner
b. verdi
c. bizet
Which romantic composer is known for his use of leifmotifs?
a. brahms
b. wagner
c. verdi
d. bizet
Which style emphasized tuneful melodies and vocal virtuosity?
a. verismo
b. bel canto
c. singspiel
Who wrote the opera Carmen?
a. bizet
b. wagner
c. verdi
In schubert’s Der Erlkonig, the three characters are sung by:
a. a choir
b. the same singer
c. three soloists
Which of the following is NOT a way that composure stretched or broke tonality?
a. used the whole tone scale instead of major and minor
b. used polytonality
c. strengthened the bass line
d. built chords off of fourths and fifths
music in the 20th century has one unified style
a. true
b. false
which composer wrote the afternoon of a faun?
a. claude debussy
b. maurice ravel
c. franz schubert
d. franz liszt
which of these musical traits make a piece tonal?
a. the use of major and minor scales
b. the use of chords built on thirds
c. a central note, or home bas
d. all of the above
Debussy and Ravel are associated with a movement in art and music known as_____
a. expressionism
b. impressionism
c. cubism
d. romanticism
which composer invented the 12 tone method?
a. stravinsky
b. shoenberg
c. shostakovich
in order for shostakovich’s 5th symphony to please the authorities it _______
a. must be highly modern
b. end tragically
c. criticize the government
d. end triumphantly in major
In the Rite of Spring, Stravinsky made use of all of the following musical innovation except _______
a. dissonance/ polychords
d. the 12 tone method
c. polyrhythms
The rite of spring is about
a. pagan russia
b. communist repression
c. star crossed lovers
d. all of the above
which of the following russian composers worked under stalin’s dictatorship?
a. dmitri shostakovich
b. peter tchaikovsky
c. igor stravinsky
d. arnold schoenberg
which composer is associated with music concrete?
a. john cage
b. edgar varese
c. aaron copland
d. phillip glass
which style is characterized by continuous repetition of small motives?
a. expressionsism
b. minimalism
c. nationalism
d. post-modernism
which piece uses the 12-tone composition technique?
a. prokofiev’s romeo and juliet
b. ive’s putnam’s camp, redding, connecticut
c. copland’s appalachian spring
d. schoenberg’s suite for piano
which 20th century composer is known for his experiments with electronic music (musique concrete) and sampling?
a. franz liszt
b. arnold schoenberg
c. jahn cage
d. edgar varese
John Cage’s 4’33’ designed to challenge the very definition of music, consists entirely of ______
a. dissonance
b. screaming
c. silence
d. one chord
placing objects inside of the piano in order to alter its sound is known as______
a. prepared piano
b. stuffed piano
c. sampling
d. musique concrete
which style of jazz is generally in a faster tempo, swing or bebop?
a. swing
b. bebop
Ornette Coleman is associated with_____
a. swing
b. bebop
c. free jazz
d. fusion
when a film score composer and the director watch the movie to decide where to put musical cues, it is called_____
a. syncing
b. sampling
c. spotting
d. cutting
which of these is not a broadway musical?
a. rent
b. carmen
c. west side story
d. showboat
the first video game to feature continuous background music was______
a. space invaders
b. pong
c. super mario brothers
d. pac men
Forte indicates
a. a soft dynamic
b. a slow tempo
c. a fast tempo
d. a loud dynamic
_____ is the organization of time in music
a. melody
b. harmony
c. rhythm
d. timbre
the even pulse that divides musical time into equal segments is called the ______
a. tempo
b. beat
c. dynamic
d. overtones
which of these composers wrote ballets?
a. john cage
b. peter tchaivosky
c. franz liszt
d. louis armstrong
early influence on jazz include
a. the blues
b. the 12 tone method
c. ragtime
d. both a and c
who was the bassist for the beatles
a. john lennon
b. ringo starr
c. george harrison
d. paul mccartney
modulation is when a piece changes
a. tempo
b. dynamics
c. instruments
d. key
what kind of scales are associated with happy emotions?
a. major
b. minor
c. whole tone
d. chromatic
who wrote and performed “Johnny B. Goode”
a. elvis presley
b. chuck berry
c. little richard
d. the beatles
______wants to resolve to _______
a. major, minor
b. minor, major
c. connsonance, dissonance
d. dissonance, connsonance
who invented the gramophone (phonograph)?
a. albert einstein
b. thomas edison
c. alexander graham bell
d. les paul
the technique of inserted objects into the piano to change its timbre is called_____
a. stuffed piano
b. hopping the piano
c. prepared piano
d. perc piano
one of the most famous new orleans jazz musicians was_____
a. scott joplin
b. bessie smith
c. john coltrane
d. louis armstrong
____ is a study piece designed to teach performance techniques to students
a. etude
b. art song
c. lied
d. virtuoso
who coined the term Rock ‘n’ Roll
a. alan freed
b. ringo starr
c. elvis presley
d. jimmie rogers
what style is associated with the music of claude debussy and the painting of claude monet?
a. expressionism
b. lyricism
c. impressionism
d. modernism
she was known as the “empress of the blues”
a. joan jett
b. bessie smith
c. maureen tucker
d. clara schumann
which of these is not an opera?
a. erlkonig
b. la traviata
c. carmen
d. la boheme
_____ wants to resolve to _______
a. V, I
b. I,V
c. melody, harmony
d. high, low
when beats are grouped together into a measure, what is the result?
a. meter
b. pulse
c. rhythm
what is the name of the first beat in a measure?
a. upbeat
b. back beat
c. pickup
d. downbeat
syncopation occurs when rhythms displace the natural accent and emphasize off beats.
b. false
when the beat is subdivided, the result is ______, which gives shape and definition to melodies
a. harmony
b. time signatures
c. rhythm
western music divides the octave into ____equal parts
a. 7
b. 8
c. 10
d. 12
major and minor scales use _____ pitches in a pattern of whole and half steps
a. 7
b. 8
c. 10
d. 12
a segment of melody ending in a cadence is called
a. scale
b. phrase
c. octave
d. disjunct
when a melody moves in leaps rather than stepwise up and down the scale, it is called
a. conjunct
b. a motive
c. disjunct
d. relative
Pitch is determined by what physical property?
a. amplitude
b. phase shift
c. frequency
the most basic chord, created by using three notes, is called
a. triad
b. cadence
c. progression
d. arpeggio
when the notes of a chord are played sequentially rather than simultaneously, this is _______
a. progression
b. arpeggio
c. dissonance
d. harmony
how is the tonic chord indicated in roman numerals
a. i
b. iv
c. v
d. vi
when two frequencies have a simple ration the resulting sound is
a. major
b dissonant
c. harmonic
d. consonant
a cadence that goes from the dominant V chord to the tonic I chord is known as a
a. half cadence
b. deceptive cadence
c. amen cadence
d. full cadence
known in jazz and rock as “the changes” a series of harmonies that work together is known as
a. chord progression
b. sequence
c. arpeggio
d. consonance
e. triad
the two characteristics which determine timbre are
a. frequency and amplitude
b. major and minor
c. overtones and attack
d. harmony and dissonance
a dynamic marking indicates
a. conjunct or disjunct motion
b. the key signature
c. softness or loudness
d. the time signature
major and minor scales are comprised of _____ while the chromatic scale is comprised of _____
a. dissonance, consonance
b. triads, chords
c. whole and half steps, only half steps
d. only half steps, whole and half steps